Chapter 33 -- Part 3: The Contemporary World in Historical Perspective
The European Economic Community was created in 1957.
It was useful for sea navigation in Song times when it was placed in a protective case.
A woman who is a recognized spouse but not a wife.
During the Han Dynasty, Confucian scholars treated the ancient texts as sacred scriptures.
After the defeat of France in 1814-1815, a meeting of the Quadruple Alliance was held to create a peace settlement.
Francisco Pizarro wanted to conquer the New World for the Spanish crown.
Traditional values and institutions, including hereditary monarchy and a strong landowning aristocracy, were stressed in a political philosophy.
A form of government in which power is limited by law and balanced between the authority and power of the government, on the one hand, and the rights and liberties of the subject or citizen, on the other.
The Roman Republic's primary executives were elected for one-year terms, who commanded the army in battle, administered state business and supervised financial affairs.
No ships from Britain or its colonies were allowed to dock at any port controlled by the French.
The idea was that the sun was the center of the universe.
Orthodox Christianity was practiced in Ethiopia.
The borders of Russian territory were home to free groups and outlaw armies from the 14th century onward.
They formed an alliance with the Russian state in the mid-sixteenth century.
Manufacturing with hand tools in peasant cottages and work sheds became important in the 18th century.
The medium of exchange in West Africa was imported from theMaldives.
The quality, quantity, and price of goods are regulated by associations of artisans.
People of European descent were born in the Americas.
During the Warring States Period, a mechanical bow was developed.
Holy wars were sponsored by the papacy for the recovery of Jerusalem from the Muslims.
The Great Exhibition was made entirely of glass and iron and was located in London.
The term refers to the marks made by a stylus.
Many of the regional lords in Japan were self-made.
The way is a term used by the Daoists.
The 1923 World War I commission reduced Germany's yearly compensation, made payment dependent on German economic prosperity, and granted Germany large loans from the United States to promote recovery.
An argument about women's character, nature, and proper role in society lasted for centuries.
The American colonies declared independence from Great Britain in the 1776 document.
Many Enlightenment thinkers share a belief in a distant deity.
The workings of government were administered by all citizens in a type of Greek government.
In the mid-twentieth century, Latin America formulated a belief that development in some areas of the world locks other nations into under development.
The sultan's agents swept the provinces for Christian youths to be trained as soldiers or civil servants.
They included Jews, Christians, and Zoroastrians.
Charles V convened an assembly of representatives from the territories of the Holy Roman Empire in the city of Worms in 1521.
Martin Luther refused to recant his writings here.
The administrative districts of the church were centered on a cathedral.
absolutist monarchs in Europe believed that their power was only answerable to God.
During the early years of the spread of Islam, there was an administrative unit of government through which Arab soldiers were registered.
Plants and animals modified to serve human needs will behave in certain ways and breed in captivity.
Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish captain in the French army, was wrongly accused and convicted of treason.
After Dreyfus was declared innocent, the French government severed all ties with the church.
The Chinese dynasties go through a predictable cycle of growth and decline as administrators become less strict and the well-off find ways to avoid paying taxes.
The pursuit of individual self-interest in a competitive market would lead to rising prosperity and greater social equality, rendering government intervention unnecessary and undesirable, according to the theory associated with Adam Smith.
The Buddha wrote an eight-step code of conduct in his first sermon.
The governors of Arab countries were given overall responsibility for public order, maintenance of the armed forces, and tax collection.
A theory of reasoning that uses observation and experimentation rather than reason and speculation.
The Reichstag was passed by the Nazis in 1933 and gave Hitler absolute power for four years.
The controversial process of fencing off common land to create privately owned fields that increased agricultural production at the cost of reducing poor farmers' access to land.
The Spanish crown granted the right to forcibly employ groups of indigenous people as laborers and to demand tribute payments from them in exchange for providing food, shelter, and instruction in the Christian faith.
The practice of marrying within a group.
It is a term used by historians to describe the rule of monarchs who took up the call to reform their governments without giving up their absolute authority.
An intellectual and cultural movement in late-seventeenth- and eighteenth-century Europe and the wide world that used rational and critical thinking to debate issues such as political sovereignty, religious tolerance, gender roles, and racial difference.
An oral or written narration of the achievements and failures of heroes that embodies people's ideas about themselves.
A system of philosophy based on the teachings of the Greek philosopher, who believed that a life of contentment, free from fear and suffering, was the greatest good.
A sect of Buddhism claims that the secrets of enlightenment can be accessed through initiation into the mandalas and mudras.
The representative body of the three estates of France met in 1789 in response to imminent state bankruptcy.
Men who played an important role as palace servants were castrated.
The economic and political alliance of twelve European nations formed in 1993 has grown to include twenty-eight European nations.
