The development of a standardized national language that was spread through mass education created at least a superficial cultural unity was one of the reasons why the nationalist vision triumphed in the long run.
Those who believed in the new ideology wanted to create "imagined communities" and bind inhabitants around an abstract idea of national identity.
Ethnic festivals and flag-waving parades were used by nationalists and leaders to bring citizens together with emotional symbols and ceremonies.
The linking of these two concepts was due to a common faith in the creativity and nobility of the people.
The people were seen as the ultimate source of good government by liberals and democrats.
Early nationalists believed that every nation had the right to exist in freedom and to develop its character and spirit.
The differences among peoples were stressed by early na tionalists.
In March 1848, Germans from the solid middle classes came together to draft a constitution for a new united Germany, as popular upheaval in France spread to central Europe.
The emergence of individualism in France, the rise of laissez faire, and the emergence of modern industry in England made the early French socialists aware of the political revolution in France.
They were against international cooperation and a sense of community because they saw these trends as fomenting selfish individualism and division within ideas.
They believed there was an urgent need for a further reorganization of so greater economic equality and state ciety to establish cooperation and a new sense of community.
French socialists believed in economic planning.
The price controls and other emergency measures implemented in France inspired them to argue that the government should rationally organize the economy and help the poor.
Socialists believed that the government should regulate private property or that private property should be abolished.
Henri de Saint-Simon was an influential socialist thinker.
The doers would plan the economy, guide it, and improve conditions for the poor.
A socialist utopia of self-sufficient communities was envisioned by Charles Fourier.
The abolition of marriage, free unions based on love, and sexual freedom were called for by an early advocate of the total emancipation of women.
Karl Marx created the foundations for modern socialism.
Marx studied philosophy at the University of Berlin.
Marx believed that middle-class interests and those of the industrial working class were opposed to each other.
Marx predicted that the modern working class would be like the bourgeoisie.
Marx preferred class identity over national identity.
The conservative idea of inevitably leading to revolution was challenged by new alternative ideologies.
Pressure built up as a result of what led to the revolutions of As liberal, national, and socialist forces.
In some countries change was gradual and peaceful, but in other countries it was chaotic due to revolutionary political and social ideologies.
Variations on the basic theme were experienced by Great Britain, France, Austria, and Prussia.
The landowning aristocracy dominated British society, but that class was not closed or defined.
Only a small percentage of the population could vote for representatives to Parliament.
After the French Revolution threw the British ar istocracy into a panic, it was determined to defend its position.
The king and lords were persuaded to give in by a surge of popular protest.
The Reform Bil of 1832 increased the number of voters and made British politics more democratic.
The pressures in Great Britain were temporarily released.
Reform within the system appeared to be difficult but not impossible after a major reform.
The Ten Hours Act limited the workday for women and young people in factories to ten hours.
Most of the Commons of the population was made up of Irish Catholic peasants, who rented their land from a small group of Church of England Protestants.
The Irish peasantry lived under terrible conditions in the 1800's.
In spite of terrible conditions, Ireland's population continued to increase due to the extensive cultivation of the potato.
In Ireland, the potato crop failed in 1845, 1847, and 1849.
The general result in Europe was high food prices.
Between 1845 and 1851, Ful y one mil lion emigrants went to the United States and Great Britain.
The Great Famine promoted Irish nationalism.
The economic and social gains made by sections of the middle class and the peasantry in the French Revolution were protected by the Constitutional Charter of 1814.
The charter was not democratic.
The king and his ministers made the nation's laws, and only a small group of males had the right to vote for them.
The situation in France remained the same despite Louis Philippe's acceptance of the Constitutional Charter of 1814.
Republicans, democrats, and the poor of Paris were disappointed.
The government's refusal to consider electoral reform heightened a sense of class injustice among shopkeepers and urban working people, and it eventually touched off a popular revolt in Paris in February 1848.
Louis Philippe abdicated after barricades went up.