Abused children's brain-wave responses are stronger when they see an angry face on a computer screen.
When a face that we've been conditioned to like is morphing into another face, we have a tendency to like it.
The brains of children who have been abused react more strongly to angry faces.
Their risk of psychological disorder may be explained by this generalized anxiety response.
Stimuli similar to naturally disgusting objects will evoke some disgust.
People will be repelled by fudge that resembles dog feces.
When sewage is recycled as drinking water, it's the same.
People's emotional reactions to the same stimuli have been generalized in each example.
Different stimuli can have different consequences.
If you face a guard dog, your heart may race, but if you face a guide dog, it probably won't.
Classical conditioning is a basic form of learning according to most psychologists.
Today's knowledge of our biology, psychology, and socialcultural environment made Pavlov's ideas incomplete.
We stand on his shoulders if we see further than he did.
His experiments would have been forgotten if he had only taught us that old dogs can learn new tricks.
Classical conditioning is one way organisms learn to adapt to their environment.
He was proud that his methods did not involve subjective judgments or guesses about a dog's mind.
The salivary response is measured by the amount of saliva.
By isolating the basic building blocks of complex behaviors and studying them with objective laboratory procedures, Pavlov's success suggested a scientific model for how the young discipline of psychology might proceed.
Violence against women is sometimes accompanied by sexually arousing images of women.
If you see an attractive nude or seminude woman in the US, it could turn the violence into a conditioned stimulation that also becomes sexually arousing.
To play the role of experimenter in classical conditioning research, visit PsychSim 6: Classical Conditioning.
There are other chapters in this text on consciousness, motivation, emotion, health, psychological disorders, and therapy.
Former drug users often feel a craving when they are in the same place they used to be.
Dieting is difficult because of classical conditioning.
Sugary substances have an enjoyable sweet sensation.
After only one instance of eating a sweet food, healthy volunteers are conditioned to experience cravings.
One cookie can cause hunger for another.
People who struggle with their weight often eat bad food thousands of times, leaving them with a strong desire to eat good food that will keep them in good health.
Classical conditioning works on the immune system.
The taste of a drug may affect the immune response by itself.
The basis for the idea that human emotions and behaviors are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses was provided by Pavlov's work.
Working with an 11-month-old and his graduate student showed how specific fears might be conditioned.
"Little Albert" was not afraid of white rats.
Little Albert struck a hammer against a steel bar as he tried to touch the rat.
Albert burst into tears when he saw the rat for the first time after hearing the frightening noise.
He generalized the startled fear reaction to the sight of a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat, but not to similar objects, such as toys.
People wondered what happened to Little Albert.
The child of one of the hospital's wet nurses was found by Russell Powell and his colleagues.
The child's name was Albert B., which is precisely the name used by Rayner and Watson.
Albert, who died in 2007, was an easy going person and he had a dislike for dogs.
His early life in a hospital residence and his role in psychology's history were not known.
The people wondered what happened to the person.
He joined an advertising agency as the company's resident psychologist after losing his professorship over his affair with Rayner.
He used his knowledge of associative learning to create many successful advertising campaigns, including one that helped make the "coffee break" an American custom.
The treatment of Little Albert would be unethical.
Some psychologists were not able to repeat the findings of Rayner and Watson with other children.
Many psychologists wondered if each of us might be a walking warehouse of conditioned emotions after Little Albert's learned fears.
For a helpful animation, watch the Video: Research Ethics.
A patient who had been afraid of entering an elevator alone decided to do it.
He was told by his therapist to enter 20 elevators a day.
His fear disappeared within 10 days.
Mark Malkoff had his fear of flying extinguished with the help of AirTran.
He lived on an airplane for 30 days, flying 135 times a day.
He began playing games with other passengers after a week and a half.
"Little Albert" learned to fear a white rat after being presented with loud noises.
The US was the loud noise, the fear was the rat before it was paired with the noise, and the CR was afraid of the rat.
You can check your answer by clicking on the e-book and Appendix C of the printed text.
According to research, trying to answer these questions on your own will improve retention.
Classical conditioning and operant conditioning are two forms of associative learning.
The tone began as a neutral stimuli and then became a stimulating one.
Dogs are not taught to salivate to a square.
The process is an example.
After being conditioned to fear a white rat, Little Albert later showed fear in response to a rabbit, a dog, and a sealskin coat.
This shows an extinction.
Classical conditioning terms can be used to explain how sexual images in advertisements can affect your response to a product.
You can find answers in the e-book and at the back of the printed text.
It's one thing to make a dog salivate to the sound of a tone or make a child afraid of cars.
organisms associate their actions with consequences Actions followed by reinforcers increase while punishments decrease.
We learn associations between events we control with classical conditioning.
Operant conditioning helps us understand associations between our behavior and random events.
B. F. Skinner was a graduate student in psychology and a college English major.
He became modern behaviorism's most influential and controversial figure.
