Specific policy is made through the bureaucratic agencies of the executive branch and the oversight responsibilities of Congress.
The State Department and the Defense Department are both run by civilians and are used by the president for advice.
The Director of the National Intelligence, CIA, FBI, and Homeland Security are some of the people he relies on.
The president and the secretary of defense are both in charge of military affairs.
The agency is in charge of the massive defense budget and three major branches of the military.
The joint chiefs of staff are in charge of direct military command.
It is chaired by a member of the military and made up of representatives from each of the military services.
During the Gulf War, General Colin Powell was a key player giving advice to the President and the Secretary of Defense.
After his book was published, he was urged to run for president because of his leadership during the Gulf War.
The secretary of state is in charge of the diplomatic arm of the executive branch and supervises a department with over 24,000 people.
The department includes many ambassadors who are the country's chief spokesmen abroad, as well as specialists in such areas as Middle East affairs.
A successful foreign policy can be mapped out with the help of the secretary of state.
John Foster Dulles was Eisenhower's secretary of state.
The policy of brinkmanship was endorsed by Dulles in order to contain communism.
The first woman Secretary of State was appointed by Clinton at the start of his second term.
The National Security Council was established by the National Security Act.
The national security advisor was created.
Henry Kissinger was one of the most notable people to head the agency.
The foundation of Nixon's policy to end the Vietnam War was laid by Kissinger.
Condoleezza Rice was a national security advisor to George W. Bush.
She was the first African-American woman to serve as Secretary of State during Bush's second term.
The Immigration and Naturalization Service deals with people from other countries who want to live in the United States.
The agency enforces immigration policy.
Vietnam, Haiti, and Cuba, at different times, allowed their residents to set out to the United States on boats.
The agency and the military were told to intercept the boat people on the high seas.
Congress created the Central Intelligence Agency in 1947 under the direction of the National Security Council.
The agency has conducted covert activities abroad and has been criticized for some of its actions.
When the Iran-Contra affair was investigated by Congress, it became apparent that the CIA helped coordinate the illegal arms for hostages negotiations.
The propaganda arm of the United States is the United States Information Agency.
The Voice of America is used to inform other countries' populations of U.S. policies abroad.
The United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency is responsible for negotiations, participation, and implementation of treaties.
Monitoring nuclear test ban treaties, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START), and the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT), which resulted in the Intermediate Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty in 1988, has been its focus.
The Chemical Weapons Treaty was approved by the Senate in 1997.
The treaties are discussed later in the chapter.
The responsibility for coordinating and raising an army is maintained by the Selective Service System.
Even though the draft has been used since the Civil War, the first national draft took place in 1917 and was renewed in 1940 before the United States entered World War II.
It was a source of controversy during the Vietnam War.
Many lower- and middle-class young men were sent to Vietnam because draft policy favored those who could get a deferment by attending college, according to its critics.
When young men reach the age of 18 they are required to register with the Selective Service, which has existed since Nixon established an all-volunteer military.
The heart of the foreign policy establishment is led by civilians.
After General Douglas MacArthur criticized Truman's decision not to expand the war into China, Truman would fire him.
The public and the players get into the act when it comes to foreign policy.
The new world order is fraught with danger and uncertainty as the United States operates in the twenty-first century as the world's only superpower.
After defeating Iraq in the Gulf War, President George H. W. Bush stated that the United States should take the lead in establishing a new world order.
Bush's vision for world peace centered around the United States taking the lead to ensure that aggression be dealt with by a mutual agreement of the United Nations, NATO, and other countries.
The new world order seemed to be a positive step because the Soviet Union no longer existed and the Cold War was over.
World events did not always lead to a successful application of this doctrine.
George H. W. Bush was elected president in 1988.
The end of communism was preceded by Gorbachev's call for glasnost.
The Soviet Union turned away from communism and became known as "Russia" again.
The first elections where blacks could vote were held in 1994.
The country's first freely-elected president was Nelson Mandela.
The end of the Cold War benefited George Bush.
