Non-violent change is the preferred method for social change.
Their idea was not cowardice.
One has to try to win over opponents through feelings of love and never respond with hate.
Their conviction rests on assumptions that everyone has an inner decency that can be appealed to and that people can live together peacefully.
The twentieth-century transformation of Western society, thought, faith, and action was part of the Modernism in Literature and the Arts.
Writers and artists reacted to the impact of machine civilization in the 19th century.
Some mirrored society, others wanted reform, and still others turned inward.
The efforts of writers and artists to convey changing human experience in a changing civilization often led them to break with traditional methods of depicting reality, whether in words or in visual images.
Supporters of the new artistic tendency thought it was a reflection of Western civilization's break with its past, while opponents thought it was a symptom of cultural decadence.
The decades that followed brought radical innovations in the form of writing and new insights into the human condition.
As in modern psychology, philosophy, and religion, the tendency was away from seeing the individual as an object geared to an orderly environment.
Everyone is unique and can only be comprehended through his or her internal experiences, according to the new view.
To enter into the private thoughts of their characters, authors wanted to penetrate the minds of their characters more deeply.
The reader became more intimate with their own experiences.
The effect was sometimes accomplished by the stream-of-consciousness technique, in which the author puts down words in the way in which ideas appear in the mind; the result is a mixture of past, present, and future.
Set plots and well-developed characters are missing in many of these.
The models of dramatic structure are no longer used.
The moment-by- moment reality is all.
The new literature was started by James Joyce.
He was born in Dublin, Ireland, and lived on the European continent.
He looked at his own experience to understand the general human problems of his time.
The hero of Joyce's novel, Stephen Dedalus, is 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 C hapter 16: the revolution in western culture on a period of guilt feelings is the result of a love affair at sixteen.
Stephen at last abandons religion, turns his back on conventional society, and takes up the artistic life during his years in college.
His departure from Ireland is a rejection of his cultural heritage and a desire for goals and forms of his own making.
The escape is only the beginning of a lonely and bitter search.
Joyce presents an association of words that flow through consciousness in his story.
He developed his unusual use of language.
His writing shows the loneliness and isolation felt by many artists of the time.
He was an inspiration to many authors.
The seven-volume novel draws upon Proust's detailed recollections of figures in fashionable society that he had known in Paris around the turn of the century.
Virginia Woolf was an English literary critic and author.
She used her writing skills to advance the cause of equal opportunity for women.
Her views are set forth in a book-length essay in the form of a lecture for college girls.
Some of the leading authors of the time followed traditional methods of writing.
Aldous Huxley was one of them.
He turned his talent to the society of the future.
He sees a world state as the only way to avoid suicidal warfare.
He sees the planned use of genetic engineering, social conditioning, easy sex, and safe drugs to eliminate conflicts within the society.
At the cost of losing individuality, dissent, and struggle, efficiency and "happiness" are the goals of this future society.
The primary means of social control is psychological terror.
There were some great literature in the tradition of Dostoevsky and Tolstoy in the Soviet Union.
Another giant is the voice of dissent against communism, that of Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn.
The author's experience as a prisoner in a Russian labor camp highlights the struggle of one individual to uphold his personal spirit against determined efforts to crush it.
Edith Wharton was one of the best prose writers of the century.
The wealthy upper class of society is the focus of the novel and it describes its strict code of customs, dress and manners.
Wharton exposes the conflict between peer pressure to conform and the individual's own aspiration.
Joyce was an expatriate and the major Modernist poet was the American-born T. S. Eliot.
In England, he found his spiritual home and deep meaning in the Christian religion.
The writings of Joyce are rich in symbolism and imagery.
After moving to London in 1914, Eliot began to write poems.
His early works show a sense of emptiness and sterility in modern civilization.
The works are full of echoes from the past.
The "Confessional" poems blame the failures of civilization on the loss of religious spirit, and after Eliot's confirmation in the Anglican faith, he began to write more cheerfully about the human condition.
He said that if the waters of God's grace have dried up, we must find a way to get them flowing again.
Robert Frost was one of the American poets who chose to remain in their native land.
Subjectivist and experimentalist influ ences came to dominate drama.
Eugene O'Neill, Tennessee Williams, and Arthur Miller dealt with ancient themes in new ways, and they did not hesitate to alter methods of staging, as well as plot, form, and dialogue.
The failure of human communication was reflected in the "theater of the absurd".
The steady removal of restraint was a common trend in literature in the last decades.
Legal censorship of books and plays decreased in most Western countries.
Each adult was supposed to be the sole and proper judge of what he or she saw and heard.
The writings of authors who dealt with sexual themes, like D.H. Lawrence and Henry Miller, became readily available as did later works containing sex and violence.
The motion picture, radio, television, and the Internet were all new ways of expression in the twentieth century.
Most of the established arts, including writing, drama, music, and photography, were drawn to by the producers of motion pictures.
