Stalin emerged as undisputed leader of the Soviet state after a few years of jockeying, his nationalist view of communism being a triumph for party control over other branches of government.
Stalin crushed the strong nationalist version of communism and established a series of visions of many of his rivals.
The Russian five-year plans to replace New were thought to be a sign of a communist upheaval throughout the Western industrial Economic Policy.
The United States and western Europe did not see a revolution after World War I.
The person died in 1953.
Stalin said it was an international office.
The anti-Western strain in Russian tradition was represented by Stalin.
There were rival visions in Europe and elsewhere.
Building on widespread if diverse popular discontent and a firm belief in central control over peasants, the Bolsheviks beat back powerful odds to create a new, although not totally unprec often lowered food production.
They used features of the tsarist system to propel a group of Stalin's economic and political leaders to power at all levels of the bureaucracy and army.
The tsar and his ministers were executed but the overweening communist regimes were not.
The propaganda for Stalin's campaign for collectivization of agriculture was carried by Russian children.
Millions of people fell victim to slaughter or starvation as a result of the collectivization program.
The abdication of the Manchu boy-emperor in 1912 marked the end of a century-long losing struggle to protect Chinese civilization from foreign invaders and revolutionary threats.
The fall of the Qing opened the way for an extended struggle over which leader or movement would be able to capture the mandate to rule the ancient society that had for mil ennia ordered the lives of at least one fifth of humankind.
The loose alliance of students, middle class politicians and secret societies attracted many of them to a Western political model, as well as Japanese invaders and a new communist movement.
The ultimate victory of the Chinese Communist party was aided by internal divisions and foreign influences.
The best candidates for power after the fall of the Qing dynasty were region ally commanders, who would dominate Chinese politics for the next three decades.
Many of the warlords formed alliances to protect their territories and crush their neighbors.
After the fall of Manchu China, the merchants and bankers of coastal cities like Warlord made up a second power center.
Their willingness to bankroll both favored warlords and Western-educated, imperial throne resulted in their involvement of the Qing dynasty.
The secret societies were very strong in some regions.
The restoration of monarchical rule under a Chinese dynasty was envisioned by members of these societies.
The situation was further complicated by the continued intervention of the Western powers, eager to profit from China's weakness.
Their gains were overshadowed by Japan's entry into the contest for control of China.
The Japanese were a major factor in the long and bloody contest for mastery of China from the mid-1890s until 1945, when Japan's surrender ended World War II.
The Revolutionary Alliance was a loose coalition of anti-Qing political groups that spearheaded the 1911 revolt.
Sun claimed that he and the parties of the alliance were the rightful heirs to the mandate to rule all of China.
He was powerless to assert civilian control in the face of opposition.
In the coastal areas of central and south China, the Revolutionary Alliance had little power and no popular support.
They were at the mercy of the local warlords.
The alliance formally elected Sun president at the end of 1911, set up a parliament modeled after Europe, and chose cabinets with great fanfare.
Their decisions had no effect on China.
Sun Yat-sen conceded this reality when he resigned as acting president in favor of a northerner.
As the most powerful of the northern generals, Yuan appeared to have the best chance of unifying China.
He initially pretended to be sympathetic for the democratic aims of the alliance leaders.
He took foreign loans to buy out the bureaucrats in Beijing and build up his military forces.
When Sun and other leaders of the Revolutionary Alliance called for a second revolution to oust Yuan in the years after 1912, he made full use of his military power and more underhanded methods, such as assassinations, to put down their opposition.
By 1915, it appeared that Yuan was on his way to becoming China's next emperor.
The growing influence of Japan in China was one of the reasons why his schemes were defeated.
As a result of World War I, the latter increased dramatically.
Japan entered the war on the side of the Western powers according to the terms of a 1902 treaty with England.
The Germans' concessionary areas in China and the Pacific were seized by the Japanese in order to appease the British and other Western powers.
The Japanese wanted to establish a dominant hold over their giant neighbor.
If the demands were accepted, China would have been reduced to a dependant protectorate.
Sun and the Revolutionary Alli ance lost a lot of support because they refused to repudiate the Japanese demands.
He didn't accept or reject the demands, but concentrated his energy on trying to beat the enthusiasm for his accession to the throne.
One of his rivals plotted to overthrow him because of his weakness and ambition.
