States are shaped by the people, social orders, values, and traditions that have characterized their people over the course of history.
An understanding of the linkage between a society and the state is needed for a full understanding of the political functioning of the state.
Ethnicity is often misconstrued by students as a synonym for race, national identity, or citizenship.
It is important that you understand the differences between these terms.
Race won't be a topic in the AP Comparative Government and Politics curriculum.
It refers to a classification of people based on their appearance.
The people of a particular race were not the ones who decided they would be grouped together to define their identity.
Ethnicity is related to the group.
Nationality requires a belief in a political goal.
Citizenship requires certain privileges from the state.
In this course, ethnicity is more important.
It refers to the attributes identified by a group of people.
These can include cultural heritage, ancestry, history, language, homeland, religion, ideology, or symbolic identifiers such as dress.
The key difference is that members of the group embrace and identify themselves as a distinct group based on these attributes.
The other members of the group attribute the identity of new members to the existing members.
Ethnicity is not inherently political.
An ethnic group can share their cultural attributes and identity with each other, without necessarily demanding their own self-rule or unification in a single nation-state.
Russia is mostly occupied by people of the Russian ethnicity, but there are also ethnic Russians in other nations.
Arabs make up a majority of the population in almost every state in the Middle East.
Pakistanis living in the United Kingdom do not want to form a new state on the island of Great Britain.
There is no unifying political theme contained in the concept of ethnicity, but it can serve as either a unifying rallying point or a source of political conflict within a state.
Nations, which you will have read about in the previous chapter on states, may or may not be unified based on a shared ethnicity.
The desire for self-rule is a common political aspiration.
Nationalism refers to a sense of pride in the nation of people and a belief that they can achieve their political destiny.
With citizenship comes specific rights or privileges granted by the state to which other individuals may not be entitled, such as voting in national elections or receiving special legal protections.
In return, the citizen swears loyalty to that state.
citizenship is distinct from nationality and ethnicity in that it is purely political and has nothing to do with distinguishing features such as an individual's descent, language, culture, religion, etc.
People from all over the world come from a variety of ethnic groups.
There isn't anything that would unify these people, but they have a legal relationship with the United Kingdom.
The basis of patriotism is citizenship, which is pride in the state.
They separate people into supporters and opponents of political issues based on their interests.
The four most consistent cleavages in political conflicts are identified by Professors Seymour Martin Lipset and Stein Rokkan.
There are groups in society that are against one another.
The "rich versus poor" divide is sometimes more pronounced.
Large corporations want private control and open access to trade.
More contemporary political scientists have argued to consider a segment of the owner/worker cleavage, to recognize the difference between skilled and unskilled workers, and those who are not employable.
With regard to fairness in employment and wages, gender has emerged as a dividing line on political issues.
As we consider the world outside of Europe, it will be important to understand how different religions, ethnicities, and ideologies can affect politics.
Conflict is inevitable in politics.
In some countries, the way the divide is drawn out may threaten the very unity of the state, as most of the time these cleavages play out without ever creating a doubt about the ability of the state to continue functioning.
This depends on whether the cleavages are cross-cutting or coincideing.
When two cleavages do not align with each other in a way that reinforces the divide between the two sides, cross-cutting cleavages occur.
A group of people on one side of a particular cleavage can be grouped together with people on the other side.
Many of the workers in Mexico are religious "church"-minded voters, while others are secular "state"-minded voters.
Workers in Mexico come from both urban and rural environments.
This tends to promote stability in Mexican politics because there isn't a large enough group of people on the same side.
People are divided into many smaller interests by the lines among the cleavages.
Politics can continue functioning with civility and not break the society apart with cross-cutting cleavages.
Society is divided and threatens its continued unity.
A society can no longer remain stable and unified if it is divided by reinforcing cleavages.
Imagine all of the lines running in the same direction.
The workers are mostly urban, secular and in favor of domestic job protection, while the owners are mostly religious and want more industry freedom.
The result would be that whichever side held the majority would shape the policy agenda, and the other side would lose on every political issue.
A scenario where the minority side held ultimate political power and the majority were losing elections would be problematic.
Both instances would likely lead to a rise in revolutionary activity due to frustration with the system.
Nigeria has experienced difficulty in building a unified national identity due to a series of regional differences.
Muslims make up the majority of people in Northern Nigeria.
The north is more rural and poorer than the south, which is the source of most of Nigeria's oil.
The Hausa-Fulani are the largest tribe in northern Nigeria.
The south of Nigeria is dominated by Christians who are more likely to live in cities and are better educated and English speaking.