Edward L. Thorndike called the law of effect "rewarded behavior tends to recur and punished behavior is less likely to recur."
Skinner was able to teach pigeons such unpigeon-like behaviors as walking in a figure 8, playing Ping-Pong, and keeping a missile on course, by shaping their natural walking and pecking behaviors.
Thorndike's principle is that behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely.
Thorndike used a fish reward to entice cats to find their way out of a puzzle box.
The box has a lever that an animal can use to release food or water.
There is a device that records these responses.
Rats and other animals act out Skinner's concept of any event that increases the frequency of a preceding response on a stage.
The animal and the conditions determine what is reinforcing.
It could be praise, attention, or a paycheck for people.
Skinner's experiments have done more than teach us how to pull a rat's habits out.
The conditions that foster efficient and enduring learning have been explored.
The rat is pressing a bar for a reward.
The animal's responses are recorded by measuring devices outside.
Imagine if you wanted to force the rat to press the bar.
You could slowly guide the rat's actions toward the desired behavior.
To build on the animal's existing behaviors, you would have to watch how it behaves.
Each time the rat approaches the bar, you might give it some food.
You would only give food to the rat when it is close to the bar.
You would have to touch the bar to get food.
By making rewards contingent on desired behaviors, researchers and animal trainers gradually shape complex behaviors.
It can help us understand what organisms see.
We know they can perceive the difference if we can shape them to respond to one thing and not another.
Experiments have shown that some animals can form concepts.
The pigeon's behavior showed that it could recognize human faces even after seeing other images.
Discriminative stimuli signal that a response will be reinforced.
pigeons can usually identify the category in which a new pictured object belongs after being trained to discriminate.
They have been trained to discriminate between music.
An overheated child may not be reinforcing a heat lamp to a cold meerkat.
A cold snap at the Taronga Zoo in Australia may be reinforcing in another situation.
Skinner noted that we reinforce and shape others' everyday behaviors.
I need to go to the mall.
It's reinforced because he gets a trip to the mall.
Dad's response gets rid of something that was aversive.
There is a teacher who sticks gold stars on a wall chart next to the names of children who scored 100 percent on spelling tests.
Everyone can see that some children do perfect work.
The academic all-stars get no rewards for their hard work.
To reinforce all spellers for gradual improvements, the teacher should apply the principles of operant conditioning.
When pigeons were rewarded with food for spotting breast tumors, they became skilled at discriminating between healthy tissue and tumors.
Other animals have been shaped to find people in rubble or land mines.
There are two basic kinds of reinforcement.
Negative reinforcement and increased odds that you will repeat these behaviors are provided by these welcome results.
The negative reinforcement of ending withdrawal can be a compelling reason to resume using.
Negative reinforcement can be a relief from a child's whine, a bad headaches, or an annoying alarm.
Attach aversive seatbelt to end loud beeping, and remove Take painkillers to end pain.
The baby reinforces her parents' behavior when she stops crying.
Her parents allow her to sleep with them.
Imagine a student who studies harder for the next exam after goofing off and getting a bad grade.
The chance that we will repeat our behavior increases when we escape the aversive stimuli.
It's satisfying to get food when you're hungry or have a throbbing head.
The primary reinforcers are unlearned.
If a rat in a Skinner box learns that a light reliably with conditioned reinforcers--money, good grades, a pleasant tone of voice--each of which has been linked with more basic rewards, it will learn that a light reliably with conditioned reinforcers--money, good grades
The European research team.
In their experiments, people were less likely to donate to charity when they were deprived of food and more likely to share money with other people in the room.
There was an experiment in which you conditioned a rat to press a bar.
The hungry rat will engage in a sequence of "unwanted" behaviors before performing this "wanted" behavior.
The rat will likely repeat a rewarded behavior if you give food immediately after any of these behaviors.
The rat won't learn to press the bar if the delay lasts longer than 30 seconds.
It will have moved on to other behaviors, such as scratching, sniffing, and moving, and one of them will get reinforced.
Humans respond to delayed reinforcers like the paycheck at the end of the week, the good grade at the end of the term, and the trophy at the end of the sports season.
To function effectively, we must learn to delay gratification.
Some 4-year-olds showed this ability in a famous psychology study.
The impulse-controlled children preferred having a big one tomorrow to having a small one the next day.
Learning to control our impulses in order to achieve more valued rewards is a big step toward maturity and can protect us from committing an impulsive crime.
Delayed gratification has been shown to make children socially competent and high-achieving adults.
Small but immediate pleasures are more attractive than big but delayed rewards because we feel rested for a big exam tomorrow.
The immediate rewards of today's gas-guzzling vehicles, air travel, and air conditioning prevail over the bigger future consequences of global climate change, rising seas, and extreme weather.
Every time it happens, the desired response has been reinforced.
It's the best choice for learning because it happens quickly.