Bush had a 90 percent approval rating after the Gulf War.
In a world without a communist threat, his new world order doctrine seemed to fit the bill.
Even though the United States held the balance of power, it could not provide answers to the internal troubles facing nations in the former Yugoslavia.
The public was not sold on the global role we should take.
A survey taken in 1993 found that 63 percent of the people agreed with the statement that we should not think so much in international terms but concentrate on our own national problems.
Trouble spots kept the United States alert in 1997.
The assassination of Israel's Prime Minister Rabin in 1996 and the turnover of Hong Kong to China in 1997 created new foreign policy hot spots for the United States.
The Clinton Doctrine left the U.S. foreign policy in a state of evolution.
Bush promised that he wouldn't use "nation building" as a rationale for U.S. foreign policy.
This policy has changed because of the U.S. war on terrorism.
Many policies related to the war on terrorism were reversed by President Obama after he was inaugurated.
Obama increased the number of troops in Afghanistan and set a timetable for the withdrawal of troops from Iraq.
The base that held over 200 enemy combatant would be closing.
The United States' image abroad was boosted by Obama opening up diplomatic channels.
He was in charge of the planning and execution of the Navy Seal raid that killed Osama bin Laden.
The economy of the United States is impacted by the defense budget.
The country is facing a large deficit now that the Cold War is over, and the pressure to reduce the size of the military establishment is even greater.
The proponents of a scaled-down defense argue that we don't need as many forces in the world as we did in the past.
They claim that retraining military personnel could be accomplished and that many industries that are defense-oriented could divert their resources to other areas.
The United States is the last remaining superpower and critics argue that we must maintain a strong defense posture.
They don't think defense industries can move away from defense if contracts are cut.
They argue that this would increase the unemployment rate.
The foreign policy goals of the nation are tied to defense policies.
National security and vital national interests are the main objectives in developing a defense budget.
During the Gulf War, weaponry was an important part of the defense strategy.
Conventional and nuclear weapons play a large part in the defense budget.
In the past 25 years, it has become obvious that we have entered into agreements to destroy part of our nuclear arsenal.
The policy agenda debate has always asked how much is enough.
The military-industrial complex believes that a strong defense will ensure the future security of the United States.
Pressure to adjust to a non-cold-war world has resulted in a serious effort to reduce the scope of the defense budget.
The defense policy of the United States is caught between the past practice of developing a powerful nuclear deterrence and the uncertain future of budgetary reductions.
Providing for the common defense is a primary goal of the government.
The first war of the 21st century was the attack on the United States on September 11, 2001.
More than 3000 people from over 80 nations were killed when two hijacked planes crashed into the World Trade Center in New York City.
The Twin Towers collapsed within an hour and a half after the planes hit the skyscrapers.
More than 300 New York City firemen and policemen arrived on the scene to aid victims after the two jets struck the buildings.
180 military and civilian personnel were killed when a hijacked plane crashed into the Pentagon outside of Washington, D.C. After leaving Air Force One to speak at a school in Florida, Bush could not return to Washington until he was certain that the capitol was safe.
A fourth hijacked jet crashed into a wooded area of southern Pennsylvania after the passengers on board decided to fight the hijackers rather than allow the plane to be used against another American target.
The House and Senate leadership were taken to secure locations during the attack.
The United States, along with a coalition of nations including the member nations of NATO, Russia, Pakistan, and other Middle Eastern countries, would pursue the terrorists responsible for the attack on September 11.
If the Taliban did not turn bin Laden over to the US, they would be held responsible.
The countries who harbored terrorists were told that they would be held accountable.
Pennsylvania Governor Tom Ridge was named the first director of the Office of Homeland Security.
The full resources of the U.S. government were committed by President Bush.
The president and Congress paid tribute to New York City Mayor Rudy Giuliani and New York Governor George Pataki for their leadership during the crisis.
President Bush said that the assets of terrorists would be frozen.
Many of the people of Afghanistan were refugees as a result of that country's civil war, and the United States would provide massive humanitarian aid to them.