The result is a deeply divisive "North versus South" mentality that threatens the very existence of a unified Nigeria.
The forces that divide and polarize the people of a state can be seen in the example of savages.
Dividing based on religion, ethnicity, language, and economic interest are all types of forces.
The people of other states could be unified by these same issues.
A centripetal force brings people of the state together to strengthen the legitimacy of the state.
If the people have a common religion, language, culture, or commitment to religious and ethnic toleration, it can reduce the potential for political conflicts to result in destabilizing the state.
Political change will be a major topic of study in the course.
We will look at the history of political and economic change on a more individualized basis in the country chapters.
The preferences of people with regard to political change will be addressed first.
People feel about the pace of political change.
There are four groups with differing political attitudes.
The terminology used to describe political attitudes and ideologies is similar to those used in American politics, but the meanings are very different.
radicals believe that existing institutions are not suited to make necessary changes and need to be replaced with a new regime The existing regime will be used to make changes rather than a new one.
They are in favor of the current regime and fear that changes could be worse.
There is a very extensive continuum of political preferences, but large themes have been developed that can be used to produce five distinct general groups.
They want the state to not interfere in the way in which individuals practice their religion, express their political views, earn a living, or decide how to live their lives.
While "liberal" and "conservative" are used in American politics to describe different political positions, the vast majority of Americans would be considered ideological liberals.
Communists want strict state control of all economic activity to eliminate economic inequality.
They seek to balance economic classes through redistributive tax and benefit policies, and see a valuable role for the market and private enterprise in addition to state regulation and redistribution.
They want to show their loyalty to the state and its political leadership.
True equality and freedom would come from the cooperation of people in communities to live as they see fit rather than with any formal state laws or enforcement.
Political culture shapes the functioning of a political system.
Much of this course will analyze and evaluate the way in which institutions operate, and will compare their structures to predict how reforms might affect political outcomes, but much of their functioning is already embedded into the institutions by the political culture in which they operate.
Historical events, ethnic culture and religion of the people in the country, level of economic development and political tradition are the most important factors to consider when choosing a country's political culture.
As you study the brief historical overview of each country, you should pay attention to how those events shaped the political culture of the country.
The English Civil War in 1640 and the Glorious Revolution in 1688 demonstrate the longstanding political culture of Britain in which rulers perceived as overstepping their powers are not allowed.
Russia has a longstanding tradition of authoritarian rule dating back to the beginning of tsarist rule.
It should come as no surprise that attempts at democratization are flawed in their democratic legitimacy in Russia.
Russia's political culture would be much more resistant to change than what could be done through institutional reform, so perhaps there would be some improvement in democratic legitimacy.
There are two overarching trends that can be identified as shaping the modern world, and the extent to which political culture can change over time is a subject of intense debate among political scientists.
This trend is found in three areas.
Think about the average person in America.
It would be commonplace to work for a firm with a headquarters in Europe, purchase products that were designed in the United States but manufactured in China, invest in funds that own stock in Latin America, and play an online game against competitors in East Asia.
The modern era of globalization is defined by rapidly expanding interaction and interdependence between people all over the planet.
The values that defined each society were largely based on religious and cultural traditions that differed from place to place, and often led to conflict.
Secular or rational principles emphasize scientific progress, economic development, and individual rights as societies move away from religious and cultural traditions.
Most states choose political leadership through elections.
This is the strongest evidence of the degree to which democracy is assumed to be a "good" value that should be pursued, as authoritarian regimes regularly hold elections to give the appearance of democracy.
They argue that political culture is more resistant to change than simply changing political institutions, and that the movements pushing the world toward globalization, modernization, and democratization will eventually push people to retreat back into old identities.
Benjamin Barber used the terms "retribalization" and "coming together" to explain the competition between the two trends.
In his essay, Barber identified and predicted tensions in the modern world.
After the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union, Russia implemented a new constitution and democratic regime, opened itself to trade and investment from the outside world, and attempted a rapid conversion to a market economy.
A little more than a decade later, Vladimir Putin emerged as the new dominant force in Russian politics, and reversed many of these attempts at modernization and democratization to the general consent and delight of the Russian people.
Russian political dialogue often carries a decidedly anti-Western tone, as Russians increasingly view the Western world with suspicion and wariness.
Resistance to globalization, modernization, and democratization could be seen as a result of the rise of Islamic terrorism around the planet.
In the next chapter, we will look at how these ideologies are reflected in the economic systems created by each state.
The terms that appear on the AP Comparative Government and Politics exam are tested.
Which of the following countries does not have a single ethnic group that makes up a majority of the population?