Don't "out-think" the test on multiple-choice questions.
Common sense will usually get you to the right answer.
Essays must have free-response answers in them.
The outline form is not acceptable.
If you don't answer each part of the question, you won't be able to get the maximum number of points for that question.
Before you write your answer, make a quick outline.
Wrong information is ignored when the free-response questions are graded.
The multiple-choice section of the exam has 90 seconds per question.
To get a good score on this exam, you need to correctly answer 42 multiple-choice questions or more.
Don't get carried away by the test.
It's possible to be too smart for these tests.
We have found ourselves overanalyzing a lot of the tests.
Give yourself credit when you know a fact.
Do not assume that your answer is obvious for the question.
Don't leave questions blank.
One-fourth point was taken off for each wrong answer on the AP Biology exam.
This is no longer the case.
Each multiple-choice question should have an answer in it.
Don't answer the wrong question.
Getting a question wrong on this test is one of the most annoying things because you didn't read the question carefully.
Carefully use your time.
Some of the questions require a lot of reading before you can answer them.
Don't waste time on a question if you are struggling with it.
If time permits, circle it in the booklet and come back later.
This test should be an exercise in window shopping if you don't answer 42 multiple-choice questions correctly.
It's important that you answer the questions correctly.
Answer the questions you know the best, then save the others for later review.
If you have answered a question already, come back to it later and get the urge to change it.
The work of exam "elves" in the room who want to trick you into picking a wrong answer is often the reason for the urge to change an answer.
If you can justify your reasons for making the switch, you can change your answer.
The grid-in section requires math that isn't overly plicated.
It would be unfortunate to lose points because of a silly calculation error.
Make sure you check your math.
Any equations you need will be provided for you.
There are eight broad questions in the free-response section.
Solid reasoning and analytical skills are important for your answers to these questions.
The weight of the six short-response questions combined with the two long essays is the same.
As you answer some of the questions, expect to use data or information from your laboratory exercises.
The answers to the free-response questions must be in an essay.
The outline form is not acceptable.
In no case will a diagram alone suffice, as labeled diagrams may be used to supplement discussion.
Before you begin to write, it is important that you read the questions completely.
You can write your answers on the pages after the questions in the booklet.
The free-response questions tend to be multipart questions.
You can focus on the material that you are most comfortable with.
It is important that you read the question carefully to understand what the examiners are asking you to do.
You are given 80 minutes to answer the questions.
The two long free response questions should take 20 minutes each.
If you write a bunch of practice essays before you take the exam and budget your time wisely, you won't have to worry about timing.
Make sure you read the question carefully and know what it is asking you to do.
An outline will help you organize your answer.
Don't write an elaborate outline.
You won't get points for having the prettiest outline in the country, so there is no reason to spend a lot of time putting it together.
If you don't have enough of an outline, you won't have a good idea of how to structure your essay.
If you write a well-organized and grammatically correct response to your essay, it won't hurt your score because it isn't graded on how well it is put together.
If the essay is a two-part question, spend 10 minutes on each part.
If it is a three part question, you should spend 6-7 minutes on each part.
Make sure you give yourself enough time to address each part of the question by keeping an eye on the clock.
Both of the long free-response questions on the AP Biology exam are worth the same number of points.
Each question is different.
There are some questions that ask you to answer them.
Some questions ask you to answer a few questions, and some ask you to answer a lot of questions.
Each subsection has a maximum number of points that you can get.
Heading into the exam, you need to know this.
No matter how well you write your answer for part A, you can get at least 3 points for that section.
The risk of developing strategies for success being repetitive is so important because the grader can only give you the maximum number of points for each subsection.
The free-response section is graded using a positive scoring system.
Wrong information is ignored in an essay.
You don't lose points if you say things that are incorrect.
The importance of this fact is that if you are unsure about something and think you may be right, give it a try and include it in your essay.
It is worth the risk.
The AP Biology topics covered throughout the course are related to the chemical principles introduced in this chapter.
The carbon in organic compounds is found in the form of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates.
There are two types of catalysts: catalysts that react in a fit fashion and catalysts that don't react at all.
There are five types of chemical reactions you should learn.
Before we dive into the deeper biological material, we need an understanding of a few chemical principles.
The knowledge you need to score high is often mentioned in this book.
A neutral particle containing an equal number of protons and electrons can be found in the element sodium.
An ion is an atom with a positive or negative charge.
Carbon and hydrogen are usually found in organic compounds.
Some of you are skeptical as to whether any of the statements we have made so far matter for this exam.
Bear with me because it does.
The NH2 group is attached to the rest of the compound with the symbol R.
protons can be picked up from acids.
The functional group shows up along with the other groups.
Carboxyl groups act as acids by donating protons to basic compounds.
Like carbonyl groups, hydroxyl groups are polar.
The components of compounds that serve as cellular energy sources arephosphate groups.