In 1916, Yuan was forced to resign the presidency because of Hostility to the Japanese.
His fall signaled a power struggle between the remaining warlords for control of China.
Japan gained control of the former German concessions in the peace negotiations at Versailles in 1919 in order to solidify its hold on northern China.
During the war, the Chinese allied themselves with the Entente powers.
On May 4, 1919, students and nationalist politicians took to the streets in many Chinese cities to protest against what they saw as a betrayal by the ENTente powers.
Resistance for a long time against Japanese inroads.
This protest grew from marches to Japanese encroachments in China and spawned petitions to include strikes and mass boycotts of Japanese goods.
Confucianism was ridiculed and rejected in favor of a wholehearted acceptance of the Western democracies.
Western thinkers, such as John Dewey and Bertrand Russell, toured China, praising democracy and basking in the cheers of enthusiastic Chinese audiences.
The Chinese called for the abolition of footbinding, the simplification of the Chinese script, and the promotion of Western-style individualism in order to promote mass literacy.
The literature of the period captured many of these themes.
He sees his refusal as part of a larger revolt of the youth of China against the Confucian social code.
I'm running out on an arranged marriage and Big Brother, I'm doing what no one in our family has ever done before.
I decided to walk my own road alone because no one cares about my fate.
I will fight against the old forces to the end.
I won't come back unless you cancel the match.
The program of the May Fourth movement was adopted by the urban youth of China, but it was clear that the liberal democracies of the West could not provide effective solutions to China's problems.
Civil liberties and democratic elec tions were meaningless in China.
Gradualist solutions and parliamentary debates were foolish in a nation where many of the peasants were poor and dying of starvation.
It became clear to many Chinese intel and students that more radical solutions were needed.
This conviction gave rise to the communist left within the Chinese nationalist movement.
The victory of the Bolsheviks and the programs to rebuild Russia caused Chinese intel to pay more attention to the works of Marx and other socialist thinkers.
A number of Chinese intellectuals were impressed by the study of the writings of Marx and other Marxists in the wake of the Russian Revolution.
Marx considered peasants to be conservative or even reactionary after focusing on advanced industrial societies.
Marxism offered discouraging prospects for revolution in China.
He was the leader of the Marxist study circle at the University of Beijing.
He put a lot of emphasis on Marxist's ability to promote renewal and its ability to harness the energy and vitality of a nation's philosophy.
Li saw the peasants, not the urban workers, as the leader of the revolution at the University of Beijing.
The shift from the orthodox Marxist emphasis on the working peasants to the ary communism of China was justified by him.
He argued that China had been exploited by the West.
The Chinese needed to rise up against their oppressors.
They were angered by the betrayal of China by the imperialist powers.
They want a return to a political rural reform and role of peasantry system, like the Confucian, in which those who governed were deeply committed to social reform in Nationalist revolution.
They believed in an authoritarian state, which they felt ought to intervene by Li Dazhao, and led the Communists in all aspects of the people's lives.
The Marxist study club societies that were against the purges in the 1920s eventually spawned a number of more broadly based, politically activist organizations in 1934.
In the summer of 1921, in an attempt to unify the Marxist wing of the nationalist Leap forward.
The Communist party of China was born at this meeting, watched closely by the agents of the local warlord and rival political organizations.
The communists offered a clear alternative to fill the ideological and institutional void left by the collapse of the Confucian order.
Sun Yat-sen, who was the acknowledged head of the nationalist struggle from the 1911 revolution until his death from local warlords and Chinese in early 1925, had gone into temporary exile in Japan in 1914.
After returning to China in 1919, Sun and his followers alliance with Communists in 1924, attempted to unify the diverse political organizations struggling for political influence in China dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after reorganizing the revolutionary movement and naming it the Nationalist party of China.
The Nationalists began the process of forging alliances with key social groups and building an army of their own, which they now viewed as the only way to rid China of the warlord menace.
Sun tried to explain a nationalist ideology that gave something to everyone.
The need to unify China under a strong central government, to bring the imperialist invaders under control, and to introduce social reforms that would alleviate the poverty of the peasants and the oppressive working conditions of laborers in China's cities were all stressed.
Unfortunately for the majority of the Chinese people, the Nationalist leaders concentrated on political and international issues, such as relations with the Western powers and Japan, and failed to implement most of the domestic programs they proposed.
