People who live with each other will survive face-to-face meetings.
"If you laugh, the world will laugh with you," wrote the poet.
A person's affect or emotional source can influence attraction.
We are attracted to lawton.
Even if they don't know why they are laughing, most people join in.
The effect of sad moods can be seen in the con verse.
The nature of our social interaction is an impor tant ingredient in creating affect.
An attraction can be determined by the type of opening line used to speak to a stranger.
You are sitting next to a stranger in a laundromat waiting for your clothes to dry.
Direct opening lines are more likable than cute opening lines.
The principle of reinforce ment gives us a clue.
Let's say you're having a conversation with someone new.
You are more likely to be attracted to that person if they pay you a lot of positive reinforcement.
We like people who reward us and dislike people who don't.
We like to make friends with people who are similar to us.
In addition to observable characteristics, similarity of attitudes, beliefs, and values is very important in the development of attraction.
In a classic study Theodore Newcomb found that attitude similarity played a major role in the development of friendship among transfer students living in a boardinghouse at the University of Michigan.
It has been shown that similarity may not be as important in determining attraction in all cultures.
The Japanese culture values status more highly than the American culture and they are more attracted to superior status.
Feelings toward another person can affect our perception of similarity.
The more we like an individual, the more we see them as similar to us.
Men think that they are similar to a woman in whom they have a romantic interest.
There are positive benefits to being similar in a relationship.
The more simi form of attraction a husband and wife have, the less likely they are to divorce.
Being attracted to someone can lead to friendship.
When in each other's company, try to make a friend happy.
Don't tell a friend.
There are things that happen that do not simply happen.
The development of a friendship is dependent on certain factors.
In addition to the factors such as proximity, cooperation, affect and emotions, reinforcement, similarity, and even flattery that are important in establishing the attraction that underlies a friendship, self disclosure is an important factor.
The process of impression formation and friendship formation are influenced by self-disclosure.
People who are willing to reveal information about themselves are more likely to form friendship with us.
As a friend ship develops, our level of self-disclosure changes.
In the initial stage, we don't give much information.
Subsequent disclosures will be more personal if these self-disclosures are reciprocated.
The friendship becomes stronger as the self-disclosures become more personal.
The friendship is stagnant if the level of self-disclosure does not become more intimate.
Our level of self disclosure with these individuals probably will not increase because we tend to have a group of casual friends who are in the category of "speaking acquaintances".
Most of us agree that there is a difference between friendship and love.
There are several types of love proposed by theorists.
There is a distinction between passionate and companionate love.
Researchers have found cultural differences in passionate love.
German and American students place a higher value on romantic love than Japa nese students do.
There is a form of love that involves women in Japan that is not as positive as in other countries.
Chinese couples value companionate love more than American couples do, but both places a higher value on passionate love desires and fantasies.
Companionate love must develop if the relationship is to survive.
The passionate-companionate distinction isn't the only psychological model of love.
There are a number of factors that influence love relationships.
The behavior of boys and girls is shown in Chapter 10.
As adults, these childhood sex roles influence their behavior.
Sex roles of men and women reflect stereotypes of maleness and femaleness before they were raised in the culture in which they were raised.
Some men perceive the dating behaviors of women more sexually than women perceive the dating behaviors of men; friend lines on a woman's part is seen as reflecting a desire for sex.
Men made sexual advances and women resisted.
Sex role stereotypes are still prevalent, but other research shows that they are changing.
Men who have accepted the changing roles of women in our society don't misunderstand the dating behaviors of women.
A longitudinal view of the love relationship can be found through the study of marital satisfaction.
During the early years of marriage, satisfaction is high and decreases in the middle years, and increases in the later years.
The responsibilities of raising children can take a toll on a marriage, and the decrease in satisfaction during the middle years of marriage is associated with having and raising children.
The fact that the children have grown up and left home allows the partners to rediscover that which brought them together initially.
Some marriages go beyond just being unhappy.
Nearly 15% of marriages in the United States are characterized by persistent, severe physical violence.
Glenda is a victim of domestic violence.
She has been married for seven years.
She goes to work with a lot of black-and-blue marks.
It's difficult to cover the signs of abuse.
Before you continue reading, you should commit to writing down some reasons.
The costs and rewards of abusive relationships are explained by social psychologists.