The United States and Great Britain launched an attack on military and terrorist targets in Afghanistan in 2001.
Thousands of food packages were dropped by the U.S. military.
The FBI warned the public that other attacks were possible in the United States.
There was a scare as people connected to media interests were exposed to the germ from unknown sources.
The legislation made it easier for law enforcement to wiretap and detain suspected terrorists.
It enacted an airline security law.
Vice President Dick Cheney, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge, and National Security advisor Condoleezza Rice said that the war on terrorism would not end until every terrorist was brought to justice.
The expansion of the war to other countries that harbor terrorists supported that view.
The Taliban were defeated by the end of 2001 and an interim government was established.
Osama bin Laden escaped to Pakistan despite the war in Afghanistan being hailed as a success.
The al-Quaeda organization was disrupted when key members were captured.
The terrorist threat in the United States was monitored by the Department of Homeland Security.
Terrorists successfully carried out attacks in foreign nations.
During the 2002 State of the Union address, President George W. Bush said that there was an "axis of evil" that included North Korea, Iran, and Iraq.
The administration began a policy that attempted to destroy these countries' terrorist policies.
Iraq was the first country the United States dealt with.
In his January 2003 State of the Union speech, President Bush told the country that there was evidence that Saddam Hussein had weapons of mass destruction and that the United States would deal with the threat even if it meant a pre-emptive invasion.
In September 2003 Bush addressed the United Nations and Secretary of State Colin Powell followed up with a detailed report that accused Iraq of being part of the terrorist threat and hiding weapons of mass destruction.
The Bush administration obtained a UN resolution that gave Hussein a deadline to turn over his weapons of mass destruction.
Iraq denied that there were weapons.
Congress gave the president the authority to make Saddam Hussein comply with the UN resolution.
France, Germany, and Russia were against an invasion, but the U.S. gained the support of Great Britain and other allies.
The U.S.-led invasion succeeded in crushing the Ba'athist government and marching into Baghdad, where statues of the Iraqi leader were destroyed.
During the spring of 2003 and the fall of 2005 there was resistance.
When it became clear that there were no weapons of mass destruction left in Iraq, the opposition to the war increased.
The war was justified because Saddam Hussein posed a threat to the United States and even though there were no weapons, Bush insisted that he had connections to terrorists.
The United States handed over sovereignty to the Iraqi government in 2004.
There were 130,000 U.S. troops in Iraq.
The war's conduct became a central issue in the presidential campaign.
Bush promised to keep American forces in Iraq until a stable government was formed and Iraqi troops could be trained to replace American soldiers.
In January 2005, free elections were held in Iraq.
Even though the Iraqi parliament was established, sectarian violence increased.
The country moved toward a civil war after a mosque was destroyed.
Over 3000 soldiers were killed by American casualties.
Saddam Hussein was executed in November of 2006 after Donald Rumsfeld was replaced by President Bush.
Establishing diplomatic dialogue with Iran and Syria and a goal of troop withdrawal by the end of 2008 were some of the recommendations made by a bipartisan Iraq study group.
President Bush ordered a surge of 20,000 American troops to Iraq after rejecting the commission's recommendations.
Congress debated a series of non-binding resolutions opposing the troop surge as public opinion grew against the war.
In the fall of 2008, the United States and Iraq agreed on a time frame for the withdrawal of US troops.
The agreement George W. Bush reached with Iraq to withdraw combat troops in the summer of 2010 was implemented by Barack Obama.
30,000 troops were shifted to Afghanistan.
In the fall of 2010, Obama laid out a comprehensive policy for Afghanistan, which included a plan to reduce our troop commitment there by the summer of 2011.
The policy received mixed reviews from the public.
After the death of Osama bin Laden in Pakistan, sentiment shifted.
The president's war-making power has caused the most problems.
Congress became concerned with the president's commitment to American troops after the Vietnam War.
The War Powers Act was passed in 1973.
If there is a national emergency or if the use of force is in the national interest of the United States, the president can only commit the military after a declaration of war by the Congress.
