Brittain returned to Oxford and finished her studies.
She became a leader in the feminist campaign for gender equality after forming a friendship with another woman writer.
She had children as well.
Her wartime memories were still there.
The narrative spoke to the experiences of an entire generation.
In the war, millions of young people found excitement, courage, and common purpose, but only succeeded in destroying their lives with their futile efforts.
Brittain opposed England's entry into World War II.
The governments used propaganda to maintain popular support.
By the spring of 1916, cracks appeared under the strain of war.
Irish nationalists in Dublin tried to rise up against British rule in the Easter Rebellion.
On every home front, there were strikes and protest marches over inadequate food.
The Second Battle of the Aisne resulted in huge losses for the French infantry divisions in April 1917.
Russian soldiers revolted in support of the revolution.
The Central Powers had the most strain.
Austria's chief minister was assassinated in 1916.
Prewar social conflicts were reemerging, and German political unity was collapsing by 1917.
Austria-Hungary and France began to crack in 1917.
Russia saved the Central Powers for a while.
The "Rape of Belgium" was prominently featured in anti-German propaganda.
The more extreme accounts of the horrors of the invasion were dismissed as Allied propaganda by many historians.
There were gruesome reports of child abuse and rape perpetuated by German soldiers more than there were reports of the destruction of priceless archives, homes, buildings, and factories.
According to recent scholarship, the Germans committed large-scale atrocities, including the abuse and rape of women, which would now be considered war crimes.
Much of Belgium's industrial infrastructure was either destroyed or looted and taken back to Germany, as a result of the mass destruction of civilian property carried out by the Germans.
Today's scholars think that the "Rape of Belgium" was real.
The 1917 Russian Revolution opened a new era with a radical new prototype of state and society that changed the course of the twentieth century.
Imperial Russia in 1914 was mostly rural and non urban.
Although rapidly expanding, industrialization was still in its early stages.
Peasants made up 80% of the population.
The rest of Russian society was made up of the bourgeoisie, educated upper and middle classes, liberal politicians, military officer corps, and the urban working class.
The tsar abdicated in 1917.
Like their allies and their enemies, the Russians embraced war in 1914.
The war began to take its toll when Russia was united.
1.5 million casualties and nearly 1 million captured in 1915 were suffered by the German armies as Russia quickly exhausted its supplies of shells and bullets.
Russian soldiers were told to find their arms among the dead when they were sent to the front.
Russia mobilized less effectively for total war than did the other warring nations, despite these efforts improving the military situation.
This cartoon shows the frightening power of Rasputin over Nicholas II and his wife.
The monarchy's collapse was caused by the manipulation of Rasputin.
Although limited industrial capacity was a handicap in the war against Germany, Russia's real problem was leadership.
A kindly, slightly dull-witted man, Nicholas II distrusted the moderate Duma and rejected any democratic sharing of power.
The tsar's leadership and the appalling direction of the war became increasingly critical of the Duma, whose members came from the elite classes.
Nicholas, who had no military background, traveled to the front in September 1915 to lead Russia's armies, and thereafter received all the blame for Russian losses.
His departure was a turning point.
His German-born wife took control of the government and the home front.
In her husband's absence, she tried to rule with an uneducated preacher who was her most trusted adviser.
Three members of the high aristocracy murdered a man in 1916 in a desperate attempt to right the situation.
The government moved quickly toward revolution.
Large-scale strikes, demonstrations, and protest marches are now commonplace.
Riots began in Petrograd on March 8, 1917, after a women's bread march.
The tsar ordered that peace be restored, but discipline broke down, and the soldiers and police joined the revolutionaries.
The government was declared on March 12, 1917.
Nicholas abdicated three days later.
The was well received throughout the country.
A new government formed in May 1917 with the understanding that an elected democratic government, ruling under a new constitution drafted by a future Constituent Assembly, would replace it when circumstances permitted.
The right of unions to organize and strike, equality before the law, freedom of religion, speech, and assembly, and other classic liberal measures were established by the provisional government.
In the first phase of the Russian Revolution, uprisings led to the abdication of the tsar and the establishment of a democratic government that was overthrown in November by the Bolsheviks.
The people turned against the government after it made two fatal decisions.
It refused to give large landholdings to peasants because it feared that such drastic action in the countryside would destroy Russia's peasant army.
The government decided that the continuation of war was still an important national duty and that international alliances had to be honored.
Both decisions were unpopular.
The peasants believed that when the tsar's rule ended, so too would the nobles' title to the land.
March Revolution was the end of the war.
The counter-government issued its own radical orders and weakened the government.
Army Order No.
was the most famous of these.
Two to three thousand workers, soldiers, and socialist intellectuals met in this organization to counter the Russian 1917 government.
The collapse of army discipline was caused by 1.
