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16.3 The Second and Third Laws of Thermodynamics
There is a reason for your prediction.
We have identified a promising candidate for a property that can reliably predict the nature of a process.
The examples to the contrary are plentiful.
Consider the process of heat flow between two objects, one identified as the system and the other as the surroundings.
The hotter the object, the hotter the heat flows from it to the cooler object.
The increase in the universe's entropy is the result of this process.
The objects are cooler than the hotter one, and the heat goes from the cooler to the hotter one.
A decrease in the universe's instument is involved.
See the discussion from the previous section.
There is no change in the universe's entropy.
Table 16.1 has a summary of these three relations.
In comparison to the system, the surroundings are vast.
The heat gained or lost by the surroundings as a result of some process is a very small fraction of the total thermal energy.
Transferring heat from a system to surroundings that are larger than the earth's atmosphere is one way in which a fuel can be burned.
The process can be assessed by calculating the change of the universe.
This information can be used to determine if liquid water will spontaneously freeze.
Entropy is a state function and freezing is not.
At -10.00 degC nonspontaneous, +0.7 J/K.
The previous section described the contributions of matter and energy to the system.
At a temperature of absolute zero, 0 K, the entropy of a pure, perfectly crystalline solid is zero.
The Boltzmann equation states that the system is zero.
calorimetric measurements can be made to determine the temperature dependence of a substance and to derive absolute entropy values.
The balanced equation represents the process.
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