There was opposition to women's suffrage from many different directions.
White men in the South were afraid that women would encourage enforcement of the Civil War amendments and give blacks political power.
If black women could vote, that would weaken the white male position.
The women's campaign was fought vigorously by the beer and liquor interests.
Industrial and business interests were opposed to sufficing because they were worried about labor legislation.
For some well-to-do women, the status quo was comfortable, and changing expectations about women's roles could only threaten that security.
The results of women's suffrage were disappointing to supporters in the immediate aftermath of the Nineteenth Amendment.
Blacks and immigrants were not allowed to vote in many parts of the country.
Most women lacked the money, political contacts, and experience to get involved in politics.
Women's political participation was adversely affected by general cultural attitudes.
The women's rights advocates were clear winners in the fight for women's rights, but it took a long time for all the benefits of victory to be realized.
The battle over the Equal Rights Amendment was to show how attitudes toward women were changing.
The constitutional protection against discrimination was not ensured by the Nineteenth Amendment.
The courts did not see the Fourteenth Amendment as applying to women as well as men.
On the basis of gender, it was not unconstitutional to treat people differently.
Some women's groups have been working for the passage of an Equal Rights Amendment that would ban discrimination on the basis of sex and guarantee women equal protection of the laws.
There were many different objections to the proposed amendment.
Traditionalists, both men and women, were against giving more power to the federal government.
Women and supporters of women's rights were worried that requiring laws to treat men and women the same would make women worse off.
Many social reformers worked for laws that would limit working hours or establish minimum wages for women, which are now in jeopardy.
Opponents feared that the laws preventing women from being drafted and sent into combat would be struck down.
Many laws in American society treat men and women differently, and few, if any, would survive under such an amendment.
On a fairly regular basis, the Congress proposed an Equal Rights Amendment.
With the Nineteenth Amendment headed toward finalratification, women began to sense the first signs of real political power.
The political omens were more hopeful in the 1960s about expanding women's rights.
The support for women's rights came from an unlikely quarter.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 was amended to include discrimination on the basis of gender in the hopes that it would doom the bill.
The bill was amended unexpectedly.
In 1967, the National Organization for Women was formed to promote women's rights.
The idea of expanding women's rights was supported by several pieces of legislation that passed in the seventies.
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 banned sex discrimination in schools receiving federal funds, which meant that schools had to provide girls with the equal opportunity and support to play sports in school.
Child care tax credits were provided by the Revenue Act of 1972.
Title IX of the Higher Education Act was passed in 1972 to end discrimination in athletic programs.
It has resulted in more sports programs for young women.
The women of the University of Connecticut have won the NCAA championship ten times.
The ERA was introduced in the House again in 1970 and this time it passed.
The Senate debated provisions that would have prevented women from being drafted.
The advocates of equal rights for women succeeded in defeating the changes.
On March 22, 1972, the Senate passed the ERA.
The Congress has the power to enforce the provisions of this article.
The amendment will take effect after two years.
The final version of the amendment was passed by both houses of Congress.
By early 1973, thirty states had approved the amendment.
The votes at the state level began to go the other way after public opinion polls showed support for the idea of giving constitutional protection to women's rights.
Only thirty-five states voted to approve the treaty by 1977.
The amendment died unratified despite the extension of the deadline from 1979 to 1982.
Although most people supported the idea of women's rights in the abstract, they weren't sure what the consequences of an amendment would be, and they feared the possibility of radical social change.
The Supreme Court struck down some laws that treated women differently from men using the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, something it had previously declined to do.