The "Palmer raids" took place on November 7, 1919, in which 450 alien radicals were rounded up.
They were deported without a court hearing.
Thousands of suspects were arrested on January 2, 1920.
The raids were terrible.
Chaos and confusion was created by poor communications.
panic about possible foreign terrorists and American radicals erupted across the nation.
They took mat ters into their own hands because of fear and prejudice.
A sailor shot a spectator who refused to rise for "The Star- Spangled Banner" at a patriotic event in Washington, D.C.
In Indiana, a jury took two minutes to acquit a man who had murdered an immigrant for yelling "To hell with the U.S."
The Red Scare ended by the summer of 1920.
It strengthened the conservative crusade for " 100 percent Americanism" and new restrictions on immigration.
The Great War had changed the shape of modern history in 1919 and 1920.
Old Europe had been destroyed by it.
Europe's image as the center of civilized Western culture was changed by the war.
There was resentment among the vanquished.
Many Germans and Austrians wanted revenge for being victims of a harsh peace.
The war caused Russia to exit the war, abandon its western European allies, and re-emerging as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in 1922.
Soviet communism would be one of the most powerful forces of the twentieth century.
America was different after war.
For the first time in history, the United States was involved in a European war.
The economy entered a period of unprecedented prosperity after a brief recession.
The United States became the world's dominant power during the 20th century.
The "American Century" was at hand.
The War Industries Board and the Food Administration were created by the Wilson administration to coordinate industrial production and agricultural consumption.
Mexican Ameri cans and white southerners migrated to industrial centers.
One million women were encouraged to leave their jobs after the war ended.
The Espionage and Sedition Acts of 1917 and 1918 criminalized opposition to the war because of the federal government's curtailment of civil liberties.
The tide of the war was turned by the arrival of U.S. troops.
The armistice was signed on November 11, 1918.
Wilson said that the United States wanted a new Europe.
President Wilson was partial at the Paris Peace Conference.
Wilson's illness, his refusal to compromise on the terms of the treaty, and his dislike of Republican senators resulted in the Senate voting against the treaty.
With changes at home, the United States struggled with its new status as the leading world power.
Wage and price controls ended as industries shifted to peacetime production.
Many people thought the problems were part of a plot.
Race riots broke out as white mobs tried to stop African Americans from exercising their civil rights.
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The roar of the twenties stopped for some.
In this painting by American artist Guy Pene du Bois, a group of people crowd into a nightclub, yet their loneliness is deafening.
The decade between the end of the Great War and the beginning of the Great Depression was one of the most important periods in American history.
Rapid urban ization, technological innovation, widespread prosperity, social rebellion, cultural upheaval, and political conservatism marked the period.
The Eighteenth Amendment banned alcoholic beverages in 1920, setting off an epidemic of lawbreaking as many people disobeyed the ban, producing and consuming "bootleg" liquor in violation of the law.
The Nineteenth Amendment made it possible for women to vote and experience many of the same rights as men.
Jim Crow laws prevented most African Americans in the South from voting.
Rural and urban ways of life led to cultural conflicts.
For the first time in the nation's history, more people lived in cities than in rural areas.
While the urban middle class prospered, farmers suffered as the wartime boom in exports of grains and livestock to Europe ground to a halt.
Four million people moved from farms to cities because of the better quality of life and the economic downturn.
There were bitter fights between old and new values when the population shifted.
The new and unusual clashed with the usual during the twenties.
One group looked to the future for inspiration and the other looked to the past for guidance as they waged cultural warfare.
As a national entertainment culture emerged, the scope and pace of societal changes were confusing.
Radio networks and motion pictures, mass ownership of automobiles, and national chain stores, combined with the rise of mass marketing and advertising, transformed America into the world's leading consumer society.
The growth of middle class urban life was stimulated by the culture of mass consumption.
Reactionaries and rebels battled for control in the political arena.
The fight between Wilson and the Senate over the Treaty of Versailles had weakened progressivism.
Many pro gressives were skeptical of any politician who claimed to be a reformer or an idealist by 1920.
The desire to restore traditional values and social stability led to the election of Warren G. Harding president in 1920.
The major parties still included progressive wings.
The impulse for social reform shifted into a drive for moral righteousness as the demand for honest, efficient government and public services remained strong.
Progressives withdrew from public life by 1920.
Mainstream Americans were shocked by "modernist" forms of art.
Post-war life in America and Europe was fraught with tumult, contradictions, and frivolity.
The United States had 106 million people living in it in the 1920 census.
The majority of them were under the age of twenty five.
Men and women had an average life expectancy of fifty six and fifty eight years, respectively.
90 percent of American society was white.
Native Americans and Asian Americans made up most of the rest.
Almost half of the white population were immigrants or the children of immigrants, the highest percentage since the late 18th century.
For the first time, more than half of the population lived in a large city.
New York, Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia are the ten largest cities in the US.
The South was the most impoverished region.
Only half of southern farmers owned their land, compared to three quarters of farmers in the rest of the nation.
Tenants or sharecroppers would give the owner of the land a share of the harvest in exchange for access to the land.
Low crop prices during the twenties made most sharecroppers poor.
After the brief postwar recession in 1920-1921, economic growth soared to record levels.