Peasant soldiers began voting with their feet, returning to their villages to get a share of the land that peasants were seizing from landlords, either through peasant soviets (councils) or by force, in a great agrarian upheaval.
During the summer of 1917, the government led by Alexander Kerensky became more conservative and authoritarian as it tried to maintain law and order and protect property.
The decision to continue the war to protect Mother Russia after Nicholas's abdication was greeted with some enthusiasm.
Alexander Kerensky and his government were turned against by the Russian army.
The army was in open rebellion, the countryside was in turmoil, and women and children were being recruited as soldiers.
Intelligence reports about the war were more important after America entered the war.
The US Army intelligence service reported in the late summer and early fall of 1917 that the majority of Russian soldiers had abandoned their loyalty to the government.
The situation in the army has not changed and may be described as a complete lack of confidence in the higher commanding personnel.
The soldiers believe they can't be punished for what they do.
The influence of Bolshevik ideas is growing fast.
A general weariness, an Irritated, and a desire for peace at any price must be added to this.
The soldier mass is not being influenced by the press of the political parties.
One hears the orders of the government many times.
The Bolshevik is the only political movement that has any popularity.
The military operations on all fronts need to be stopped immediately.
The fact that a whole battalion does not carry out a military order is immediately made known to other parts of the army.
The general war weariness, bad nourishment, distrust of officers, and attempts to fraternize with Germans have led to an intense defeatist agitation.
They say that no one will stay in the trenches during the winter because of the calls for immediate peace.
The approaching winter campaign has accelerated the disintegration of the army and increased the longing for peace.
The army will be destroyed if the ranks are filled with such material.
In June 1917, following the March Revolution and the abdication of the tsar, the Chief Land Committee in Petrograd received a Memorandum on the current situation.
The peasants are taking the issue of land and agricultural reform into their own hands, rather than waiting for the government to act.
The old men, the sick, and the women remaining in the countryside have accepted the overthrow calmly and consider it to be the result of the foolish management of the country.
It might have been expected that the demand for a social revolution would be limited to the army and the workers.
The elimination of the police, the replacement of the local administration, and the granting of pardons to criminals led to the revolution.
The right to property, the right to the management and use of one's belongings, and the contractual rights were destroyed by the county committee.
Rental prices on land were lowered by 25 per cent.
The prices were lowered by 60 per cent by the district committee.
The peasants took over the land.
On November 3, at a meeting of the Petrograd Soviet, which Trotsky attended, the Petrograd military garrison passed resolutions that sounded like a Bolshevik revolutionary manifesto.
The time for words is over.
The country is close to ruin.
The army wants peace, peasants land, and workers bread and work.
The people are against the Coalition Government.
It was used by the enemies of the people.
The time for words is over.
The power of the All-Russian Congress of Soviets must be taken into its own hands to give the people peace, land, and bread.
The revolution and the people need to be insured.
Even to the last man, the Petrograd Garrison will place its strength at the disposal of the All-Russian Congress.
You can count on us to be the legitimate representatives of the soldiers, workers, and peasants.
Young boys have always lied about their age to serve in wars, and boy soldiers fought for all the opposing forces in the Great War.
They were usually sent home when discovered.
Russia sent young boys to fight in their exhausted armies at the end of the war.
The Russian soldiers were exhausted after the March Revolution and the government wanted to create all-female combat units.
They were known as the Battalions of Death because they were expected to lead the way into battle.
In late summer to early fall of 1917, use the sources above, along with what you have learned in class, to write a short essay about the state of Russian society.
Russia replaced the tsar's rule with a liberal, Western-style democracy in March 1917, after revolutions written by both anti-Soviet Russian and Western scholars.
A small group of hard-core radicals, led by Vladimir Lenin, staged a second revolution in November and installed a Communist government.
Since the opening of the Soviet archives in the 1990s, a different picture has emerged.
According to scholars, the second revolution had widespread popular support and that Lenin was often following events as much as leading them.
When his older brother was executed for planning to kill the tsar, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin became an enemy of Russia.
As a law student, Lenin studied Marxism.
After being exiled to Siberia for three years because of socialism, Lenin lived in western Europe for seventeen years and developed his own revolutionary interpretations of Marxism.
There were three interrelated ideas.
He said that only a violent revolution could destroy capitalism.
The socialist revolution was possible even in a country like Russia.
Classical Marxist theory states that a society must reach the capitalist, industrial stage of development before the urban workers can rise up and create a Communist society.
The peasants were potential revolutionaries because they made up the bulk of the army and navy.
The revolution was determined more by human leadership than by historical laws.
He called for a workers' party that was strictly controlled by an elite of intellectuals and full-time revolutionaries.
Until revolution brought it to power, this "vanguard of the proletariat" would not stop.
Other Russian Marxists did not agree with Lenin's ideas.
