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15 -- Part 7: Europe in the Renaissance and Reformation
The authority of lay rulers was strengthened by the peasants' war.
The popular appeal of the Reformation waned after Luther turned against the peasants who revolted.
Peasants' economic conditions improved moderately.
In many parts of Germany, enclosed fields, meadow, and forests were returned to common use instead of being controlled by noble landlords.
The vows of celibacy of priests and nuns went against human nature and God's commandments, according to Luther and other Protestants.
Luther married a former nun who had several children.
The double marriage portrait was painted by Lucas Cranach the Elder to celebrate Luther's wedding to a former nun.
The artist presented Luther's marriage proposal to Katharina at the wedding.
Many churches wanted their portraits of the couple because they became a model of the ideal marriage.
The paintings were hung in churches and wealthy homes.
They were expected to be models of Christian charity.
If validly entered into, sacramental marriage could not be dissolved.
Marriage was seen by Protestants as a contract in which each partner promised the other support, companionship, and the sharing of mutual goods.
The majority of Protestants came to divorce.
Marriage was an important social and economic institution so divorce was rare.
Protestants believed that women were to be subject to men in marriage.
Women were not allowed to hold positions of religious authority in the 16th century because of the Protestant idea of the priesthood.
The religious policies of the states of the Holy Roman Empire were determined by monarchs such as Elizabeth I of England.
Marriage was the only occupation for upper-class Protestant women after the closing of monasteries and convents.
We don't know what happened to the nuns who left the convents.
The Protestant emphasis on marriage made unmarried women and men suspect that they did not belong to the type of household that was considered the cor nerstone of a proper, godly society.
Reform of the church came from many areas in Europe in the early 16th century.
The strong central governments of Spain, France, and England could easily squash such movements.
The Holy Roman Em pire included hundreds of largely independent states in which the emperor had less authority than the monarchs of western Europe.
Local rulers in the empire continued to have power.
Luther's ideas pealed to its rulers for a variety of reasons, but one place where local leadership remained strong was Germany.
People had an understanding of being German because of their language and traditions.
Luther used the phrase "we Germans" in his attacks on the papacy, and his appeal to national feeling influenced many rulers.
Material considerations swayed many others to embrace the new faith as some German rulers were sincerely attracted to Lutheran ideas.
The legal seizure of church lands and property would result from the rejection of Roman Catholicism and the adoption of Protestantism.
Many political authorities in the empire used the religious issue to increase their financial and political power.
The Habsburg Charles V, who was elected as emperor in 1521, was a strong supporter of Ca tholicism.
Military al iances were formed by Protestant territories in the empire.
The Ottoman Turks were fighting the Habsburgs in southeastern Europe.
The Valois kings of France fought a series of wars with the Habsburgs.
French foreign policy in the 16th and 17th century was to keep the German states apart.
Charles V, the Catholic king of France, supported Lutheran princes in their chal enge to his catholic religion.
Lutheranism was officially recognized by Charles in 1555, ending the religious war in Germany for many decades.
The painting has no historical reality because it was created by an unknown creator.
Edward VI received the sword of justice from his father.
The Catholic Queen Mary and her husband Philip of Spain are followed by the god of war, Mars.
The figures of Peace and Plenty are next to the Protestant Elizabeth I.
Most of northern and central Germany became Lutheran, while southern Germany was divided between Lutheran and Catholic.
In 1556, Charles V abdicated his throne to his son Philip II and brother Ferdinand.
The earliest territories to accept the Protestant Reformation were within the Holy Roman Empire and the kingdom of Denmark-Norway.
In these areas, a second generation of reformers, most prominently John Calvin, built on earlier ideas to develop their own theology and plans for institutional change.
The economic and political causes of the Reformation in England were similar to those on the continent.
King Henry VIII wanted to have a new wife.
A complete break with Rome occurred when the personal matter of his need to divorce his first wife became entwined with political issues.
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