Wage workers enjoyed record-breaking increases in average income as the nation's total wealth almost doubled and jobs were plentiful.
The United States had the highest standard of living by 1929.
The way was led by construction.
The building boom would last the rest of the decade.
The rapid growth of the automotive industry created an immediate need for roads, highways, service stations, and motor hotels.
lumber, steel, concrete, rubber, gasoline, and furniture were stimulated by new construction and new cars.
Technology played a key role in the prosperity by allowing mass pro duction through the assembly- line process.
Powerful new machines and more efficient ways of operating generated dramatic increases in productivity.
In 1920, the nation's factories produced 5,000 electric refrigerators; in 1929, they produced almost a million.
The Florida real estate boom was the most outrageous of all the get rich quick schemes.
Like prospectors during the California gold rush, speculators and developers swooped into the "Land of Flowers" and bought, cleared, tamed, subdivided, and sold parcels of land so fast they could not keep up with the paperwork.
Miami was the fastest growing community in the nation.
Its population grew from 1,700 in 1900 to 111,000 in 1925.
Three years later, the beachfront property sold for $1 million.
"Flor ida is bathed in passionate caresses of the southern sun," the ad said.
The buyers seem to have been sold kingdom.
By the end of 1925, 20 million parcels were for sale in Florida, enough for every adult in the nation.
Hundreds of thousands of people, mostly north erners, invested in Florida real estate sight unseen, but what they were told was prime property often turned out to be swamp land.
People were hesitant to join the event because of fraudulent sales.
Analysts predicted that the Florida land bubble would burst.
The Florida real estate bubble burst.
Unexpected problems had been caused by too much growth.
Railroads were no longer transporting construction supplies, leaving thousands of unfinished homes in the state.
The pain was worsened by the hurricanes that hit South Florida in September.
Florida was a wasteland by the year 1928.
Dead subdivisions line the highway, their names are half- obliterated on crumbling stucco gates, as described by a journalist.
There are white- way lights that guard over miles of cement sidewalks, where grass and palmetto trees take the place of homes that were to be.
The great stock market bubble that would burst at the end of 1929 was caused by the Florida land boom.
Construction of rail roads and bridges, the manufacture of steel, and the construction of housing and businesses in cities drove the U.S. economy in the late nineteenth century.
The middle class was changed by the explosion of new consumer goods made available through a national marketplace.
The success of mass production made mass consumption more import ant than ever.
converting once- frugal people into enthusiastic shoppers is needed to keep factory production humming.
One economist warned that people may ruin themselves by saving.
During the Great War, the government urged Americans to work long hours, conserve resources and live simply.
The war came to a close.
There is a lot of buying going on.
Businesses developed new ways for consumers to finance purchases over time, instead of paying cash up front.
Paying with cash and staying out of debt were dismissed as old fashioned.
Consumer debt doubled.
By the year 1929, almost 60 percent of purchases were made on the plan.
The first commercial on the radio was aired in 1922.
The visibility of ads helped shape how people acted.
She embraced the culture of consumption in a 1923 interview.
A woman is happy if she has things, just things.
Her husband said that women care for "things, clothes, furniture, for themselves."
Many Americans assumed that social status was measured in dol ars.
Women chase two thirds of consumer goods.
The jump in the use of electricity was a transformational force.
In 1920, only 35 percent of homes had electricity.
The number of households with indoor plumbing, washing machines, and automobiles increased as well.
Among the urban middle class, creature comforts and conveniences such as flush toilets, electric irons and fans, hand held cameras, wristwatches, cigarette lighters, vacuum cleaners, and linoleum floors became more widely available.
The poor, with little discretionary income, remained on the margins.
National retailers were able to get discounted prices when they bought large quantities of goods.
They read the same magazines, listened to the same radio programs, loved the same sports stars and celebrities, drove the same cars, and watched the same movies.
The first moving- picture show was held in New York City in 1896.
By 1924, there were 20,000 theaters nationwide showing 700 new silent films a year.
As the international center of movie production, Hol ywood, California, was known for grinding out Westerns, crime dra mas, murder mysteries, and the comedies of Mack Sennett's Keystone Com pany.
80 million people a week went to the movies in the 1920s.
The appearance of movies with sound increased after 1927.
Americans spent ten times as much on movies as they did on sports.
Movies did more than just enter.
The consumer culture was expanded by setting stan dards and tastes in fashion, music, dancing, and hair.
D.W. Griffith claimed in 1917 that the cinema is the agent of Democracy.
Even more growth was enjoyed by radio broadcasting.
Between 1920 and 1930, the number of families owning a radio went from 15,000 to 14 million.
Almost two thirds of homes had a radio.
The patterns of life were changed by the radio.
At night after dinner, fam ilies gathered to listen to music, speeches, news broadcasts, weather forecasts, and comedy shows.
41 million radios were manufactured in the United States in the 20th century.
Calvin Coolidge was the first president to address the nation by radio, and his monthly talks paved the way for Franklin Delano Roosevelt's influential "fire side chats" during the thirties.
Jazz music was turned into a national craze by radio.
The big band leaders performed live over the radio.
Country music developed a national following as a result of radio broadcasts.
Radio players act out 'Rip Van Winkle' in a sound effects studio during a broadcast.