Linear momentum is the product of mass and velocity Equation: p= mv
Moment is fund in two dimensions: xplane and yplane
In order to change momentum a force must be applied
the net force of an object is its momentum divided by the elapsed time
Impulsemomentum theorem the impulse of force acting on an object equals the change in momentum of the object
Total momentum is constant, conserved in an isolated system (Pinitial = Pfinal)
Remains constant in magnitude and direction
Changes in potential energy (PE) lead to changes in kinetic energy (KE)
Any transfer of energy requires work
Positive work work done on a system that increases total energy of the system
It should be noted that potential energy is relative to position (of set objects)
Remember *: in a closed system, energy is constant and is instead transferred, so as PE increase, KE decreases and vice versa
Hooke’s Law spring force increases as the force applied to it increases.
Must use the product of average applied force and distance, the equation for this: 1/2kx^2
Based on this equation, the KE of a spring system is an exponential relation
Oscillation of a spring between different positions is due to the combination of the net force when the spring is not at equilibrium and the inertia that keeps it moving past the equilibrium position.
At the equilibrium position, there is no net force on the attached mass, the object is considered to be at rest, with no forces acting on it
F t= m*vf  m*vi (Force acting on overtime is the final velocity minus the initial velocity)
Recoil Action and reaction, with the exchange of momentum amongst 2 objects
*This is due to no outside forces (outside of system) acting on it
Collision 2 or more objects approach and interact strongly for a brief period
Inelastic collision momentum is conserved, kinetic energy (KE) is not
Perfectly inelastic objects collide and stick together Equation: vf = (m1v1i+ m2v2i)/ (m1+ m2)
Elastic collision momentum and KE are both conserved
Equation: m1 v1f + m_2 v_2i= m_1 v_1f + m_2 v_2f
Explosion when an object is broken up into two or more fragments
Momentum Tables
*Helps for calculations of unknown variables (use given info)
1. Identify all objects in system
2. Determine initial momenta of all objects
3. Determine final momenta of all objects
4. Add up all momenta from before, set equal to the after momenta
5. Solve equation for unknowns












40000 13340= 26660 26660=1000V 26.7m/s= V
Sample 2












1100vcar= 20000 vcar= 18.2m/s
Sample 3












0= 6+ 4 vrecoil 6= 4 vrecoil 1.5= vrecoil 1.5m/s