Sun and the Nationalists were able to build their power in this early stage due to the support provided by urban business people and merchants in coastal cities.
At the first Nationalist party conference in 1924, Sun forged an alliance with the communists.
The nationalistcommunist dispute and the Japanese invasion constrained political reform.
The Bolsheviks gave material assistance to Nationalist leaders who turned to Soviet Russia.
Military maneuvering was founded in 1924.
By virtue of the academy, the son of a poor salt merchant had made his career in the military.
He wasn't happy with the communist alliance.
He was willing to give up his time until Sun Yat-sen became the leader of the Nationalist party and was able to deal with the communists.
The peasantry, 90 percent of the population, suffered increasing misery after a long period of ineffectiveness and depredations by the landlords.
After World countryside, the China was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 Many peasants couldn't bury their dead.
The Nationalist party needs to deal with the peasant problem.
He denied that China had exploitive landlords and refused to believe that there were problems between the peasants and the landlords.
Mao Zedong rebelled against his father's exploitation of the tenants and laborers who worked the family fields because he was the son of a prosperous peasant.
Mao was forced to make his own way in the world after receiving little assistance from his father.
He struggled to learn the history, philosophy, and economic theory that most other nationalist and revolutionary leaders mastered in private schools.
After moving to Beijing in the post- May Fourth era, Mao came under the influence of thinkers such as Li Dazhao, who put emphasis on solutions to the peasant population as one of the keys to China's survival.
Mao indicated his commitment to revolutionary solutions that depended on peasant support from the beginning of his writings.
revolution is a violent act in which one social class overthrows another In the countryside, a revolution involves peasants overthrowing the feudal system.
The Nationalists' drive for national power began after Sun Yat-sen's death in 1925, which opened the way for his allies to seize control of the party.
After winning over military chiefs in the Canton area, he created armies.
His first campaign ended in the Nationalists' seizure of the Yangzi River valley.
The refusal of most of the warlords to end their feuding meant that the center could defeat them or buy them out.
By the late 1920s, he was the master of China and the leader of the Communist Party.
He was the leader of the hierarchy.
Mao established most political leaders within China and the outside world recognized him as the new president of the Communist of China.
The communists were attacked in various places.
Many workers were killed or beheaded in a mas sacre in 1927.
Most police and landlord leaders at home were lined up by Chiang, who carefully wooed support from western Europe and the United States.
Mao was propelled to leadership by the offensive.
The new communist center took shape in the area where some peasant communes had already been established.
The Japanese invasions of China in the 1930s gave communists a new advantage, even though the Long March solidified Mao's leadership of Chinese communism.
While his own power base along the coast was eroded by the powerful Japanese advance, he had to ally with communists to fight the Japanese threat.
The Chinese revolution was not over.
The collapse of the world economy began in 1929.
Many regions were affected by the Great Depression, and responses to the crisis were mixed.
After the turmoil of World War I, the start of global economic depression was a crucial next step in the mounting spiral of international crises.
The collapse of the industrial economy of Europe and the United States combined with the long-term weakness in the American stock market caused the Depression.
The result was a worldwide collapse that spared a few economies and brought political agricultural prices in 1920s, collapse as well as economic pressures on virtually every society.
Industrial societies were affected by optimistic assumptions of 19th Structural problems.
The United States was one of the countries that faced chronic overproduction of food and low prices.
During the postwar inflation, many farmers in western Europe and North America borrowed heavily to buy new equipment because they were so confident that their good markets would be sustained.
Large imports from the Americas and New Zealand sent prices down, which lowered earnings and made it harder to repay debts.
Population flight from the countryside was one response.
Remaining farmers were unable to meet high demand for manufactured goods.
Although the economies in France and Germany seemed to have recovered by 1925, there were still problems because of the fears of postwar inflation.
The mid-decade prosperity was on fragile grounds.
Demand for goods was supported by loans from U.S. banks but additional loans were needed to pay off debts.
Most of the colonies and noncolonies in the world economy were suffering badly.
The small nations of eastern Europe sent agricultural goods to western Europe as well as tropi cal producers in Africa and Latin America.
Local estate owners were pressed to increase output in coffee, sugar, and rubber because of continued efforts to win export revenue.
