31 -- Part 3: Global Recovery and Division Between Superpowers 1945 to the Present
Before 1914, most Europeans viewed their empires in a different way.
Empires relied on self-confidence and self-righteousness.
The horrors of the Sec ond World War gave the opponents of imperialism more power.
After 1945, many Europeans let go of their colonies and focused on rebuilding at home.
European political and business leaders wanted some ties with the former colonies.
In the 1960s and 1970s, western European countries increased their economic and cultural ties with their former African colonies.
This situation led many critics to charge that western Europe and the United States had imposed a system of neo colonialism designed to perpetuate Western economic domination and undermine po litical independence, just as the United States had subordinated the new nations of Latin America in the nineteenth century.
After World War II, the European society became more mobile and democratic.
The structure of the middle class has changed.
After 1945, a new breed of managers and experts were required by large corporations and government agencies to lead the middle class.
Members of the new middle class were able to give their children advanced education, but only rarely could they pass on the positions they had attained.
The new middle class, based largely on specialized skil s and high levels of education, was more open and democratic than the old propertied middle class.
Twelve years after the end of World War II, this cover shows an English household that has fully recovered from the war, with the husband coming home to two beautiful children and a lovely wife in a modern and stylish kitchen.
When electricity from central power stations began to replace gas in elegant neighborhoods, the affluent urban classes stopped using coal-distilled gas.
Tin cans were used to recycle kerosene into valuable all-purpose containers.
Oil in its crude form is found as a liquid hydrocarbon located " leftovers", which is an excellent power source for railroads.
It's found and in factories.
About three-quarters of the world's proven reserves came from oil during the twentieth century.
The use of crude oil is limited, but it may be refined into growth of automobiles in the United States.
In oil-poor Europe, fuel oil was a strategic material.
The two oil companies in Iran and Iraq were taken over by the British government after 1919.
The oil trade changed after 1945.
North America followed the Middle East's lead.
The world's leading exporter was taken by the production of kerosene.
Japan and western Europe shifted from coal to oil to drive their factories and use less expensive oil in their lamps as consumers accepted bright, clean-burning fuels.
From oil companies in the Middle East, the modern oil industry expanded output on a global scale.
Between 1948 and 1972 the United States exported sixteen times, two-thirds of which were inflation-adjusted.
John D was the leading producer.
Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, and other countries exported most of the fuel to Europe.
The Organization of Petroleum Caspian Sea was formed in the 1870s to control the oil industry in Venezuela and the creation of the Russian refining Exporting Countries in 1960 to control the oil industry in Russia.
Russian capitalists fought for their resources.
During the Arab-Israeli war, Standard Oil was used by the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries.
International differences were significant.
In the United States, the exporting states nationalized their oil industries and appealed to reduce foreign companies to simple buyers.
The lower classes became more open and flexible.
A lot of people left farms and the countryside.
The industrial working class stopped expanding, but job opportunities for white-collar and service employees grew rapidly.
Industrial workers were better educated and more specialized than the new middle class of salaried specialists.
A series of social reforms by European governments reduced class tensions.
Increased unemployment benefits and more extensive old-age pensions strengthened existing social security measures.
State-run, comprehensive national health systems were new programs.
Many poor families were helped by direct government grants.
Maternity grants and public housing for low-income families were common.
The oil exporters used their profits to improve living standards, but vast sums went for lavish spending by the elite, of the inflation-adjusted price increases of the 1970s.
The oil price collapsed in the 1970s after China and India demanded more oil.
More than $150 per barrel by 2008 will create another global energy efficiency, recession, and environmental concerns.
The postwar economic recovery was halted by an economic crisis in the 70s.
The postwar international monetary system was based on the U.S. dol ar.
In 1971 the dol ar's value went up sharply.
Uncertainty replaced predictability in international trade and finance.