At the Social Democratic Labor Party congress in London in 1903, Lenin demanded a small, disciplined, elitist party; his opponents wanted a more democratic party with mass membership.
The majority group was the camp of the Russian party of Marxist socialism.
Most of the leading Bolsheviks were living in Russia's remotest corners in March 1917.
After the March Revolution, the German government provided safe passage for Lenin from his exile in Switzerland across Germany and back into Russia, hoping he would undermine Russia's sagging war effort.
On April 16th, when he arrived in Petrograd, Lenin issued his famous April Theses.
mass demonstrations in Petrograd by soldiers, sailors, and workers took place on July 16 and 20.
The Bolshevik Central Committee was completely unprepared to support the demonstrations.
The government labeled the leading Bolsheviks traitors and ordered them to be arrested.
He had to flee to the other side of the world.
The government was collapsing.
The coalition between liberals and socialists was breaking apart as their respective power bases demanded they move further to the right or left.
The only force that could have saved the government in Russia was the army, and Prime Minister Kerensky's support for the war lost him all credit.
Petrograd workers organized themselves as Red Guards to defend the city after a right-wing military coup failed.
Before the Second All-Russian Congress of Soviets met in early November, Lenin called for an armed insurrection.
The Petrograd Soviet was gained by the Bolsheviks in October.
He remained in hiding until mid-October, when he returned to Russia.
Leon Trotsky was the man who executed the Bolshevik seizure of power.
On November 6 militant Trotsky followers joined with trusted Bolshevik soldiers to seize government buildings.
After hiding for a while, Lenin came out and took control of the revolution.
At the Congress of Soviets, the majority of the Bolsheviks decided that all power had been handed over to the soviets.
Two years before Lenin's death, a controversial photo was taken by his sister.
Stalin's claim as the legitimate successor to Lenin was supported by the photo that 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 Even if the photo is authentic, it appears to have been altered to make him taller, to clear his severely pockmarked face, and to make his injured left arm look normal.
There were three reasons why the Bolsheviks came to power.
By the late 19th century democracy had given way to anarchy because the popular mass no longer supported the government.
The superior leaders of the Bolsheviks were determined to cause a Marxist revolution.
The true accomplishment of the Bolsheviks was not taking power but conquering the chaos they had created.
The Bolsheviks had no control over the developments that allowed Lenin to profit again.
In the summer of 1917, a peasant revolution swept across Russia, as peasants were divided between the estates of the landlords and the church.
The first law that was supposed to give land to peasants actually approved what peasants were already doing.
The decree gave local workers' committees control of individual factories.
A new constitution would be drawn up by a freely elected Constituent Assembly, which the Bolsheviks proclaimed to be a "provisional workers' and peasants' government".
The Constituent Assembly was permanently dissolved when the Bolshevik delegates won less than one-fourth of the seats in free elections.
At any price, he moved to make peace with Germany.
The price was very high.
In March 1918, Germany demanded the surrender of the western territories of the Soviet government.
With Germany's defeat eight months later, the treaty was nullified, but it allowed Lenin time to escape the disaster of continued war and pursue his goal of absolute political power for the Bolsheviks.
The tsar abdicates, the March Revolution, and the Petrograd Soviet issues Army Order No.
The end of the civil war revealed that the Bolsheviks were a dictatorship.
"Long live the soviets; down with the Bolsheviks" was a popular slogan.
The old army organized White opposition to the Bolsheviks in southern Russia, Ukraine, Siberia, and west of Petrograd and plunged the country into civil war from November 1917 to October 1922.
The Whites were united by their hatred of the Reds.
The Red Army was formed in March 1918 and claimed victory in almost five years of fighting.
The Red Army won due to a number of reasons.
They were able to control the center while the Whites attacked from the fringes.
The Whites' poorly defined political program failed to unite all of the Bolsheviks' foes under a progressive democratic banner.
The Whites were no match for the Communists' better army.
They seized grain from peasants, introduced rationing, nationalized banks and industry, and required everyone to work in a civil conflict.
These measures were used to maintain labor discipline and to keep the Red Army supplied, even though they contributed to a breakdown of normal economic activity.
The Bolsheviks applied the total-war concept to a civil conflict, seizing grain from peasants, nationalizing banks and industry, and requiring everyone to work.
The Communist victory was aided by Revolutionary terror.
The old tsarist secret police was re-established as the Cheka, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or supposed foes, including the tsar and his family.
Foreign military intervention in the civil war helped the Communists.
The Allies sent troops to prevent war materiel from being captured by the Germans.
After the Soviet government nationalized all foreign-owned factories without compensation, Western governments began to support White armies.
The Communists were able to appeal to the ethnic Russians' patriotism because of these efforts.
The Germans launched their last major attack against France in 1918.
The Austrian-Hungarian and Ottoman leaders signed armistices on November 3 and October 30 respectively.
The empires of the three monarchies fell apart.
