31 -- Part 19: Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers 1945 to the Present
The man dated territory gained its independence from French rule in 1943, after the French government was unable to maintain its control over Lebanon.
When Lebanon became an independent nation, the National Pact included an agreement that the president would be a Christian and the prime minister a Muslim.
The 1932 census showed a Christian majority.
By the late 1960s, the Leba nese Muslim population had grown significantly, and they were no longer content with a Christian-controled government and military.
A fifteen-year civil war started in 1975, when armed scrimmages between Christian and Muslim groups resulted in the slaughter of many innocent civilians.
The army of Lebanon fell apart when soldiers switched their loyalties from the national government to the militias.
Hezbol ah was a hard-line group.
The Palestine Liberation Organization's control of southern Lebanon was one of the objectives of the Israeli invasions of Leba non in 1978 and 1982.
The war in Lebanon was very destructive.
All sides committed war crimes.
Lebanon's infrastructure was destroyed and the city looked like it had been bombed after World War II.
The civil war in Lebanon ended after the Maronite Christian and Muslim communities agreed to a more balanced power sharing.
In 2005, the Arab League sent in troops from Syria to maintain peace in Lebanon, after Israeli forces left the country in 2000.
Hez bollah members adhere to a brand of Islamic theology and ideology developed by the leader of the Iranian Islamic Revolution in 1979.
Iran's financial and military support to Hezbollah is explained by this connection.
The July War in Leb anon and the Second Lebanon War in Israel became known as Hezbollah's hostility toward Israel.
Both sides agreed to a cease-fire on August 14, 2006 after the help of the United Nations Security Council.
It was costly to both sides when it came to opinions about who won and who lost the war.
Many in the Muslim world were proud of Hezbollah's ability to stand up to Israel.
Hezbollah paid a heavy price in the propaganda war.
Israel claimed victory, but it wasn't any better off.
Benjamin Netanyahu was elected prime minister of Israel in the next election after Israelis emerged from the war with a new sense of vulnerability.
Efforts to rebuild Lebanon have been ongoing.
Hezbollah has re-emerged as a political and military power in Lebanon, despite the majority of the population wanting peace.
The former commander of the Lebanon armed forces was a Christian.
He became president in 1948.
He formed a national unity government.
Hezbollah pulled out of the national coalition government in January of 2011.
Suleiman appointed a Sunni businessman as the prime minister designate.
Mikati was supported by Hezbollah and its allies in parliament, leading to widespread rioting by Sunnis across Lebanon, who viewed the action as the next step in the eventual takeover of Lebanon by the Shi'ite Hezbollah movement.
Turkey remained basic and true to Ataturk's vision of a modernized, secularized, Europeanized state through the remainder of the twentieth century.
Turkey is seeking membership in the European Union of the West while acknowledging its Islamic heritage and historical connections with the East.
Turks are divided over the future of the secular state in Turkey.
Turkey is secular.
Turks have kept a separation of state and religion since the 1920s.
The Justice and Development Party, or AKP, won the 2002 elections with a stunning victory.
The president of Turkey was named in 1950.
The head of the AKP became the prime minister.
Many Turks are concerned that the AKP intends to establish an Islamic state and do away with Turkey's secular constitution.
The AKP continues to win elections despite the opposition.
The Turkish economy has seen rapid growth, and the hyperinflation that plagued the country for three decades had fallen to around 7 percent in November 2010.
Turkey weathered the global economic downturn better than most countries, and its stock market rose the most in the world in 2009.
Turkey has a problem with its Kurdish population.
The victory of the AKP in the 2007 elections is thought to have been spurred by a surge in Turkish nationalism and a resurgence of conservative Mus lim influence since September 11, 2001, when the West, particularly the United States, de manded a "with us or against us" position from its The Turks were labeled against the United States and the war on terrorism by the George W. Bush administration when they refused to participate in the invasion of Iraq.
As the situation in Iraq deteriorated and the Kurds in northern Iraq continued to push for more independence, Kurdish nationalists in Turkey increased their attacks on Turkish targets.
The Turkish army began a military offensive against Kurds in eastern Turkey and across the border in northern Iraq in February and March of 2008.
In December 2010 the leader of the leading Kurdish independence movement, the Kurdistan Workers' Party, announced a cease fire and suggested that the Kurds would accept a degree of Kurdish autonomy within Turkey rather than demand a separate Kurdish state.
Turkey's pace of reform received heavy EU criticism despite concerted efforts by leaders to meet the economic, legal, and humanitarian standards set by the EU.
Tur key can't be admitted into the EU until the next round of EU membership admissions in 2013, even if it meets the EU's demands.
Turkey's role as a regional power broker has grown as the economy has strengthened and support for EU membership has weakened.