Once troops are sent, the president is required to keep Congress informed about the action within 48 hours and stop the commitment of troops after 60 days.
Congress can force the president to comply by withholding military funding.
The act was compared to a legislative veto.
Reagan's invasion of Grenada, Bush's Panama invasion, and Clinton's policies in Bosnia are some of the examples cited by the proponents of this measure.
Opponents of this measure say that only the president knows what foreign policy actions can do to the national security of the United States.
Legislation remains on the books despite the issue never being resolved by the courts.
The president has the power to appoint Supreme Court justices and grant pardons.
A reprieve is a postponement of a sentence and a pardon forgives the crime and frees the person from legal responsibility.
In 1974 Gerald Ford pardoned Richard Nixon, who had been named as an unindicted co-conspirator in the Watergate scandal.
The Supreme Court told the president that he went too far.
Nixon was told by the court to turn over the tapes.
The power of pardoning is extended.
Jimmy Carter granted a blanket pardon to Vietnam War draft evaders who fled to Canada.
In the last hours of his presidency, President Clinton announced over 100 pardons.
The scope of presidential power raises the question of whether the office has turned into what historian Arthur M. Schlesinger characterized as the imperial presidency.
The question of how much power the president should have over the other branches of the government remains, even if one assumes that a president must use his power in wartime.
Today's question is still being debated.
Proponents of the imperial presidency feel that the president should have both delegated and inferred powers in order to best serve the country.
The requirements for citizenship were created by the authors of the Constitution.
The presidency required a person seeking office to be a natural born citizen.
Choice E is correct because there is no mention of a political party in the document.
It is part of the Constitution.
The Chief of Staff, the White House cook, the National Security advisor, and the president's press secretary are all members of the White House staff.
The president can clearly see if he will support a particular position through the timing of his speech.
The public wants the president to lead.
The public will look to the president if an international event threatens national security.
His approval rating will go up immediately.
The approval rating will decline if the president fails to respond or if the results include American soldiers being wounded.
The presidencies were able to get legislation passed without interference from the other policymakers.
Over the last 25 years there has been a debate about whether the political scene has been dominated by an imperial Congress or an imperial presidency.
A clear winner in the argument would be good for the country.
The Treasury Department, the Council of Economic Advisors, and the OMB have primary responsibility.
The law states that it is the Office of Management and Budget.
The powers listed in the Constitution are formal.
Informal authority can be found in Choices B, C, and D. The support of the people can be used as leverage, and precedents are as significant as written law.
Congress has the power to raise revenue.
He might have an influence on committee appointments.
He has more power with the chairman of the national committee, but it doesn't mean denying campaign funds or being re-elected.
Threatening to veto a popular bill wouldn't accomplish anything.
Sometimes a direct appeal to the public can work.
The act has never been recognized by a president or declared unconstitutional by the courts.
Congress threatened to use it when forces were committed to Grenada, Panama, and the Persian Gulf.
The president was able to justify his actions.
The actions of Choices B, C, D, and E are within the legal view of the president.
It could be challenging to commit troops to Bosnia for an extended period of time.
Many times the president selects a secretary who is a close political ally.
The official's first loyalty is to the president even if they are drawn from Congress.
Cabinet members have other sources of political support and have more access to the president.
If you want to score your responses, record them on separate pieces of paper.
Before the Cuban Missile Crisis, John Kennedy's approval was around 60 percent.
His ratings went up after the crisis was over.
The public reacts after a foreign policy crisis.
The reverse is also true.
George W. Bush's approval ratings plummeted when he failed to achieve a foreign policy goal.
After the Camp David Accords were signed, Jimmy Carter's approval ratings rose to 56 percent, even though they were in the low 40s.
The public's reaction to a foreign policy accomplishment is reflected in this.
Welfare Reform legislation was signed by President Bill Clinton.
His approval rating was under 40 percent before the bill was passed.
The public approval went up after he signed the bill.
During the legislative battle between the Congress and the president, leadership was shown.
There are three factors that influence presidential job approval ratings.