ChAPTER 35 -- Part 2: A Second Global Conflict and the
There was no direct conflict between the two powers.
Cold war maneuvering for over four decades shaped much of world history.
The U.S.-Soviet confrontation began when the World War II conferences debated the nature of the postwar settlement.
The Soviet Union expected massive territorial gains and that Britain and the United States intended to limit these gains through their own areas of influence.
Between 1945 and 1949 there was a steady expansion of the cold war.
The decision to focus on France rather than moving up from the Britain, and the Soviet union in 1943, gave the Soviet forces a free hand to move through the smal er nations of eastern Europe as agreed to the opening of a new front they pushed the Nazi armies back.
Britain and the Soviets negotiated separately to make sure Western prepon was in France.
The United States resisted this kind of disrespect for small nations.
The organization of the United Nations was confirmed.
It was more difficult to agree on Europe's political division.
After the war, the three powers decided to divide Germany into four groups, with France getting a chunk, and the Nazi states being wiped out.
There was a dispute over the smaller nations of eastern Europe.
The Western leaders wanted them to be free and democratic, but no one disagreed that they should be friendly to the Soviets.
Stalin had to make concessions in order to keep the Soviet government in Poland.
Meeting now occupies most of eastern Europe and eastern Germany.
The Soviet Union could take over much of eastern Poland, Britain, and the Soviet union just with the Poles getting part of eastern Germany in compensation.
Germany was divided before the end of World War II in the peace treaty.
Austria was divided and occupied in 1945 and the Allies agreed upon Soviet dom gaining unity and independence only in 1956.
Germany's other al ies, including Austria, were divided among victorious Allies.
The United States and the Soviet Union signed separate treaties with Japan.
There were several results from these maneuvers.
The United States took away Japan's gains during the war.
The basis for the North Korea-South Korea division still in effect today is that Korea was divided between the U.S. and Soviet zones of occupation.
As new independence movements challenged the control of the weakened imperialist powers, Asian colonies were returned to their old masters.
Although China regained most of its former territory, it was challenged by renewed fighting between communist and nationalist forces aided by the Soviet Union and the United States.
The Middle East, India, and Africa were all affected by the restoration of old colonial regimes.
In World War I, Britain put independence plans on hold, but during the war, Indian and African troops fought for Britain.
African leaders were involved in the resistance to the French government.
The Middle East and North Africa were affected by German invasions.
Expectations for change increased.
With Europe's imperial powers weakened by their war effort, adjustments seemed inevitable, just as they had been in those parts of Asia invaded by the Japanese.
The losses from World War I were erased by the boundaries of the Soviet Union.
The former Baltic states of Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia became Soviet provinces because they were Russian provinces before World War I, but independent nations created in 1918 were for the most part restored.
Except for Greece and Yugoslavia, the new nations were under the control of the Soviets.
The stage was set for two great movements that would shape the rest of the world's history.
The movement known as "decolonization" would create scores of new nations in Asia, Africa, and the West Indies in a few decades.
The United States and the Soviet Union emerged from the war with new international influence and military might.
Many believed that the cold war would soon become a war of destruction.
It was hard to imagine in 1945 or 1947 that these trends constituted a peace settlement.
The industrial powers proved fatal to the already badly battered and AFriCA european colonial empires.
The early victories of the Japanese over the Europeans and Americans were long and violent.
The fall of the "impregnable" fortress at Singapore on the southern tip of Malaya and the Americans' reverses at Pearl Harbor and in the Philippines proved to be blows from which the colonizers never recovered.
The sight of tens of thousands of British, Dutch, and American troops, struggling under the supervision of the victorious Japanese to survive the "death marches" to prison camps in their former colonies left an indelible impression on the Asian villagers who saw them pass by.
The determination to fight for self-rule and to look to their own defenses after the war was over was strengthened by the harsh and heavy demands the Japanese conquerors imposed on the peoples of southeast Asia.
The commitments of European nations to hold African and Asian peoples in bondage were shattered by this devastating warfare.
The marshaled to support military war greatly enhanced the power and influence of the two giants on the European periphery: the effort was the result of the impact of the United States and the Soviet Union.
The war was seen as a campaign of liberation by the states.
American propagandists reflected Franklin Roosevelt's hostility to colonialism in their efforts to win Asian and African support.
The United States and Great Britain formed an alliance to survive the war with Nazi Germany.
The right of all people to support nationalist campaigns after the war was given by the Soviets, who were equally vocal in their condemnation of colonialism.