The military strategy that was adopted by Roosevelt called for the defeat of Hitler in Europe before the United States launched an all-out strike against Japan.
Charles Darwin believed that life had evolved from a common origin through a process of natural selection.
There is a system of selecting officials in China.
The name given to a philosophy that stresses the meaninglessness of existence and the search for moral values in a world of terror and uncertainty.
The legal principle exempts individuals from local law in China because of the agreements reached after the Opium War.
English law limited the hours that children over the age of nine could work and banned the employment of children younger than nine.
A movement characterized by extreme, often expansionist nationalism, anti-socialism, a dynamic and violent leader, and glorification of war and the military.
People living in extreme poverty are more likely to be women.
The granting of fiefs is a part of a medieval European political system that defines the military obligations and relations between a lord and his vassals.
A portion of land was given to a vassal in exchange for an oath of loyalty.
The attitude of children to their parents was extolled.
The basic tenets of the Islamic faith include a profession of faith in God and in Muhammad as God's prophet, praying five times daily, and making a pilgrimage to Mecca once in one's lifetime.
The goal of the "revolution from above" was to modernize the Soviet Union and create a Communist society with new attitudes, new loyalties, and a new socialist humanity.
The practice of binding the feet of girls with long strips of cloth to keep them small.
People gain food by gathering plant products, trapping or catching small animals and birds, and hunting larger prey.
The Buddha said that pain and suffering are inescapable parts of life, that suffering and anxiety are caused by human desires and attachment, and that people can understand and triumph over these weaknesses by following a simple code of conduct.
The gradual form of abolition was instituted by the laws of the Americas in the 19th century.
Industrial products should serve the purpose for which they were made as well as possible.
Rousseau referred to the common interests of all the people who have displaced the monarch as the holder of power.
The spread of living organisms can be controlled to prevent disease.
The name of a large and influential African kingdom is "war chief".
The moderate group fought for control of the French National Convention.
The majority of the world's scientists believe that the burning of fossil fuels has caused a greenhouse effect that has increased global temperatures over time.
The canal was built during the Sui Dynasty.
It strengthened China's internal cohesion and economic development.
Napoleon and his allies ruled over most of Europe except Great Britain.
Industrial growth in China was to be based on small-scale backyard workshops run by peasants in huge self-contained villages.
The mass movement of people from Europe in the 19th century was one reason why the West's impact on the world was so powerful.
The British and Indians used the same terms to describe the last armed resistance to British rule in India.
The movement was launched in 1965, by Mao, in an attempt to regain the revolutionary fervor of his guerrilla struggle.
During the reign of the First Emperor, a rammed-earth fortification was built along the northern border of China.
Discriminatory laws were passed by Americans and Australians to keep Asians out.
The most impressive monument south of the Nile Valley and Ethiopia is a ruined southern African city.
The introduction of high-yielding wheat, hybrid seeds, and other innovations resulted in an increase in food production.
The opening of Japan to trade under threat of military violence is one example.
Babylonian king Hammurabi issued a decree to regulate many aspects of life.
The first Indian civilization was called the Indus Valley civilization.
A movement led by a philosopher.
The period from Alexander the Great's death in 323 B.C.E.
is referred to as literally.
A religious practice or belief that is not accepted by the church.
Humans, Chimpanzees,Gorillas, and orangutans are members of the Hominidae family.
Heavily armed citizens fought to defend the polis.
Human power and hand tools are used to raise crops.
The goal of the study was to understand human nature through the study of Latin and Greek literature.
Freudian terms for the primitive, irrational unconscious, the rationalizing conscious, and the ingrained moral values that specify what a person should do.
Trade barriers are used to keep foreign products out of a country so that domestic industry can emerge and produce the same goods.
The dynasty of rulers built the largest and last indigenous empire.
The capital city of Cuzco was weakened by civil war at the time of the Spanish's arrival, but it was still the center of the vast and sophisticated empire.
A term of employment is specified in a contract.
The government of India was administered by the bureaucracy.
Indians were eligible to take the tests in England to get into its elite ranks.
The association worked for Indian self-government.
The document was issued by the pope.
The term burst of major inventions and economic expansion that took place in cotton textiles and iron between 1780 and 1850 was first used in the 1830s.
About 1100 B.C.E.
The theory suggests that the pressure of population growth prevents wages from rising above the level of poverty.
Many of the Legislative Assembly's deputies belonged to a political club during the French Revolution.
The followers of the Indian religion consider all life sacred.
They formed the elite army corps.
The unfair relationship between Japan's business world and government was described as a nickname from the 1970s and 1980s.
The goal of the Society of Jesus was to spread the Roman Catholic faith through schools and missionary activity.
Muslim scholars and religious leaders waged a religious war against corrupt rulers.
The council of commanders of the branches of the armed forces headed the government.