Like carboxyl groups, phosphate groups are acidic.
The functional group does not show up much on the exam, but you should recognize it when it does.
This group is present in the cysteine and methionine acids.
There are no double bonds in saturated fat.
saturated fats have more hydrogen molecule per carbon than un saturated ones.
Saturated fats are bad for the heart.
Most of the fat found in animals is saturated.
The OH groups of the glycerol molecule are involved in the formation of fat.
The dehydration synthesis reaction forms these connecting bonds.
One example of a steroid is cholesterol, an important structural component of cell membranes that serves as a precursor molecule for another important class of steroids: the sex hormones.
There are two different types of Phospholipids; one has a hydrophilic head and the other has a hydrophobic tail.
They are the major component of cell membranes and form the outside and inside of the wall.
The cells of the body use sugars as structural materials.
The elements C, H, and O are present in theCarbohydrates.
Monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides are the three main types of carbohydrates.
The most important monosaccharide is C6H12O6, which is used in cellular respiration.
Monosaccharides with five carbons are used in compounds such as genetic molecule and high energy molecule.
There are common disaccharides.
In plants, sucrose is a combination of fructose andglucose, maltose is a combination of two sugars, and Lactose is a combination of two sugars.
Polysaccharides, usually composed of hundreds or thousands of monosaccharides, act as a storage form of energy and as structural material in and around cells.
The storage form of choice for plants is stear.
Animals store a lot of their energy in the form of glycogen.
It is formed by linking many sugars together.
Structural components, transport aids, enzymes, and cell signals are just a few of the many functions that the body has.
If you're asked to do it on the test, you should be able to see the difference between the two.
The structure of the acid has a link.
Basic R groups are the same for acidic and basic R groups are the same for acidic and basic R groups.
Many students preparing for the AP exam wonder if they need to memorize the 20 amino acids and their structures.
This is a lot of work for a single multiple-choice question.
This time would be better spent studying other potential exam questions.
It's more important for you to know the structure of an amino acid and the process of synthesis, which we discuss in Chapter 15.
There are many more amino acids in the chain.
The order of the amino acids.
There is a three-dimensional arrangement of aProtein caused by hydrogen bonding at regular intervals.
There is a three-dimensional arrangement of a protein caused by interaction between the various R groups.
Many of the proteins have a single polypeptide chain.
If there is more than one polypeptide chain, there may be a quaternary structure.
Enzymes only interact with certain substances.
The plot shows energy versus time.
The tight fit places the substrate in a good position to react quickly.
A small amount of the enzyme can have a big effect on a reaction when it interacts with another substance.
The effectiveness of the enzyme will suffer if the pH or tem perature strays from the optimal values.
If you take the AP exam, you should be able to identify the basic components of an energy diagram.
There is a difference between competitive and noncompetitive inhibition.
Suppressant keeping it from binding.
The two things look the same.
The two things are not the same.
Adding a high concentration of substrate can help overcome competitive inhibition.
The scale shows how acidic a solution is.
Anything less than 7 is acidic.
A pH of 5 is 10 times more acidic than a pH of 6.
A pH of 4 is 100 times more acidic than a pH of 6.
The majority of chemical reactions in humans function near a neutral pH.
The exceptions to this rule are the chemical reactions.
The addition of H2O breaks down compounds.
Two compounds are brought together with H2O to make a product.
A reaction that requires energy to occur.
A reaction that creates a product.
The transfer of electrons is involved.
The electron transport chain of the mitochondria is involved in such reactions.
You can't park your car in your assigned parking spot when you arrive at work.
When you arrive at work in the morning, you are unable to park your car because someone with a car exactly like yours has already taken your spot, leaving you nowhere to park your car.
As you are about to park your car in your spot at work, a giant bulldozer comes along and smashes your car away from the spot, preventing you from parking your car in your spot.
Someone placed a giant cement block in front of your parking spot when you arrived at work in the morning.
There are two parts to a phospholipid, a hydrophobic one and a hydrophilic one.
Competitive inhibition is the inhibition of the carbon portion, or tail, of the phospholipid, in which the likes water, and the phosphate portion, the head, resembles the substrate.
The pH scale is logarithmic and if 2 is your car, the other car is 1,000 times more acidic than 5.
A carbonyl group is a functional group.
There are two main types of carbonyl groups.
Glycerol is not a food.
The plant cells have a substance in them called syringe.
This chapter talks about the different types of cells and how they work.
Simple cells with no structure are called prokaryotic cells.
Animal cells have small vacuoles.
Plant cells don't have centrioles.
The fluid mosaic model states that a cell is made up of a bilayer of cholesterol and phospholipids.
Passive transport is the movement of a particle down its concentration gradient.
Active transport is the movement of a particle against a concentration gradient.
A cell is a small room, sometimes a prison room, designed for only one person and usually housing two or more inmates.