The cold war form of government under which the world of the superpowers emerged after 1945, indicated sympathy for western Europe, which had once exercised great power over much of the globe.
The outbreak of World War II ended the accommodation between the Indian National Congress and the British in the late 1930s.
If the British would give them a significant share of power at the all-India level and commit themselves to Indian independence, Congress leaders would support the Allies' war effort.
The viceroy in India and the leader of the coalition government that led Britain through the war both rejected these conditions.
Labour members of the coalition government were willing to negotiate India's independence.
In 1942, Sir Stafford Cripps was sent to India to see if a deal could be reached with the Indian leaders.
As their demands for a separate Muslim state in the legislative seats in Hindu-dominated subcontinent hardened, the links between the British and Jinnah and other League leaders became a india.
Similar disruptions to India were caused by World War II.
In the first postwar British election in 1945, a Muslim nationalist leader brought a Labour government to power that was ready to deal with India's nationalist leaders.
The process of decolonization began with independence in the near future and focused on what sort of state or states would be leader of the Muslim League.
Jinnah and the League had begun to build Muslim support for the British during World War II in order to build a mass following among the Muslims.
After the war, they played on the fears of the Muslim minority that a single Indian nation would be dominated by the Hindus.
The creation of two nations in the subcontinent, one secular, one Muslim, was decided by the British and Congress party politicians as riots spread throughout India.
In 1947, the British gave power to the leaders of the majority Congress party, who headed the new nation of India, and to Jinnah, who became the first president of Pakistan.
The blood bath occurred anyway because of the haste with which the British withdrew their military forces.
Hundreds of thousands of people were killed in the summer heat in northwest India because of vicious Hindu-Muslim and Muslim-Sikh communal rioting.
The villages were destroyed and trains were attacked by rival religious groups.
10 million people may have been affected by these atrocities as a result of an exchange of refugee populations between Hindu, Sikh, and Muslim areas.
Those who fled were terrified so much that they were willing to give up their land, their villages, and most of their worldly possessions.
The partition was compounded by the fact that Gandhi no longer preached tolerance and communal coex istence.
He was shot on the way to one of his prayer meetings on January 30, 1948, by a Hindu fanatic.
The keystone of an empire that spanned five continents was removed when the British granted independence to India.
The independence of the two countries, now known as Sri Lanka and Burma, was peacefully achieved in the following years.
India's independence and Gandhi's civil disobedience campaigns, which had done so much to win a mass following for the nationalist cause, also inspired successful struggles for independence inGhana, Nigeria, and other African colonies in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Dutch, the French, and the Americans all tried to negotiate with him.
He was a hit with the British public because of his sense of humor.
He was asked if he was embarrassed to meet His royal War II if he was a middle-class Filipino politician.
The king-emperor had enough clothes for both of them, as well as the gandhi that displayed during the war, and the stubborn guerril quipped that the loyalty to the Americans that most Filipinos Highness in the scant khadi-cloth apparel he wears in this photo,
The Dutch and French didn't give up their colonial possessions like the British did in the postwar era.
When the Japanese hold over the islands broke down in 1945, the Dutch fought a losing war to destroy the nation of Indonesia.
The French had a hard time retaining Indochina.
The postwar period saw the emergence of communist revolutions in East Asia.
The European colonizers were forced to deal with new threats to the last bastions of the imperial order in Africa when they suffered these losses.
The Liberation of Nonsettler Africa World War II was more disruptive to the colonial order imposed on Africa than the first global conflict of the European powers.
Inflation and control markets cut down on African earnings because of forced labor and confiscations of crops and minerals.
After witnessing British and French defeats in the Middle East and southeast Asia, African servicemen experienced renewed racial discrimination when they returned home.
Many were ardent supporters of postwar nationalist campaigns in the African colonies of the British and French.
The humiliation of the French and Belgians by the Nazi armies in the spring of 1940 shattered the reputation of the colonizers.
It led to an embarrassing struggle between the forces of the puppet Vichy regime and those of de Gaul e's Free French, who continued fighting the Nazis in France's North and West African colonies.
Major departures from colonial policies that had restricted industrial development throughout Africa were caused by the wartime needs of both the British and the Free French.
The background information on each of the past national leaders is provided in earlier sections of the chapter, and the relevant leaders with exceptional mass appeal are also included.
The questions about personal qualities, visions of the future, and leadership styles are answered in the sections of Chapters 33 and 38.
The newest stage of world history was established to process vegetable oils, foods, and minerals in western and south central Africa.
The migration of African peasants to the towns contributed to a spurt in African urban growth.
