The course aims to show the rich diversity of political life.
The consequences of reform will be examined.
Policy processes and choices will be shown.
To be able to recommend a course of policy action or reform to best address social and political problems is the purpose of comparison.
This can only be done in the context of comparison.
One of the main ways that social studies transforms into social science is by comparison.
The framework for our comparisons will be six specific countries selected by the College Board as a relatively representative snapshot of an array of political systems and societies that exist in today's world.
Normative statements can include value judgments.
In comparison, we simply compare data, making a statement that can be measured and proven true, and which asserts a particular norm or goal that a policy should move toward.
The statement can be proved to be true with measurable data.
Nigeria should not be content with having a lower average standard of living because it assumes economic growth will be Nigeria's goal.
The institutions of the state, such as a parliament or a president, are not the only significant actors in a political system.
Regular citizens have opinions.
There are people in the media.
There are interest groups that have an interest in the policy.
Political elites are influenced by a national history and political culture.
Systems theorists try to simplify the system by using the following model.
Political culture is a part of society.
Most of the rules that define how politics will work were established when it was difficult to change.
Basic norms and expectations of how politics works are included in the political culture of the society.
Historical traditions, features of a constitution, and expectations about how the transfer of power works are some of the things political culture is grounded in.
There are inputs into the system within the environment.
Political parties and interest groups make most of the inputs, but also include demands from other citizen social movements and civil society groups regarding policies they would like to see from the political system.
Changes to tax rates, new environmental regulations, more spending on national defense, or any number of possible policy preferences are included.
Current governing officials in the political system, and the policies they are currently implementing, may be input by these groups.
After public policies are made, decisions and actions become "outputs" that change the policy and give feedback to the inputting forces.
The news media is the most common source of feedback in a political system.
The people of the country are linked to the policies of the government through linkage institutions that are outside of the formal political system.
Political parties, interest groups, and the media are linked institutions.
People are connected to policymaking through linkage institutions.
State institutions make and enforce policies.
State institutions exercise the power of policymaking inside the formal political system.
These include branches of government, such as a legislature, an executive, or a judiciary, but often also include other elements of the state, such as the bureaucracy or the military.
All linkage institutions and state institutions have to behave in the context of the political culture if they want to wield influence.
Imagine a situation where there is a clear term limit written into the constitution and no previous president has ever tried to break it.
The endeavor is not likely to succeed.
The way in which political actors behave is shaped by political culture.
Social sciences are similar to the physical sciences in that they both require the presentation of a hypothesis and the testing of that hypothesis based on the gathering of data.
Data is used in comparative government and politics to compare countries.
Social scientists don't have the benefit of being able to run controlled lab experiments to determine proven causes and effects, such as whether a policy change caused economic growth or not.
It is not possible to create an alternate universe with two identical countries in which one is given a policy change and the other is not, so that their differences can be observed over time.
Social scientists try to find societies with similar conditions, and they carefully observe key differences in order to make correlations.
Students should be aware that correlation doesn't mean causation.
In correlation, one set of observed data seems to be related to another set of data.
The rates of citizen participation in political processes are likely to be lower in countries with high rates of poverty.
This correlation doesn't prove that high poverty causes low citizen participation.
It is possible that low citizen participation is a result of high poverty.
It is possible that low citizen participation is a cause of high rates of poverty.
It is1-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-65561-6556 Social scientists need to be careful when making assertions without conducting further tests and studies to confirm their hypothesis.
The collection of accurate data for comparison is what makes the conclusions, rules, and theories explained in the next chapters possible.
The terms that appear on the AP Comparative Government and Politics exam are tested.
An empirical statementasserts the superiority of one country over another based on evidence, usually involves assumed stereotypes about a country or its culture, and cannot be trusted for accurate comparison of political systems.
Which of the following is the best example of a state institution?