ChAPTER 15 -- Part 4: A New Civilization Emerges in
Feudal monarchy in England was sudden.
The great lords of England were tied to his royal court by bonds of loyalty and given estates extended feudal system in return for their military service.
The administration of justice throughout the kingdom was established by the use of some royal officials, called sheriffs.
He and his successors merged system based on sheriffs and established feudal principles with a slightly more centralized approach.
The growth of feudal monarchy duplicated measures taken in other societies.
Sending emissaries to outlying provinces is an example.
Unlike feudal nobles, who were loyal to the ruler who appointed them, urban business or professional people were loyal to the king.
King tried to tax subjects directly and hire a small army to help feudal forces.
The monarchies did not develop evenly throughout Europe.
The West was politically divided.
Germany and Italy were split into regional states run by feudal lords and city-states.
The territory of central Italy was ruled by the pope.
The Low Countries are a vigorous trade and manufacturing region.
The limitations of the most successful feudal monarchies were important.
Chinese levels of political centralization were far short.
The state was not supposed to intrude on matters of faith except in carrying out decisions of the popes or bishops and the power of the church continued to limit political claims.
A second limitation was created by Feudalism, because the aristocracy still had a powerful independent voice and often their own military forces.
New statements of the limits of kings were made as a result of the growth of the monarchy.
In 1215, the English King John faced opposition to his taxation measures from an alliance of nobles, townspeople, and church officials.
In 1215, King John of England agreed to observe restraint in his dealings with the nobles and the church, not to institute new taxes without the lords' permission or to appoint bishops without the church's confirmed feudal rights against permission.
The power of a king was represented by the claims of rights generated by feudalism.
This power allows bodies representing taxation to advise the crown on other policy issues.
Although the privileged groups became strongest in England, similar institutions arose in France, Spain, and several of the regional governments in Germany.
According to France, people had rights.
There was no concept of citizenship or democracy.
The beginnings of a Western countries were produced by the creation of the medi groups, which were the most powerful in eval version of representative institutions.
The political results of Japanese feudalism and urban leaders were different.
European monarchs had more capacity for central administration during the later Middle Ages.
The results were not even close to Asian standards.
War was seen as a key purpose by European rulers.
The wars between France and England were larger than the local battles.
France and England are at odds over territories the English king controlled in France and over feudal rights between England and France.
1337 to 1453 were fought over lands England had in France and feudal rights.
During the period of political development and economic advancement, western Europe began to show its muscles beyond its initial postclassical borders.
The memory of Rome's lost greatness and the righteous zeal provided by Christi anity spurred the expansion ist impulse.
The population balance and clearing of large areas of forest in eastern Germany and Poland was changed by Germanic knights and agricultural settlers.
There was a different kind of expansionist surge in Spain.
The Muslim government that held most of the peninsula was attacked by small Christian states in the 10th century.
The "reconquest" began in the 11th century, as Christian forces, swelled by feudal warriors from various areas, pushed into central Spain, conquering the great Muslim center of Toledo.
The thirst for excitement among the West's feudal warriors was 400 miles the inducement.
The military values of feudalism were looking for outlets elsewhere in Europe.
The First Crusade toward Jerusalem was won by the Turkish armies.
The "kingdom of Jerusalem" was lost to a Muslim general in the 10th century, after western knights appealed to Christians to free the Holy land from the muslims.
His account was written in German.
They became an object of suspicion to the Muslims because they went to the palace to get leave to go to Jerusalem.
They were in a prison and a merchant in Devine Providence thought they were spies because they didn't know what country they were.
Three wooden crosses were taken out to the bath and brought back again.
He came to the place where the angel appeared.
The townsmen used to come there to look at the shepherds, because they were young and handsome, and seven miles from Jerusalem.