The victorious Western Allies came together in Paris in January 1919 to establish a lasting peace.
The Allies worked out peace terms with Germany, created the League of Nations, and reorganized eastern Europe and southwest Asia.
The 1919 peace settlement did not establish a lasting peace or resolve the issues that brought the world to war.
The course of the twentieth century was shaped by World War I and the treaties that ended it.
The Great War cost $332 billion and left 10 million people dead and another 20 million wounded.
It wasn't easy to end the war.
The German army attacked France again in the spring of 1918 after the victory over Russia.
At the Second Battle of the Marne in July of this year, the German offensive was turned back.
Adding 2 million men in arms by August tipped the scales in favor of Allied victory.
The British, French, and American armies were moving quickly.
The German emperor formed a new, more liberal government on October 4.
The Germans rose up as the negotiations dragged on.
On November 3 sailors in the northern Germany town of KEEL staged a revolt and established revolutionary councils on the Russian soviet model.
Kaiser Wilhelm fled to Holland when army discipline collapsed.
On November 9 Socialist leaders in Berlin agreed to tough Allied terms of surrender after proclaiming a German republic.
On November 11, 1918, the armistice went into effect.
There were five major treaties with the defeated powers by August 1920.
The Treaty of Versailles laid out peace terms with Germany, as well as the Covenant of the League of Nations and an article establishing the International Labour Organization.
The conference yielded a number of minor treaties and League of Nations mandates.
The delegates met their expectations.
The victors were going to Paris.
We were preparing for Eternal Peace.
Empires were shattered, new nations were established, and a dangerous power vacuum was created by the relatively weak states.
President Wilson's January 1918 peace proposal, his Fourteen Points, strengthened this idealism.
Wilson advocated for the creation of a permanent international organization designed to protect member states from aggression and prevent future wars.
During the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, a permanent international organization was established to protect member states from aggression.
The "Big Three" were the United States, Great Britain, and France.
Italy's role was limited and Germany and Russia were excluded.
The Prime Ministers of Great Britain and France were concerned with punishing Germany, while President Wilson wanted to deal with the establishment of a League of Nations.
Lloyd George felt pressured to win the war in order to make peace with Germany.
The Germans were a people with the heart of beasts according to Kipling.
The creation of a buffer state between France and Germany was one of the things that Clemenceau wanted.
Wilson would not hear this.
In return for a formal defensive alliance with the United States and Great Britain, the French agreed to a compromise, abandoning their demand for a buffer state.
The treaty was signed in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles, where Germany had forced France to sign the armistice ending the FrancoPrussian War.
An eruption of outrage among Chinese nationalists was caused by Germany's hold over the Shandong Peninsula in China passing to Japan.
Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, and parts of Germany were ceded to the new Polish state.
Germany's army was limited to one hundred thousand men by the treaty.
The Allies demanded that Germany accept responsibility for the war and pay compensation equal to all civilian damages caused by the war, although they left the actual figure to be set at a later date when tempers had cooled.
British and French popular demands for revenge were reflected in the war-guilt and "reparations" clauses.
The agreements that were reached in Paris were seen as the first steps towards re-establishing international order, albeit ones that favored the victorious Allies, and they would have farreaching consequences for the remainder of the twentieth century and beyond.
The peace settlement that ended World War I limited Germany's army to one hundred thousand men and forced Germany to pay huge amounts of compensation.
Poland regained its independence in eastern Europe, and the states of Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and a larger Romania were created out of the Austro-Hungarian Empire.
Slavs in the western Balkans were united by the Serbian monarchy.
Britain and France took advantage of the break up of the Ottoman Empire to extend their power in the Middle East.
The League of Nations mandated that the French received Lebanon and Syria.
Palestine was to include a Jewish national homeland first promised by Britain in 1917.
Hejaz received independence from Hussein.
The Allied acquisitions were simply called colonialism.
For war-shattered Europe, the 1919 peace settlement was an acceptable beginning.
Allied leaders feared that the Bolshevik Revolution might spread and that's why they wanted a quick settlement.
The problems could be solved in the future.
The United States reverted to its prewar preferences for isolationism after the Versailles treaty was rejected by the U.S. Senate.
The United States would never join the League of Nations because Wilson refused to compromise on the treaty.
Wilson's alliance with France and Great Britain was not approved by the Senate.
Great Britain used the U.S. action as an excuse to not approve its alliance with France.
By the end of 1919, France was alone, and the hopes of early 1919 had turned to ashes.
The pursuit of real and lasting peace in the first half of the interwar years was difficult.
The Treaty of Versailles was hated by Germany.
France was isolated and fearful.
The United States turned its back on Europe's problems and Britain was undependable.
There was no one who could predict the future of Russia.
The international economic situation was poor due to war debts and disrupted trade.
From 1925 to 1929, it appeared that peace and stability were within reach.