Desperate immigrant workers who were willing to take jobs at the prevailing wage were hired by business owners.
Several unions advocated for workers' rights at a national level.
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One of the largest gold and silver mines in America, the Comstock Lode, yielded more than $300 million over two decades.
This illustration shows a cutaway of the Comstock Lode, showing the complex network of shafts and supports, as well as the various tasks performed by miners.
The South and untamed West were the most distinctive parts of the nation after the Civil War.
They resided within powerful myths as much as physical regions.
frontiers for economic enterprise were provided by both.
While the South had to be rebuilt, the territories and states west of the Mississippi River were ripe for the development of farms, businesses, railroads, and towns.
In the Far West between the Mississippi River and California, bankers and financiers invested a lot.
Americans viewed the Great Plains as only suitable for Indians.
Western settlement and economic development was encouraged by the federal government after 1865.
In 1865, two thirds of Native Americans lived on the Great Plains.
The construction of transcontinental railroads, the military conquest of the Indians, and the policy of distributing 270 million acres of government- owned lands at little or no cost to settlers, including women, African Americans, and immigrants.
Millions of people were attracted to the west by free land and the chance to start a business.
The New South and the New West were explorers.
Eleven new states were created out of the western territories by 1900.
The South fought an ideological civil war after the Civil War.
Nostalgia for the Old South of white- columned plantations, white supremacy, and cotton- generated wealth for enslaved black people in the "Lost Cause." Southerners devastated by defeat found solace in the "Lost Cause."
No region has inspired a more tenacious pride of place.
The southerners lived in the present and dream of the future.
They were always looking back in the process of moving forward.
Some prominent southerners were more focused on the future.
The Old South agricultural economy, dominated by the planter elite, would be replaced by a society of small farms owned by blacks and whites.
The New South would have a growing industrial sector and harmonious race relations.
In 1886, Grady told an audience in New York City that the South had nothing to apologize for, even though the Union was saved and slavery was abolished.
The postwar South would no longer be dependent on cotton and slave labor, as claimed by Grady.
Many southerners shared the same vision.
They concluded that the Confederacy had lost the war because it relied too much on King Cotton.
The New South needed to follow the North's example and develop a strong industrial sector to complement its agricultural foundation.
New South advocates stressed that more efficient farming, which used the latest machinery and technical expertise, was essential, and that widespread Vocational training was needed.
They said that black people's acceptance of white supremacy would provide a stable social environment for economic growth.
The num ber of red brick cotton in the South increased from 161 to 400, the num ber of mill workers increased fivefold, and the demand for cotton products increased eightfold.
The South was the largest producer of cotton fabric in the nation by 1900.
Many poor people rushed to take jobs in the mil s. A dawn- to- dusk job in a mill paying 50C/ a day was more interesting than one- horse farming because you can meet your bil s.
Teachers, doctors, and ministers were hired by mill owners.
They created sports leagues.
Their paternalistic social system was meant to make workers feel safe and prevent them from organizing labor unions.
Tobacco growing and cigarette production increased.
The Duke family of Durham, North Carolina was at the forefront of the tobacco industry.
The New South and the New West took his barn load of tobacco, dried it, and traveled the state with the help of his two sons.
In 1872, the Dukes had a modern tobacco factory.
James Buchanan Duke was the son of Washington.
He spent a lot of money on advertising and cigarettes.
He cornered the supply of ingredients needed to make cigarettes.
He was close to becoming one of the wealthiest and most powerful men in the nation.
The use of other natural resources by American Tobacco helped the company.
The advertisement shows black workers in the tobacco fields from West Virginia to Alabama.
Rapid population growth as well as urban and industrial expansion created a need for housing.
After 1870, logging and lumber became the fastest-growing industry in the South.
The annual economic value of southern lumber was greater than that of textiles by 1900.
The South continued to lag behind the rest of the nation in educational and industrial development.
They were referred to as redeemers because they supposedly saved the South from Yankee domination.
Lawyers, merchants, railroad executives, and entrepreneurs were the redeemers.
They wanted to cut state taxes and expenditures for public school systems started after the war.
A Virginia gover claimed that schools are not a necessity.
Black children were affected by the cutbacks.
African Americans were not wanted by the redeemers.
The South in 1900 was the least industrial, educated, and prosperous region in the nation.
The South's per capita income was only 60 percent of the national average, and the region was dependent on the North for investment and manufactured goods.
Cotton never regained the profitability it had in the 1850s.
Black and white farmers in the south were earning less money because the world price for cotton had declined, but they were still producing as much cotton as they had before the war.
The hope was that by the end of the 19th century, southern farmers would own their own land.
It was more difficult to buy and own land because of the decline in crop prices.
70 percent of farmers didn't own the land they worked.
People had to operate with little or no cash after the Civil War because few southern communities had banks.
Many rural areas adopted a barter economy in which a crossroads merchant would give food, clothing, seed, and other items to poor farmers on credit in exchange for a share of their crops when harvest occurs.
The farms owned by most southerners were small.
Those who owned farms had to pledge a portion of their future crop to the merchant in exchange for supplies, clothing, and food.
The system was self-destructive.
The soil was stripped of its fertility and stability when it was planted with cotton or tobacco.
Topsoil washed into nearby creek and created ravines.
Croppers and tenants were required to grow a "cash crop" exclusively, usually cotton or tobacco.
Croppers and tenants had to get their food from the local merchant in exchange for promised cotton if they wanted to grow their own vegetable gardens.
Sharecroppers pick cotton while their white overseer watches.
Most farmers didn't own the land they worked, so they had little incentive to enrich the soil or maintain buildings and equipment.
After the Civil War, the crop- liens system was used to enslave poor white people as well as black.
The merchant decides what crop will be planted and how it will be sold.