Large estates devoted to goods of this type were set up by European governments and businesses as they organized their African colonies for more profitable exploitation.
In Africa and Latin America, prices and earnings fell because production exceeded demand.
Many colonies and dependant economies were unable to buy many industrial exports, which weakened demand for Western products, when output tended to rise in the U.S. and Japanese.
By the mid-1920s, several food-exporting regions, including many of the new eastern European nations, fell into a depression.
The governments of the leading industrial nations did not provide leadership during the crisis.
Most Western leaders did not have a good grasp of economics.
Nationalistic selfishness dominated.
Western nations were more interested in protecting their industries than in facilitating balanced world economic growth.
The 1900-Present market opportunities made a bad situation worse.
By the late 1920s employment in key Western industrial sectors--coal, iron, and textiles--began to decline, the foretaste of more general collapse.
October 1929 was when the New York stock market collapsed.
The stock values fell as investors lost confidence in the prices.
Many institutions failed, dragging their depositors along with them, as banks, which had depended heavily on their stock investments, rapidly echoed the financial crisis.
Americans had begun to back earlier loans to Europe.
The European credit structure relied heavily on U.S. loans, which had fueled some industrial expansion, but also less produc tive investments, such as German payments and the construction of fancy town halls and other amenities.
In Europe, many commercial enterprises existed on the basis of continued speculation rather than real production power.
The whole edifice collapsed when one piece of the speculative spiral was withdrawn.
The U.S. crisis was caused by key bank failures in Austria and Germany.
Investment funds dried up because of bankruptcies or attempts to cut their losses in most of the industrial West.
Unemployed and underpaid workers can't buy goods that might give them jobs.
New and appalling problems developed among workers, now out of jobs or suffering from reduced hours and reduced pay, as well as among the middle classes.
The Depression grew worse from 1929 to 1933.
France and Italy were drawn into the vortex by 1931.
The Great Depression was not new.
Several years of falling production, unemployment, and hardship have been caused by slumps triggered by bank failures.
There was no precedent for the intensity of the Great Depression.
In many countries, full recovery came only after a decade and only with the forced production schedules provoked by World War II.
The economic hard ships of war, as well as the catastrophic inflation of the 1920s, caught most governments completely unprepared, unlike earlier depressions.
The Depression was more than an economic event.
It created hardship and tension in many lives, even as the crisis lessened.
Loss of earnings, loss of work, or fear of loss devastated people at all social levels.
The vagrants' camps and begging that spread among displaced workers were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- were 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- Up to one-third of blue-collar workers in the West lost their jobs for long periods.
White-col ar unemployment was unparalleled.
600,000 white collar workers lost their jobs in Germany by 1931.
Graduating students were unable to find work and had to resort to jobs that were not good for them.
The picture of a tenant farmer and her force unemployed in Britain was a stark example of misery and despair.
During the Great Depression, women and children were disgusted with authority figures who had been through hardship and poverty.
Although this development had some promise in terms of new opportunities for women, it could also be confusing for standard family roles, because in some cases wives and mothers found it easier to gain jobs in a low-wage economy than their husbands did.
World War I was an event that blatantly contradicted the optimistic assump tions of the later 19th century.
It seemed to condemn the system of parliamentary democracy, as it showed the fragility of any idea of progress.
The Depression led to more extreme results than the war had done because it was a second catastrophic event within a generation.
There were some escapist alternatives, such as Hollywood movies and a new American comic book figure called Superman, which provided an alternative to the constraints of normal life.
These were not very good alternatives.
The Depression worsened an already bleak economic picture for most of the world outside the West.
As production fell and incomes dwindled, western markets could absorb less commodity imports.
The nations that produced food and raw materials saw their prices and earnings go down more than before.
The political challenge faced by the Western nations is similar to the political challenge faced by the Latin American economy.
Japan still depended on export earnings to finance its imports of essential fuel and raw materials.
Artificial silklike fibers produced by Western chemical giants were already hurting the Japanese silk industry.
Severe unemployment in Japan is a result of the Western luxury chases.
The value of Japanese exports plummeted between 1929 and 1931.
More than 3 million people were unemployed, and workers' real income dropped by almost one-third.
Poor harvests led to rural begging and near starvation.
The Great Depression was an international collapse.
Western governments responded to the economic catastrophe in a counter-productive way.