The inability of many of those who moved to the towns to find employment made for a pool of disgruntled workers that would be skillfully tapped by nationalist politicians in the postwar decades.
There were two main ways to decolonize Africa in the postwar era.
The process of decolonization in Africa was started by the British Gold Coast colony, which was the independent nation ofGhana.
The more radical type of African leader that emerged after the war was epitomized by Nkrumah.
A political party was established.
The protest in the coastal cities was a result of the restrictions of government-controled marketing boards.
Rioting broke out in many towns after police fired on a peaceful demonstration of ex-servicemen.
Although both urban workers and cash crop farmers supported the unrest, Western-educated African leaders were slow to organize these dissident groups into a sustained mass movement.
Their reluctance was due to their fear of losing political concessions, such as seats on colonial legislative council, which the British had just made.
He signaled the arrival of a new style of politics by organizing mass rallies, boycotts, and strikes.
In the mid-1950s, Nkrumah's growing stature as a leader who would not be deterred by imprisonment or British threats won concessions from the British.
Africans took over administration of the colony after being given more and more representation in legislative bodies.
The transfer of power from the European colonizers to the Western educated African elite was concluded by the British recognition of Nkrumah as the prime minister of an independentGhana in 1957.
The independence of the British colonies in black Africa by the mid-1960s was due to the peaceful devolution of power to African nationalists.
The areas of the French and Belgian empire in Africa came to independence in a different way.
In dealing with the many peoples they ruled in west Africa, the French took a much more conciliatory line.
Negotiating with leaders such as Leopold Sedar Senghor and Felix Houphouat-Boigny led to reforms and political concessions.
The post independence period in French west Africa would be dominated by moderate African leaders who were eager to retain French economic and cultural ties.
After de Gaulle's return to power in 1958, the French colonies moved by stages toward nationhood.
All of France's west African colonies were free by 1960.
The Belgians completed a retreat from their huge colonial possession in the Congo in the same year.
The abandonment of the colony was epitomized by the fact that there was little in the way of an organized nationalist movement to pressure them into concessions.
There were hardly any well-educated Congolese who were willing to lead resistance to Belgian rule.
At independence in 1960, there were only 16 African college graduates in a population of 13 million.
The European colonial era came to an end in all but Africa by the mid-1960s.
The pattern of relatively peaceful withdrawal by stages that characterized the process of decolonization in most of Asia and Africa proved impractical in most of the settler colonies.
In the 19th and early 20th century, large numbers of Europeans went to settle in Algeria, Southern Rhodesia, and other areas.
The politically and economically dominant colonizers of European descent mounted the only openings for nationalist agitation in Africa.
The settlers fought all attempts to grant them civil rights because they believed the colonies to which they had left were their permanent homes.
They refused all reforms that required them to give up any of the lands they had occupied, often at the expense of indigenous African peoples.
Many African leaders turned to violent, revolutionary struggles to win their independence because they were unable to make headway through peaceful protest tactics.
In the early 1950s, the first of these erupted.
The rebels came to power in the forest reserves of the central Kenyan highlands because of the resistance height of the struggle in 1954.
The British responded with an all-out military effort only after suppression of the Land crush the guerril a movement, which was dismissed as an explosion of African savagery and labeled the Freedom Army.
The non-violent alternative to the guerril was eliminated by the lead oned Kenyatta and the KAU organizers.
Thousands of lives were lost when the rebel movement was defeated by the military.
Despite strong objections from the end of British control in the 1950s, the approach to the British was now in a mood to negotiate with the nationalists.
By 1963, the country had won its independence.
The campaign of the new African states was initiated because of the failure of non-violent means under the one-party rule of Kenyatta.
For a long time, Algeria was seen as an important part of France, just like Provence or Brittany.
European settlers in the colony were used to bolster the resolve of French politicians.
In the decade after World War II, guerrilla resistance grew into sporadic rioting.
The rebels were defeated in the field after success in attacks.
The independence of Algeria was negotiated in the late 1960's.
de Gaul e became convinced that he could not restore France to great power status as long as the Algerian conflict continued, because the French people had worn out of the seemingly endless war.
The French who favored independence for the colony were part of the Organization of French Arabs and Berbers.
The Fourth Republic was put to an end by the resistance of the settlers in Algeria and the French military, who succeeded in ousting the government in Paris in 1958.
The OAS came close to the 1960s in its assaults against de Gaul e and the Fifth Republic, which brought Arabs, Berbers, and French into existence.
The Algerians won their independence in 1962.
I advocated independence.
The new nation had over a million people leave within a few months.