This form was a product of technology and was perfect for the new era.
Picasso turned analysis into something else.
He rearranged the violin so that it was no longer a realistic object in three-dimensional space but a pattern of flat colored surfaces.
He depicts the wood veneer patterns of the furniture with realism.
Prior to the First World War, films were an immensely popular medium of entertainment.
Writers, directors, and actors come from many cultures.
The United States is the largest source of film making.
Most Western countries had less restrictions on motion pictures by the 1980s.
During the 1920s, radio broadcasting offered a new way to communicate.
Information featuring programs and music of all types has flourished worldwide.
Radio has been overshadowed by television since about 1940.
TV is a projection of motion pictures, but it has special capabilities that give it enormous influence on its own.
Millions of viewers in Western nations faithfully watch the daily soaps, talk shows, and "sitcoms", and most persons now rely mainly on television for news and sports events.
The use of this medium has changed the way political campaigns are conducted in democratic countries.
The first half of the twentieth century saw a storm of rebellion.
He put together images that could be of any war, from a warrior's corpse grasping a broken sword, to a dead baby, to a terrified horse.
The terrible essence of war is summed up by the combined pattern.
The giant of Modern ist art is Picasso.
The major developments in art since Paul Cezanne andVincent van Gogh were his productive life.
A gifted draftsman, trained at the Barcelona Academy of Fine Arts, Picasso began painting in a fairly conventional manner and quickly achieved mastery of the Expressionist style.
He moved restlessly through the experiments.
The most fruitful movement in painting during the first half of the twentieth century was Cubism.
Cubist art involved a break down and reordering of nature.
He projects his own thoughts and feelings about a violin onto the canvas.
He arranges the elements in a pleasing way.
The general public doesn't understand such inward creations.
If artists were influenced to paint private and secret visions, the distance between them and the public was shortened.
Picasso's intent was understood by informed and sensitive viewers.
They understood that his technique could be more than a visual reduction of objects to forms; it could also reflect the breaking down of traditional culture and values.
German bombers were used in a terror raid by the fascist general Francisco Franco.
Picasso was in DC.
Jackson Pollock's painting is only known as the first that he made in 1950, and its subtitle is simply the name of a standard commercial paint shade.
The painting expresses an inner force that acts through the artist to leave its tracks on the canvas and is about nothing that can be conveyed in words or recognizable images.
Cubism and Expressionism are used to protest against the hideous character of modern war.
The problem of form was one of the problems absorbed by painters.
After the Second World War, the main trend in Modernist art was work completely divorced from an objective model.
Vassily Kandinsky began to paint such works as early as 1912.
His research into the psychological properties of color, line, and shape led him to conclude that a "pure" art, not connected with representation, could be developed.
The visual art of music is similar to the purely auditory art of music.
The most exciting form of the new idea was abstract expressionism.
Jackson Pollock was the most forcefully advanced by this.
Pollock used unconventional techniques in order to express his vigorous feeling for lines, shapes, and colors.
He preferred to begin painting with no pattern in mind, allowing one stroke to lead to another and respond almost subconsciously to his strong inner feelings.
The general trend in sculpture was away from traditional forms of rep resentation.
Henry Moore, one of the most distinguished modern sculptors, was relatively conservative in this respect.
Many of his figures suggest a subject.
The materials and forms are his primary interest.
The idea of woman, or femaleness, is suggested by the figure, but it is at the same time a remarkably fashioned stone creation.
The sculptor can concentrate on curves, texture, and the balance of mass by freeing himself from the requirement to reproduce naturalistic details.
Alexander Calder took a novel approach to three-dimensional abstract form.
Usually, the components of wire and flat pieces of carved metal are suspended from a ceiling in a carefully balanced assembly.
His mobiles are usually activated by air currents or a slight touch, and he preferred "natural" movement to mechanical means.
Space and motion dominate in his sculptures, which transmit a moving sensation to viewers as they watch the assembly.
When he was in mechanical engineering, he found that he could make static forms that transmit a feeling of motion.
The use of specialized materials like bronze or marble is not required for abstract sculpture.
The small midwestern city is proud of the sculpture, which appears on its street signs and municipal letterheads, and it gives it some of the international prestige and progressive image of modern art.
It was completed in 1969 and consists of giant, curved steel plates.
Since the buildings that they design have to meet the needs of the people who live and work in them, architects can't just express themselves.
The first half of the twentieth century was marked by huge changes in life and work as well as in the materials and technologies of building.
The architecture of the 19th century was a mixture of revival styles, none of which came from the spirit or technology of the time.
Designers in Europe and America began to be dissatisfied with the state of architecture during the 1890s.
They pointed out the contradiction in putting up a structure by modern engineering methods and then covering it with historical ornamentation.
Frank Lloyd Wright was a pioneer of new architecture.
He said that one should break with the forms and decorations of the past.
The beauty of an authentic style is that it provides the kind of space suited to a particular kind of human activity.
