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22 -- Part 8: Revolutions in the Atlantic World
The Directory continued to support French military expansion, but war was no longer a crusade as a response to economic problems.
Unemployment at home was reduced by large French armies.
The French people became weary of the ineffectiveness of the Directory.
The national elections of 1797 returned a large number of conservative and monarchist deputies.
France was in the hands of a military dictator for almost fifteen years.
In order to create unity and consolidate his rule, Napoleon Bonaparte realized the need to end civil unrest in France.
Napoleon saw himself as a man of destiny, and the glory of war and the dream of universal empire made him irresistible.
Napoleon left home and became a lieutenant in the French army in 1785.
He returned to France as a French revolutionary after fighting for Corsican independence in 1789.
Napoleon was placed in command of the French forces in Italy and won two victories there.
Napoleon's next campaign in Egypt was a failure, but he returned to France before the fiasco was known, and his reputation remained intact.
Some members of the legislature were scheming against the Directory.
The fact that the Directory was a weak dictatorship was not the reason why the plotters were dissatisfied.
The conspirators were looking for a strong ruler and Napoleon was an ideal choice.
They organized a takeover with Napoleon.
The legislature was dissolved on November 9, 1799.
A new constitutionConsolidating Napoleon's position was overwhelmingly approved in a referendum in December 1799.
Napoleon's domestic policy was to use his popularity to maintain order.
He worked out agreements with powerful groups in France that gave them favors in return for loyal service.
Equality of male citizens before the law and absolute security of code was part of the French civil Revolution of 1789.
Napoleon applied his diplo- wealth and private property to create a centralized state after the Revolution and built on the bureaucracy that had been created.
The Concordat was signed by Napoleon and Pope Pius VII.
The pope gained the right for French Catholics to practice their religion without restriction, but Napoleon's government paid the clergy, and exerted great influence over the church in France.
Political centralization and re ligious reconciliation went hand-in-hand.
The domestic reforms of Napoleon's early years were his greatest achievement, and much of his legal and administrative reorganization has survived in France to this day.
Napoleon's domestic initiatives gave the majority of French people a sense of stability.
Order and unity had a price.
Women lost a lot of their gains in the 1790s.
Women were seen as dependents of either their fathers or their husbands under the new Napoleonic Code.
The freedom of the press and free speech were restricted by Napoleon and his government.
During the Terror, political suspects were held in state prisons.
Napoleon sent peace feelers to Austria and Britain after he came to power in 1797.
The Austrians were defeated by the French armies when they rejected the overtures.
France's hold on the territories it had won up to that point was dated by treaties with Austria and Britain.
Napoleon was driven to expand his power in 1802.
Napoleon tried to restrict British trade with all of Europe because he wanted to weaken Austria and encourage the secondary states of southwestern Germany to side with France.
The Mediterranean fleet was destroyed by Lord Nelson at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.
The first consul used his status as a military leader to have himself proclaimed emperor in the late 18th century.
The Third Coalition against France was formed shortly before the Battle of Trafalgar.
Napoleon defeated the Austrians and Russians at the Battle of Austerlitz in December 1805.
Austria accepted large ter ritorial losses in return for peace as the Third Coa lition collapsed.
Napoleon rearranged the German states to his liking.
In 1806 he established the GermanConfedera tion of the Rhine, a union of fifteen German states.
Napoleon was the "pro tector" of the confederation.
The Prussians were alarmed by Napoleon's intervention in German affairs.
Napoleon won two more bril iant vic tories after attacking them.
Russia joined the war with Prussia in the spring.
Alexander I of Russia was ready to negotiate for peace after Napoleon's armies won another victory.
The empire included virtual Europe.
Napoleon imposed a blockade to stop the British economy.
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