In addition, tens of thousands of Arabs and Berbers who had sided with the French in the long war for independence fled to France.
The core of the Algerian population in France were formed by them and later migrants.
In southern Africa, violent revolutions put an end to white supremacy in the Portuguese colonies in 1975, and in Southern Rhodesia in 1980.
The white minority in South Africa maintained its position of supremacy.
The ability to do so rested on a number of factors.
The white population of South Africa, divided between the Dutch-descended Afrikan ers and the more recently arrived English speakers, was larger than any of the other societies.
South Africa's population had reached 4.5 million by the mid-1980s, despite being a small minority in a country of 23 million black Africans and 3.5 million East Indians and coloreds.
The Afrikaners in particular had no European homeland to fall back upon, unlike the settlers in Africa who had the option of retreating to Europe as full citizens of France or Great Britain.
They had lived in South Africa as long as other Europeans had in North America, and they were distinct from the Dutch.
The Afrikaners built up an ideology of white racist supremacy over the centuries.
Afrikaner racism was more elaborate and explicit than that developed by the settlers of any other colony.
The majority of the population were Arabs and Berbers, who made up the vast majority of the colony, so barricades were put in place to keep Europeans out.
There was a sense of guilt due to the treatment of the Boer women and children during the war.
The most important of these was internal political control, which included turning over the fate of the black African majority to the openly racist Afrikaners.
The Afrikaners tried to complete a decades-long party in the all-white South African quest to establish white domination over the political, social, and economic life of the new nation.
The legislation reserved the best jobs for whites and defined the kind of segregation called apartheid.
The policy of strict racial was denied to the black Africans.
It was against the law in South Africa for any of these groups to impose segregation on their members.
The growth of black African political parties and their efforts to mobilize popular support for the struggle for decolonization was hampered by the restrictions on higher education for black Africans.
After the World British presence in Palestine in the War II, independence became more complete.
Egypt's 1952 revolt and independence movements in the rest of north Africa gained ground despite the bitter struggle against France in Algeria.
The tide of Jewish immigration to Palestine rose as Hitler's race war against the Jews intensified.
The Jews entered the colony.
Palestine was swept by a Muslim revolt between 1936 and 1939.
This rising was put down by British with great difficulty.
Beersheba refugees from Nazi oppression led to violent resistance to the British presence in Palestine.
Under attack from both sides, the British wanted more than anything else to scuttle and run.
The Aqaba body could give a semblance of legality.
The partition of Palestine into Arab and occupied states was approved by both the United States and the Soviet Union after the 1948 UN partition.
The UN action was opposed by the Arab states that bordered Israel.
The two sides were fighting.
The Zionists were better armed and prepared to defend themselves than almost anyone could have expected.
The United Nations gave them a patchwork state, but they expanded it at the expense of the Arabs.
Hundreds of thousands of Palestinian Arab refugees were created by the brief but bloody war.
The all-consuming issue in the region has been the hostility between Arabs and Israelis, and it has been sealed by it.
There were conflicting strains of nationalism in Palestine.
The legacy of colonialism proved to be a bigger problem for social and economic development in Africa and Asia than it was in the rest of the world.
Their holdings were rapid because of the fragile foundations on which it rested.
The demise of the European colonial order was included in educational reforms.
World more sciences in school curricula and the history of Asia or Africa War II completed the process of World War I and anticolonial rather than Europe.
The end of Western imperialism came strong in almost all of the former colonies.
The global framework was changed in this way.
The winning of political freedom in Asia and Africa is still being communicated in English by Africans with higher education.
The liberation of the colonies did not change the appearance of many new nations on the map of the world.
The transfer of power to the elite was a central part of the liberation process in most colonies, even if it meant protecting the interests of Western merchants and business people in the places where there were violent guerrilla movements.
Western extent of social and economic transformation was sustained by these and other limits.
The influence and often dominance, even after freedom was won, greatly Western-educated African and Asian classes moved into the offices reduced the options open to nationalist leaders struggling to build and took the jobs.
New forces have played colonizers.
Social gains for the rest of the population in most important roles were not significant.
Zimbabwe abandoned the European of the colonial interlude in their history and can't be understood without a consideration of that.
There is a lot of literature on modern warfare.
The works of John Darwin show the British empire as a whole.
The struggles for decolonization in Africa are surveyed by the cultural legacy of the Red Scare.
The causes of World War II differed from those.
The second, 20th-century global conflict intensified and developments that led to the global transformation of warfare added to the forces that weakened in the 19th and 20th centuries.