We are looking at the wrong notes.
Let's start again.
The basic unit of life was discovered in the 17th century.
There are two major divisions of cells.
The chapter begins with a discussion of the two cell types, followed by an examination of the organelles found in cells.
We look at the fluid mosaic model of the cell and discuss the different types of cell transport.
There is no nucleus or organelles.
The kingdom Monera is home to prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic organisms can be either unicellular or multicellular.
Part of this is due to the fact that there are many different types of cells.
There are different types of lipids,Proteins, andCarbohydrates that give each membrane its unique characteristics.
This is a barrier that protects cells.
This is found in all prokaryotes.
They are composed of a large unit and a small unit in the cell's cytoplasm.
ribosomes serve as the host for theProtein have the organelles to synthesis.
This organelle is involved in Big Idea 4.A.2 sis.
The name "smooth" is given because there are no ribosomes in the reticulum.
The site of the cell is found in the liver.
ribosomes on the cell's surface are what makes this organelle rough.
The products are sent to other parts of the cell by way of escape Pods that bud off the edge of the Golgi.
We think of the Golgi apparatus as the post office of the cell-packages are dropped off by customers, and the Golgi adds the appropriate postage and zip code to make sure that the packages reach proper destinations in the cell.
These are double-membraned cells that are specialized in the production of ATP.
We discuss in Chapter 7 how the Krebs cycle and cristae of respiration are carried out by the mitochondria.
The power plants of the cell are the mitochondria.
This organelle is specialized in digestion.
It contains a bunch of things that break down.
The stomach of the cell is the organelle.
"suicide sacs" of the cell are referred to as lysosomes.
These sacs destroy cells that are no longer needed.
The cells of the tail of a tadpole are eaten by a frog.
The control center is where the cell is located.
This is where the genetic material is kept.
It is the site of posttranscriptional modification ofRNA.
The site of ribosome synthesis is contained in it.
The storage organelle acts as a vault.
In plant and animal cells, vacuoles are small.
The hydrogen peroxide that is produced by these is a by-product of various functions, such as the breakdown of fatty acids and the removal of alcohol from the body.
The by-product of these reactions is converted into cell-friendly water.
This is where plant cells convert sunlight into energy.
Chloroplasts provide leaves with their color.
Chloroplasts are divided into two parts.
The reactions occur in the stroma.
The skeleton of cells is made up of three types of fibers.
The structures that aid the movement of particles are called microtubules.
The outer portion of the bilayer contains the head of the phospholipid, while the inner portion contains the tail.
It states that there are various lengths and sizes of cholesterol in the membranes.
Depending on the location of the proteins, they perform various functions.
The cells have various functions.
The passage of desired molecule into the cell can be aided by aprotein that stretches across the membranes.
A cross-section of a cell.
Cells 55 binding sites allow the cell to respond to external signals.
The rate of cellular reactions can be increased by the function of the proteins embedded in the membrane.
The cell isselectively permeable, meaning that it allows some substances to pass while others are not.
There is a bouncer at the nightclub.
The size of the substance is one factor.
The bouncer allows small, un charged polar substances and hydrophobic substances to pass through, but larger un charged polar substances and charged ion cannot.
The arrangement of the proteins in the bilayer is one of the factors that determines what is allowed to pass through the membranes.
Molecules can pass through different arrangements of different proteins.
Different permeabilities affect the rate of dispersal of substances.
The process doesn't need the input of their membranes.
One region has 10 particles of sodium per liter of water, the other has 15.
Water would be driven from the region with 10 particles of sodium towards the region with 15 particles of sodium.
The binding sites of the proteins are designed to be of interest to themolecules of interest, so they won't bring any old molecule looking for a free pass into the cell.
This process does not require the use of energy.
This movement requires the input of energy, which is why it is called active transport.
In cells, adenosine triphosphate is needed to provide the energy for this process.
The ability of cells to maintain concentrations of substances is dependent on active-transport systems.
For example, cells have a high concentration of potassium and a low concentration of sodium.
To equalize the concentrations, Diffusion would like to move sodium and potassium out.
This is the main pump in animal cells.
The contents of the substance are ejected from the cell by the fusion of the substance with the membrane.
Storage diseases such as Tay-Sachs disease can be caused by the absence of enzymes from this organelle.
The Krebs cycle and B. Mitochondrion are hosted by this organelle.
The organelle is in the nucleus of the cell.
This organelle is not found in animal cells.
Alipid A is in the membrane.
The inside of the membranes is home to a number of different types of cells, including the lysosomes, which are involved in the breakdown of fatty acids and the lysosomes, which are involved in the detoxification of alcohol.
The destruction of which would A.
Cell walls exist in plant cells, but not in animal cells.
They don't need energy input.
The lysosome is similar to the stomach in that it contains cell walls.