Laws and legal commentary were issued by the emperor in the sixth century.
The status of an individual's next life is determined by the tally of good and bad actions.
The states were ruled by a khan.
An intricate system of knotted and colored strings was used to store information.
The first Jewish collective farm was established in Palestine by the Zionists.
The king held his court in the city.
Economic liberalism advocates unrestricted private enterprise and no government interference in the economy.
Mussolini in Italy agreed to give the church heavy financial support in return for the pope's public support in 1929.
There are a lot of landed estates in Latin America.
Galileo said that motion, not rest, is the natural state of an object and that an object continues in motion unless stopped.
The force of attraction is proportional to the quantity of matter and the square of the distance between them, according to the law ofNewton.
During the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, a permanent international organization was established to protect member states from aggression.
The basis for China's later bureaucratic government was laid by political theorists who emphasized the need for rigorous laws.
The Mexican law barred corporate landholdings.
Liberals demanded representative government and equality before the law, as well as individual freedoms such as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, and freedom from arbitrary arrest, in a philosophy of equality and liberty.
In Latin America in the 1960s, there was a movement within the Catholic Church to support the poor in situations of exploitation.
It is easy to work the soil deposited by wind.
A system of writing in which each word is represented by a single symbol.
Tens of thousands of people lost their lives when the Chinese Communist army retreated to a remote region on the northwestern border of China in 1934.
The Indian National Congress Party and the Muslim League formed an alliance in 1916.
In the 19th century, a group of handicraft workers attacked factories in northern England because they believed the new machines were putting them out of work.
The tradition of Buddhism aspires to be more inclusive.
The shah of Iran established the national assembly in 1906.
The idea is that the king has a mandate from Heaven if he rules in the interests of the people.
The territory stretching from the original Atlantic states to the Pacific Ocean should be absorbed by the United States.
In medieval Europe, the peasants worked the landed estates of a lord in exchange for his protection in the economic system that governed rural life.
In the first phase of the Russian Revolution, uprisings led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a democratic government that was overthrown in November by the Bolsheviks.
After World War II, the American plan was to give economic aid to Europe.
The first empire in India was founded by Chandragupta.
The Chinese nationalist movement began as a 1919 student protest against the Paris Peace Conference decision to leave the Shandong Peninsula in the hands of Japan.
The culture of the Mesoamericans is centered in the peninsula of Mexico.
The Maya created the most complex writing system in the world.
Climate change and most likely human hunting caused the die-off of large animals in many parts of the world.
The power of the Japanese emperors was restored after the ousting of the Tokugawa Shogunate.
Hitler's political ideology is contained in his autobiography.
The belief that a nation's international power was based on its wealth, specifically its supply of gold and silver, led to the creation of a system of economic regulations aimed at increasing the power of the state.
The Franks were unified by a dynasty of rulers.
The Frankish kingdom ruled until the seventh century.
The area spanned present-day central Mexico to Nicaragua.
Many Christians believed that Jesus was the Messiah because of the Jewish belief that he would bring peace and happiness to the Jews.
The Mexican ethnic group created an empire based on war and religion that reached its height in the 15th century.
The voyage across the Atlantic to the Americas was a nightmare for enslaved Africans.
After the Cold War, countries with significant economic influence became more assertive.
The movement of peoples in which one person leads the way.
The military is the supreme ideal of the state and all other interests are subservient to it.
All women and girls as well as boys under the age of ten are not allowed to work underground in England.
The Chinese dynasty ruled from 1368 to 1644.
Between 100 and 800 C.E., there was a Native American culture on the northern coast.
At the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century, a variety of cultural movements rebelled against traditional forms.
The changes allow a country to compete effectively with other countries.
The United States in the mid-twentieth century held a belief that all countries evolved in a linear progression from traditional to mature.
The capital of Somalia is a Muslim port city that was founded in the eighth and tenth centuries.
The U.S. sphere of influence over the Americas was established by an 1823 decree.
The early modern European view is that community needs to be the priority and that necessary goods should be sold at a fair price.
The French National Convention's radical group was led by Robespierre.
One piece of type is used for each character.
Christians who adopted Arab customs did not convert.
The Muslim empire of India was the largest, wealthiest, and most populous of the Islamic empires of the early modern world.
Business firms that operate in a number of different countries tend to adopt a global perspective.
The political party founded in 1906 advocated for a separate Muslim homeland after independence.
Belief systems that were characterized by secret doctrines, rituals of initiation, and sometimes the promise of rebirth or an afterlife.
The language of the Aztecs was descended from the Toltecs.
The 1789 principles of equality of all male citizens before the law and the absolute security of wealth and private property were codified in the French civil code.
The capital of Japan was established in 710 and modeled on the Tang capital of Chang'an.
The delegates of the third estate and some members of the clergy formed the French representative assembly in 1789.