National tariffs were raised to keep out the goods of other countries, but this only made the international economy worse.
Most governments tried to cut spending because of the decline in revenues.
They were concerned about avoiding renewed inflation, but their measures further reduced eco nomicStimulus and pushed additional workers--government employees--out of jobs.
In many countries the Depression made politics more partisan.
People sought solutions from both the left and right.
In important cases the authoritarian movement on the right gained increased attention, as support for communist parties increased in many countries.
In Britain, battles between the Conservative party and the labor movement made it difficult to make a decision.
In and out of politics, there was a rise in class conflict.
The Great Depression resulted in either a parliamentary system that became increasingly incapacitated, unable to come to grips with the new economic dilemma, or the overturn of the parliamen tary system.
France was an example of the first pattern.
The French government was slow to react to the Depression.
Voters moved to the political extremes.
The Socialist and com munist parties expanded.
Rightist movements used to disrupt political meetings in order to undermine the parliamentary system by making orderly debate impossible.
The Popular Front government was unable to take strong measures of social reform because of the ongoing strength of conservative republicans parties in France and the election hostile to change in 1936.
The same paralysis crept into foreign policy, as Popular Front leaders, initially eager to implement measures of social reform because of the new liberal regime in Spain that was attacked by conservative army leaders in the Spanish continuing strength of conservatives; Civil War, found themselves forced to pull back.
The Popular Front fell from power in 1938.
France was not moving fast.
There were more positive responses.
New levels of social insurance against unemployment were provided by most of the Scandinavian states, which were directed by moder ate socialist parties.
This foretold the welfare state.
New industrial sectors emerged under the leadership of innovative business people.
The world's first television industry took shape in southern England in the late 1930s, but it was too small to break the hold of the Depression.
The United States came up with another set of creative responses.
President Franklin is at risk through increased unemployment benefits.
Roosevelt created many jobs for the unemployed on public works projects.
The Social Security system was designed to provide protection in unemployment and to combat economic depression, and was based on the welfare state.
The New Deal enacted a number of social insurance agriculture, as well as installing new regulations on banking.
The Depression was not solved by the state's intervention in U.S. social and regime.
It didn't install a full welfare state or hold back from offering a health insurance system.
The New Deal restored the confidence of most Americans in their political system and minimized the kind of paralysis that afflicted Britain and France in the same years.
Germany's neighbors and the Depression democratic welfare innovation were not the same as Western German patterns.
The impact of the Depression in Germany led to a new variety, but not a fascist regime.
The shock of loss in World War I was enhanced by treaty.
It took the Depression to bring the current to the fore, but a number of factors combined to make Germany a fertile breeding ground for fascists.
The rise of Nazism was followed by political changes that affected Japan, the Soviet Union, and later America.
Western-style democracies were in retreat.
In Italy, fascistism was a product of the war.
The weakness of parliamentary democracy and the corruption of Western capitalism were attacked by the movement's advocates.
They proposed a strong state ruled by a powerful leader who would revive the nation's forces through vigorous foreign and military policy.
While fascists vaguely promised social reforms to alleviate class antagonisms, their attacks on trade unions as well as on socialist and communist parties pleased landlords and business groups.
During the 1920s and beyond, fascist parties complicated the political scene in a number of other nations, despite the fact that fascists won out in Italy.
The rise of the National Socialist in Germany under Hitler made this new political movement a major force in world history.
There was a reversal of the Western commitment to liberal, democratic political forms.
Hitler repeated fascist arguments about the need for unity and the weakness of parliamentary politics in his vote-gathering campaigns.
The leader should guide the state for it was more than the sum of individual interests.
Many artisans voted for Hitler because they believed that preindustrial economic institutions, such as the guilds, would be revived.
Middle-class elements, including big-business leaders, were attracted to Hitler's stance against socialism and communism.
Hitler focused grievances against modern life, from big department stores to feminism, by attacking what he claimed were Jewish influences in Germany.
He promised a foreign policy that would fix the Versailles treaty.
The hope for effective action against the Depression was represented by Hitler.
Although the Nazis never won a majority vote in a free election, they did win the largest single government in the 20th century that slice in 1932, and this enabled Hitler to make arrangements with other political leaders for his rise exercised massive, direct control to power legally in 1933.
A new kind of govern subjects existed in Germany, Italy and other European countries.