The general outcome is expected from the theory.
When the outcomes are equal or above, you are satisfied with the relationship.
When the outcomes fall below your CL, you become dissatisfied.
The more the relationship outcomes fall below your CL, the more dissatisfied you become.
We can't assume that everyone sees the world the same way we do.
When the outcomes fall below our CL, we would leave a relation of reward ship.
We continue to find ourselves in relationships that are not satisfying and this action rarely occurs.
According to interdependence theory, we develop a CL for alternative relationships.
We can say that we will leave a relationship when the outcomes for that relationship fall below our CL for relationships in general and alternative relationships.
Glenda has no family, her self-esteem is low, and her educational training prepared her only for jobs that pay the minimum wage, so the alternatives are even worse.
There may be cultural imperatives that place a premium on the intact family unit and view divorce as un acceptable.
The current relationship does not fall below Glen da's CL for the alternative relationships she sees as available to her.
Altruism, or helping behavior that is performed voluntarily for the benefit of another person, is one of the most widely studied forms of prosocial behavior.
There are many examples of altruistic behaviors.
Individuals have faced great danger to save others from situations such as being hurt in an auto mobile accident, burned in a fire, or injured in combat.
Some theorists think that altruistic behavior always involves a reward.
The reward can be money or praise.
Cialdini and his colleagues question the existence of true altruism because it cannot be shown that intrinsic rewards are lacking.
Proponents of altruism contend that it is a genuine phenomenon.
The definition of altruism is an emotional reaction to the suffering of another person that produces the desire to help.
True altruism is not being shown when these characteristics are not present.
Soldiers who cover an exploding grenade with their own bodies to protect their colleagues are showing altruism, whereas a per son who donates blood wears a sticker announcing this fact, and gets the admiration of friends.
The tendency for a group influence of empathy on prosocial behavior has been shown in research on children of bystanders and may even be related to parenting style.
The positive an individual to provide assistance characteristics are also shown by individuals who have accepted the care of a spouse to a person in trouble who is suffering from a long-term chronic illness and by Japanese individuals who are asked to make a sacrifice for other persons.
We are using cross-cultural research to reach a conclusion that prosocial people may be similar across cultures.
When an opportunity presents itself, most of us don't demonstrate prosocial behavior.
The so-called bystander effect is one of the factors influencing helping behavior.
If we are in trouble, we hope someone will come to our aid.
A young woman named Kitty Genovese was stabbed to death in 1964 in Queens, New York City.
At least 38 people saw or heard the woman's screams as she was attacked three times in half an hour by the killer, an especially horrifying aspect of her murder.
The killer was frightened off when people called from their windows or turned on their lights.
He resumed his attack on both occasions.
None of the people who witnessed the attack came to the victim's aid or called the police.
Some of the answers were provided by two social psychologists.
The studies show that people are more likely to give assistance when they are alone.
The bystander effect is determined by factors such as degree of danger, embarrassment, and not knowing how to help.
There was a potential for great danger in the Kitty Genovese situation; the involved risks prevented many of the bystanders from coming to her aid.
It would be hard to know how to help.
Aggressive behavior that we could do more harm than good is what most of us are not good at.
Most people are not willing to perform specific intent assistance in a foreign country.
They are afraid that they will do something wrong.
We shouldn't stop us from calling for help if we hurt another person.
The responsibility for acting is shared when other people are present.
The responsibility of each member of the group is lower than it would be for aggression.
The person in distress is less likely to be helped by each person in the process of achieving another goal.
The Internet has a lot of responsibility and is pervasive.
Aggressive behavior is related to prosocial behavior.
Aggressive behavior is intentional if there is a deliberate intent to do harm.
Aggressive behaviors include hitting someone and yelling at a driver.
There are at least two major types of aggression.
Murders tend to be impulsive and aggressive.
Aggressive behavior is instrumental in achieving the intended goal if it is used to attack a victim in order to steal something.
Territorial disputes among animals don't result in physical damage or death.
Konrad Lorenz believed that ani mals wouldn't use their natural weapons to kill their opponents in aggressive conflicts.
The conflict ends when the loser shows submissive behavior.
Humans do not have the same instinct as the people who are killed in modern wars.
ethologists and biological psy chologists argue that aggression is part of human nature, but other psychologists stress the importance of environmental factors in producing aggressive behavior.