The idea that each people had their own spirit and culture, which could be seen in a common language and history, could serve as the basis for an independent political state.
The anticolonial movement in Algeria began a war against the French in 1954.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization was formed in 1949.
English mercantilist laws made it difficult for other countries to trade with England.
From 1933 until the end of World War II, the movement was dominated by Adolf Hitler.
After they have ceased to be colonies, the establishment of political and economic influence over regions ensues.
The revival of Confucian thinking began in the eleventh century and was characterized by the goal of attaining wisdom, not exam success.
The return to policies intended to promote free markets and the free circulation of capital across national borders began in the 1980s.
The period began in 9000 B.C.E.
Western ideas of science, democracy, and individualism were promoted during the intellectual revolution that began in 1916.
Roosevelt had a plan to reform capitalism in the United States.
In an attempt to rebuild agriculture and industry in the face of economic decline, the Soviet Union re-established limited economic freedom in 1921.
European countries created vast political empires abroad in the latenineteenth century.
Hitler's program gave preferential treatment to the Nordic peoples above the Latin peoples and the Slavs and Jews.
China's monarchy was brought to an end by an uprising.
A solution of water and mineral lime is used to boil maize to break down compounds in the kernels.
Groups of people who move from place to place in search of food, water, and pasture for their animals, usually following the seasons.
A type of Japanese theater performed on a bare stage by one or two actors wearing brilliant brocade robes, one actor wearing a mask.
The performers conveyed emotions and ideas through gestures, stances and dress.
The result of a great general strike in Russia in October 1905 gave full civil rights and promised a legislature with real power.
In Latin America, a small number of individuals and families have dominated political power and economic resources since the colonial era.
A type of Greek government in which citizens owned a certain amount of property.
A group of oil-exporting countries formed a group in 1960 to coordinate oil production and raise prices, giving them more power in world affairs.
The Eastern Christian Church had emperors who continued to have power.
The Turkish empire lasted from 1299 to 1922.
Those who lived in the countryside were referred to as those who practiced religions other than Judaism or Christianity.
A loose union of Palestinian refugee groups opposed to Israel and united in the goal of establishing a Palestinian state was created in 1964.
The British encouraged the use of a West African tropical product as an alternative to the slave trade.
Through a movement beginning in 1919, people sought black solidarity and envisioned a vast self-governing union of all African peoples.
An economic system based on herding animals.
The oldest male in the family held a lot of power.
Some men are more dominant than others in the social system in which they have more power.
The political power in the republic was held by the Roman hereditary aristocracy.
Financial support of writers and artists by cities, groups, and individuals is often used to produce specific works or works in specific styles.
Christians ask a priest for forgiveness for their sins and the priest sets actions to atone for them.
Gorbachev implemented economic restructuring and reform that allowed for the easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the establishment of profit-seeking private cooperative.
The League of Nations created a commission to make sure the developed nations fulfill their international responsibility.
The global recirculation by international banks of profits from the higher price of oil.
Two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals met in this organization to counter the Russian 1917 government.
A group of French intellectuals said they were bringing the light of knowledge to their fellow humans.
The people of the prosperous city-states in Lebanon founded colonies throughout the Mediterranean and spread the alphabet.
During the Mexican Revolution, the Zapatistas wrote a document that demanded the government return all the land, forests, and waters taken from rural communities.
Plato believed that the eternal unchanging ideal forms are the essence of reality.
The common people of Rome had few advantages.
It was the basic political and institutional unit of ancient Greece.
Moderate Catholics and Protestants wanted to end the religious violence in France by restoring a strong monarchy and giving official recognition to the Huguenots.
The heads of the Roman Catholic Church became political.
A pope's term in office is called a pontificate.
From 1876 to 1880 and again from 1884 to 1911, the regime of Porfirio Diaz was in Mexico.
Calvin teaches that God decided at the beginning of time who would be saved and who wouldn't, so people wouldn't work to achieve salvation.
The working class of modern industrialized society is called a Marxist.
Hindus, Christians, and Jews were allowed to follow their religions but had to pay a special tax.
A territory is partly controlled and protected by an outside power.
All non-Catholic western European Christians were referred to as a follower of Luther.
The Western Christian Church was split in the early 16th century due to religious reform.
Around 1410 a second-century work was translated into Latin and introduced latitude and longitude markings.
Europe had an idealized intellectual space during the Enlightenment.
The public came together to discuss important issues.
There were three wars between Rome and Carthage.
One could achieve rebirth in the Pure Land paradise if one called on the Buddha.
The Church of England's reform movement advocated purifying it of Roman Catholic elements such as bishops, elaborate ceremonials, and wedding rings.
The Manchus ruled China from 1644 to 1911.
Turkish Sufis gave military troops in exchange for grazing rights.