African-born slaves engaged in marriages with people of the same ethnic groups whenever possible during the 17th and 18th centuries.
This allowed for the preservation of cultural traditions, such as language, religion, name practices, and bodily scarring.
Ethnic homogeneity thrived, and as a result, traditions and networks were relatively unchanged for decades.
The practice of marriage, especially among members of the same ethnic group or even simply the same plantation, became vital to the continuation of aging traditions as the number of slaves arriving in the United States increased.
Those who did not have a marriage bond, or even a nuclear family, still maintained family ties, most often living with a single parent, brother, sister, or grandparent.
The threat of dis ruption was always present.
Free people of color were present in urban areas like Charleston and New Orleans as the internal slave trade increased following the ban on slave importation in 1808.
The slaves' arrival in the United States increased the threat to those established prior to that.
Hundreds of thousands of marriages, many with children, fell victim to sale "downriver", a euphemism for the constant flow of slave laborers down the Mississippi River to the developing Cotton Belt in the Southwest.
This was not the only threat.
Marriage was a privilege granted to slaves by their owners and was seen as a tragedy.
Slaveholders used slaves' marriages to squeeze out more production, counteract disobedience, or simply make a gesture of power and superiority.
There were threats to family networks, marriages, and household stability after the death of a master.
Following the death of their master, a slave couple could live their entire lives together, even having been born, raised, and married on a slave plantation.
The sale and dispersal of an entire slave community was caused by a single claim against the estate.
The fate of enslavement women was linked to slavery.
Female slaves did the same work as men in the fields picking and bundling cotton.
In some cases, planters used women as house servants more than men, but this was not universal.
Female slaves' experiences were different from those of their male counterparts, husbands, and neighbors.
Sexual violence, unwanted pregnancies, and constant child-rearing while continuing to work the fields made life as a female slave more prone to disruption and uncertainty.
Jacobs said that her attempts to resist sexual assault and her determination to love whom she pleased was akin to freedom.
This "freedom," however empowering and contextual, did not cast a wide net.
Many enslaved women had no choice but to accept love, sex, and motherhood.
Rape was always present on plantations and small farms.
This wasn't restricted to unmarried women.
As property, enslaved women had no recourse, and society did not see a crime in this type of violence.
Racist pseudoscientists claimed that whites couldn't rape Africans or African Americans because their sexual organs weren't compatible in that way.
State law supported the view that rape could only happen between a black man and a white woman.
The consequences of rape, too, fell to the victim in the case of slaves.
Pregnancies that resulted from rape did not lead to a lighter workload for the mother.
Slaves who acted against a rapist were seen as crimes rather than desperate acts of survival.
In Callaway County, Missouri, a slave named Celia was raped by her master for the third time.
There were two children and several mis two of her daugh carriages between 1850 and 1856.
In the fall of 1854, he took a club and ters.
Gray hit her master in the head.
Instead of empathizing with Robert aid, or even an honest attempt to understand and empathise, the com E. Lee.
The execution of Celia was called for by the national munity.
The death sentence against the rape victim and slave was commuted to life in prison.
Laws, social norms, and cultural practices were written, dictated, and maintained by white men in the age of cotton.
White women and free women of color lived in a society dominated by men.
Women of all statuses and colors were denied the right to vote.
The public sphere was too violent, heated, and high-minded for women to be represented by their husbands.
Society expected women to represent the foundations of the republic, gaining respectability through their work at home, in support of their husbands and children, away from the rough and boisterous realm of masculinity.
African Americans differed on the issue of emigration.
Tens of thousands of people left the United States in order to pursue greater freedom and prosperity.
Black settlers continued to come to Liberia for decades despite the fact that most emigrants did not experience such success.
There is a map of the West Coast of Africa from Sierra Leone to Cape Palmas.
It protects women the same way it protects men.
All of a woman's property, regardless of claim or command, is transferred to her husband in most states.
Divorce did not work in a woman's favor, and often, if successful, it ruined the wife's standing in society and even led to suicides.
Slavery created bonds, maintained traditions, and created a new culture.
They fell in love, had children, and protected one another using the privileges granted them by their captivity and the basic intellect allowed all human beings.
They were inventive, brilliant, and vibrant, and they created freedom.
Adherence and resilience often lead to cultural sustenance.
The enslaved, women, and the impoverished-but-free culture thrived in ways that are difficult to see through the bales of cotton and the stacks of money sitting on the docks and in the countinghouses of the South's urban centers.
Among those who could not express themselves that way, religion, honor, and pride were more important than material goods.
Economic growth, violence, and exploitation coexisted with and reinforced evangelical Christianity in the South.
The Second Great Awakening established the religious culture of the region.
The period of religious regeneration was led by Methodists, Baptists, and to a lesser degree, Presbyterians.
The Baptist and Methodist churches in the South were the most vocal defenders of slavery and the southern social order after the Civil War.
The evangelization of slaves was one of the greatest callings of the southern ministers, who believed that God had selected Africans for bondage.
Black and white southerners described strained or superficial religious relationships more often.
As the institution of slavery hardened racism in the South, relation ships between missionaries and Native Americans changed as well.
Mission work became a crucial element of Christian expansion after the Louisiana Purchase.
Christian influence was carried into Native American communities by Frontier mission schools.
Many missionaries worked to prevent indigenous children from speaking their native tongues, even though they had learned the indigenous languages.
The South preached a pro-slavery theology that emphasized obeying masters, the biblical basis of racial slavery via the curse of Ham, and the "civilizing" paternalism of slave owners after the Indian removal of 1835.
Slaves usually received Christian instruction from white preachers or masters.
Anti-literacy laws made it impossible for most slaves to read the Bible in its entirety, so they couldn't relate to the story of how the Israelites escaped slavery.