When frustrated, an individual is likely to act aggressively.
Consider an example.
It seemed like a great idea to take a summer job as a construction worker.
The pay was decent and the physical labor kept you in shape.
After two days on the job, you are wondering if a hot summer day can encourage your sanity.
You feel as though you are in a war because of the heat and your body hurts.
It's time for a break.
A cool soft drink will do just as well.
After three tries, the vending machine still returns your money.
You are likely to direct some aggressive responses towards the machine.
Some of the responses may be verbal, while others may be physical.
Your anger has led to aggression.
The frustration-aggression hypothesis has generated a lot of research.
A lot of the research shows that aggression comes from a variety of frustrating conditions.
You should put yourself in this situation.
You are second in line after waiting in line for a long time to purchase concert tickets.
Someone cuts in ahead of you.
Before reading further, write down your answers to the questions.
Mary Harris did an experiment in grocery store lines.
She found that cutting in front of the 2nd person resulted in more aggression than cutting in front of the 12th person.
The closer you are to your goal, the more frustrated you become.
Harris found that aggressiveness is related to level of frustration.
A third factor must be involved after decades of research on the frustration-aggression hypothesis.
The answer seems to be anger.
Aggressive behavior will be reduced if the frustrating event does not result in anger.
In addition to frustration and anger, Leonard Berkowitz argues that aggressive responding must be present.
When frustration has caused anger, those cues prompt an aggressive response.
There are visual images that suggest aggression.
Video game images are examples of these cues.
They reported that playing violent video games was related to violence in children.
The destruction of the World Trade Center in New York on September 11, 2001, brought a frightening aspect of contemporary society into bold relief.
Terrorist activities are within the realm of aggression.
According to John Davis, who studies international psychology, the fact that terrorism is on the rise globally and is an increasing threat to all civilized countries means that now is the time for psychologists to pay more attention to it and to improve public understanding of the problem and its possible solutions.
According to Moghaddam's view, terrorism is politically motivated violence, perpetrated by individuals, groups or state-sponsored agents, intended to instill feel ings of terror and helplessness in a population in order to influence decision making.
In order to combat terrorism, we need to know who the terrorists are and why they became terrorists.
The typical al Qaeda-type terrorist is in his late 20s, of upper-middle-class status, married, and educated.
The staircase model was adopted by Moghaddam in his answer.
The model says that the staircase is wide on the ground floor, but narrows as a person climbs to the five higher floors.
The ground floor is occupied by the majority of the population.
People look at their perception of fairness and feelings of relative deprivation at this level.
International mass media have spread images of affluence and democratic lifestyles around the world.
Many people in Africa, Asia, and Eastern Europe have had their expectations raised because of the images of Western countries.
Many people who occupy the ground floor are frustrated and angry because they are not able to attain such levels of affluence and democratic lifestyles.
Some frustrated and angry people will eventually climb the staircase to the first floor, according to Moghaddam.
The problems of terrorism are likely to end at this point if the frustrated individuals who have climbed to the first floor participate in the decision-making processes.
Moghaddam believes that these individuals have no chance for personal expression.
They are exposed to the idea of moving their aggression up the staircase to the second floor.
Out-groups begin to take a more clear shape at this level.
The staircase to the third floor can be climbed by individuals who are ready to change their behavior.
The person climbing the staircase believes that the use of any means possible is justified to achieve the ideal society in a parallel world of terrorism and morality.
It is on the third floor that recruits are persuaded to become committed to the morality of the terrorist organization through a number of tactics, the most important of which are isolation, affiliation, secrecy, and fear.
The recruits are trained to keep their parallel lives a secret from their wives, parents, and closest friends.
Once recruits have accepted and adopted the shadow life and morality of terror ism, they have ascended the staircase to the fourth floor.
There is little chance that they will leave the parallel life they have chosen.
A recruit becomes a member of a terrorist cell.
The cells are usually composed of four or five people.
The original members of a cell are responsible for recruiting people who will carry out terrorist attacks.
Friends coercing and encouraging their friends to join a group The new recruits are quickly convinced of the legitimacy of the parallel morality of terrorism and the "us versus them" view of the world once in the group.
New recruits are socialized into their new in-group.
At some point, these new recruits will ascend the staircase to the terrorist act.