At the turn of the century, Wright began building residences.
In order to maximize the free flow of space inside and to join that space with its natural surroundings, he used the cantilever method of construction.
The post-and-lintel method of the ancient Greeks provided for an extension of the horizontal members.
Traditional construction materials, like stone, wood, or cement, can only be used in limited ways.
Steel or ferroconcrete can be used in this method of building.
The home is built over a waterfall.
A sense of contact with nature is maintained inside the house.
Wright is well-known for his designs of private dwellings, but he also created impressive structures for public and industrial uses.
Mies van der Rohe's building is a simple geometric form with unadorned walls of tinted glass to retain heat and admit light.
The walls are held in place by strips of expensive bronze, which reflect the urban landscape, and at night they glow with internal light.
Walter Gropius, a German, was perhaps the most influential.
According to the new principles, he designed a complex of buildings for the school of art and architecture that he headed in the eastern German town of Dessau.
Gropius and Wright both emphasized that a good design in an object, no matter what it is, ensures its beauty.
The International Style is a model of what he created.
This style expresses the precision and efficiency of the machine age.
After the Nazis came to power, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Gropius's successor as director of the Bauhaus, moved to the United States.
Mies said that function alone isn't enough to ensure beauty.
His skyscrapers are stunning because of their balanced proportions, richness of materials, and intricate details.
His glass walls are made of steel.
Modern technology allows buildings to express engineering logic but also defy it.
In Le Corbusier's chapel of Our Lady of the Hilltop, reinforced concrete is bent into irregular curves to suggest features of Christianity: hands folded in prayer, the wings of a dove, and the image of the Church as a ship navigating the storm.
Modern architecture here is not about well-being through technology or power, but about faith.
He used the resources of technology to create some striking examples of an architecture that seems to reject the machine.
Lacking in symmetry or evident plan, and lit by shifting beams of daylight through its narrow windows, its interior suggests a primitive sacred cave or the half-light of Romanesque churches.
Other architects function to interesting forms.
Eero Saarinen is best known for his design of airports.
Most world travelers are familiar with the TWA Building at Kennedy International, near New York, and the Dulles International, near Washington, D.C.
The Chinese American architect I. M. Pei did a great job in the capital.
The structure is notable for its illumination of the masterpieces it houses.
The central hall in the new wing of the gallery was designed by I. M. Pei, a strong believer in what he calls the "tradition" of the pioneers of Modernist architecture.
Pei takes the tradition a step further.
His simple geometric forms and self-revealing structures combine, contrast, and interlock to make a hall that is spacious and monumental yet also varied and intimate.
The hall leads visitors on a tour of the surrounding exhibits.
The visual arts changed around the turn of the century.
Concert and opera performances continued to be dominated by Romanticism.
The leading composer of this musical style was the Russian Sergei Rachmaninoff.
New aims and methods began to be embraced by other composers.
The movement in painting inspired some to turn to Impressionism.
Musical Impressionism was both anticlassical and anti-Romantic.
It wanted to record the composer's fleeting responses to nature.
Debussy's music has a dreamy, shimmering quality that is different from traditional patterns of melody, tone scales, and rhythms.
Impressionism in music was followed by Expressionism.
Expres sionist composers wanted to record their feelings and not respond to their environment.
One of the earliest expressionists was Arnold Schonberg.
He began writing string quartets and other forms of chamber music just before the First World War.
Schonberg stressed melodic distortion and the chance coincidence of notes.
He adopted a unique tone scale for his invention.
Schonberg was not like van Gogh or Picasso.
Seeking vigorous and disturbing means of expression.
Painters or sculptors freed themselves from their craft and chose whatever musical elements they wanted.
The result was a lot of different styles.
One of the best known and most successful of the musical Modernists was Russian-born.
He worked with established forms before throwing them away.
He decided to ignore public tastes and write "abstract" music to suit his own ideas.
Stress on polyphony, free use of dissonance, and quickly changing rhythms were some of the characteristics of his mature works.
The Broadway-type musical was very popular in the United States and Europe.
Euro peans, who had been creators and exporters of classical compositions for centuries, became eager importers of jazz.
African rhythms are the foundation of this musical innovation, which flowered chiefly among the talented writers and musicians of black America.
Among the greatest of these were the composer-conductor, "Duke" Ellington, and the trumpet-playing "Ambassador of Jazz," Louis Armstrong.
Gershwin created a unique blend of jazz rhythms and classical styles.
Jazz seems to incorporate the spirit of rebellion against traditional forms.
It is an antidote for the tensions and frustration that are a part of modern living.
Rock music was popular in the 1960s.
Black rhythm and blues and white country and western music became its own form.
Rock is popular with young adults because of its sexy beat, electronic amplification, and frank lyrics.
Elvis Presley, John Lennon, and Michael Jackson were idols because of the mass media.
The power of rock was further extended in the 1980s through music video.