Policies for ending terrorism have tended to be short-term driven by political demands rather than by scientific understanding.
Prevention needs to come first.
The conditions that result in the perception of unfairness and unjustness on the ground floor are eliminated.
Potential terrorists won't be able to climb up the staircase if these perceptions are removed.
Support the growth of democracies.
Efforts must be made to establish democracies that involve everyone.
If the millions of people on the ground floor don't learn to see the world in a different way, it will be hard for terrorists to climb the staircase.
"Greater international dialogue and improved intercultural understanding must come about as part of a long-term solution", says Moghaddam.
International psychology, the social psychology of international relations, could play a role in counteracting terrorism.
Train more psychologists.
There is an information gap when dealing with people from different cultures.
There needs to be more international psychologists to close the gap.
Information sharing and psychological research should be increased.
English is the language used by the major ity of psychologists worldwide.
This situation needs to be fixed.
Use the international organizations of psychology.
The International Union of Psychological Science can help by providing translation services and promoting cross-cultural understanding.
The public needs to be educated.
The support of the average citizens of many nations is the key to making any other measures work.
It is mandatory to educate the public about terrorism.
There is still a lot of work to be done on the topic of terrorism.
Hopefully, psychological science will be a part of the efforts to fight this plague of the 21st century.
Because of the high amount of violence in the workplace, psychologists have given careful attention to this topic.
The extreme to which workplace aggression can go is indicated by the description of Michael McDermott, who shot dead seven of his coworkers and five of his victims worked in the accounting department.
The accounting department was preparing to take a portion of his wages at the request of the IRS.
The vast majority of workplace aggression is committed by members of the public or by organizational outsiders, according to LeBlanc and Barling.
The relationship between the attacker and the victim is a key factor in workplace aggression.
The perpetrator has no relationship with the organization.
To commit a criminal act is the primary purpose.
Perpetrator has a relationship with the organization and commits an act while being served by the organization.
Most of the assaults are not fatal.
A perpetrator is a current or former employee who targets a coworker or supervisor for perceived wrongdoing.
An employee of the organization has an ongoing relationship with perpetrator.
Many marriages are characterized by abuse and aggression towards women.
The dramatic increase in the incidence of rape shows that aggression and abuse are not seen in marriages.
The extent of the problem is staggering.
The Bureau of Justice Statistics reported 125,910 instances of rape/sexual assault in 2009.
Rape or sexual assault can happen in 4 minutes.
Many other cases of rape go unreported.
Sexual aggression has been investigated by psychologists.
Some of the factors that are thought to contribute to rape include cultural values, miscommunication, masculinity norms, men's attitudes toward rape, social disorganization, sex and power motives, and characteristics of the situation and victim.
The category of date or acquaintance rape includes many unreported rapes.
The scenarios were the same, except for the party who asked for the date and the party who paid for it.
When the woman asked for the date and paid the bill, she was seen as having a greater desire for sex than when the man asked and paid the bill.
When the man had paid all of the date's expenses, he was justified in his sexual aggression.
Some women may be trapped in the dating relationship because they are assumed to desire sex if the man pays for the date.
There are other factors that contribute to date rape.
The longer a dating relationship is, the more accepted date rape is perceived to be.
Heavy alcohol consumption can lead to date rape on college campuses.
This joint occurrence of alcohol consumption and date rape suggests that men often misinterpret the sexual desires of women and that men frequently use the supposed liberating effects of alcohol as a justification for sexual behavior.
Some authorities have advocated courses in defense training to help college women deal with the threat of rape.
The effectiveness of a date or acquaintance rape educa tion program has been explored by other authorities.
The program was effective in raising women's sensitivity to potentially dangerous situations, but it had no effect on the men's attitudes.
There are more effective solutions for this problem.
We looked at the effects of social influences on our behavior.
In the next section, we will find out what makes a good salesperson.
Several tration, or being blocked from attaining a goal, results in other types of love.
Sex roles can affect a person's behavior.
Many nations have been affected by terrorism in recent times.
A staircase model has been proposed for the development of terrorists.
There is a bystander effect at sexual relations.
Several shoppers look at a person.
People are trying to influence us.
The use of social influence to cause examine three types of social influences: those designed to persuade us to change our people to change attitudes or behaviors, to produce obedience, and to induce conformity.