Croppers and tenants struggled to survive in both good and bad times.
The people who worked the farms were suspicious of their land lords, who often cheated them by not giving them their fair share of the crops.
The South had more sharecroppers than other parts of the country.
The cropper or tenant received nothing but a larger debt to be rolled over to the next year's crop.
Over time, the high inter est charged on the credit offered by the local store or landowner, coupled with sagging prices received for cotton and other crops, created a cycle of debt among small farmers, sharecroppers, and share tenants.
In 1900, the average annual income of white southerners was half that of whites outside the South.
The illiteracy rate for whites in the South was twice the national average.
9 million former slaves and their children were the region's poor.
The per capita black income in 1900 was a third of what it was for whites, and the black illiteracy rate was five times higher.
Race relations were affected by the plight of southern farmers.
During the 1890s, white farmers and politicians demanded that black people be stripped of their civil rights.
"Negrophobia" swept across the South and much of the nation.
The revival of the idea that the Anglo- Saxons were superior to black people was one of the reasons for the new wave of racism.
Many whites resented any signs of African American financial success and political influence.
A new generation of African Americans were determined to gain complete equality by the 1890s.
"We are not the Negro from whom the chains of slavery fell a quarter century ago," the black editor said.
Blacks were stripped of their voting rights in Mississippi.
The residence requirement for voting in the Mis sissippi Plan of 1890 was put in place to discourage African Ameri farmers from moving each year in search of economic opportunities.
Mississippi disqualified black people from voting if they had committed certain crimes.
In order to vote, people had to have paid all taxes on time, a restriction that hurt both poor blacks and poor whites.
All voters had to be able to read the U.S. Constitution.
The white registrars decided who satisfied the requirement.
The Mississippi Plan was different in other states.
Louisiana's "grandfather clause" allowed whites to vote if their fathers or grandfathers had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867, when African Americans were still not allowed to vote.
Georgia, North Carolina, Virginia, Alabama, and Oklahoma incorporated the grandfather clause by 1910.
Every southern state created a Democratic primary process to select candidates.
African American voters were excluded from most of the primaries.
White Democratic candidates turned to violence and fraud when "legal" means were not enough to ensure their political dom inance.
He gained the support of poor whites with his racist comments.
The black vote was effectively eliminated by him and his follow ers.
He admitted that they have done their best to prevent black people from voting.
We put the boxes in the freezer.
Government-sanctioned bigotry was elevated to an official way of life in the South by the end of the 19th century due to widespread racial discrimination.
The black vote was suppressed.
Louisiana had 130,000 black voters in 1896 and only 5,320 in 1900.
In Alabama in 1900, 121,158 black men were literate, but only 3,752 were registered to vote.
The white vote in the South went up by 26 percent, while the black vote went down by 62 percent.
At the same time that southern blacks were being pushed out of the political arena, they were also being segregated.
The railroad passenger car was the symbolic first target.
The federal Civil Rights Act was violated by any local or state law requiring racial segregation.
The Civil Rights Act of 1875 was ruled unconstitutional by the U.S. Supreme Court in 1884.
Justice Joseph P wrote an opinion.
The 13th and 14th Amendments did not give Congress the authority to pass laws dealing with racial discrimination.
The judges explained that the Four teenth Amendment made it clear that no State could deny citizens equal protection of the law.
Justice John Marshall Harlan dissented from the Court's decision.
The Kentuckian who once owned slaves but was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The violent excesses of the Ku Klux Klan convinced him to rethink his attitudes after the war.
He was appointed to the Supreme Court by the President in 1877.
The 13th and 14th Amendments, as well as the Civil Rights Act of 1875, were designed to ensure that African Americans had the same access to public facilities as whites.
He insisted that the federal government had both the authority and the responsibility to protect citizens from actions that deprive them of their civil rights.
The badges and incidents of slavery would remain if citizens and enterprises were allowed to practice racial discrimination.
The Civil Rights Cases left an open question about the validity of state laws requiring segregating public facilities under the principle of "separate but equal," a slogan popular in the South.
Railroad passengers in Florida, Tennessee, Texas, and Mississippi were required to ride in separate cars.
African ancestry), refused to leave a whites- only railroad car and was convicted of violating the law.
The court ruled that states have the right to create laws segregating public places.
John Marshall Harlan was the only justice to dissent, he said that the Constitution is color blind and doesn't tolerate classes among citizens.
The security of personal liberty was added to by the Fourteenth Amendment.
The color line cannot be obliterated because God Almighty drew it.
"Jim Crow" laws were the name of the new regulations.
"Jump Jim Crow" was a song and dance caricature of African Americans made popular in the 1830s by Thomas Rice, a New York comedian who wore blackface.
The signs reading "whites only" or "colored only" above the water fountains were signs of the Jim Crow system.
Smith was found guilty of murdering a white girl in Texas.
The townsfolk kept Smith's charred teeth and bones as souvenirs.
Racist customs were revived after the Civil War.
Blacks were expected to step aside and let whites pass if they walked along the sidewalk.
There were separate funeral homes for black and white people.
The Jim Crow laws were accompanied by violence.
The United States had an average of 188 racial lynchings per year from 1890 to 1899.
A black man is accused of a crime, often rape.
White mobs would kill the accused.
Large crowds, including women and children, would watch.
In the late 1890s, a violent white supremacy movement emerged in the coastal port town of Wilmington, North Carolina, with about 20,000 residents.
It was a real threat.
The morning of November 10, 1898, some 2,000 white men and teens rampaged through the city's streets.
African American business leaders and elected officials were forced to resign and board trains after the mob declared that Colonel Waddell was the new mayor.
The declaration of white independence stripped black people of their jobs and voting rights.
Desperate black residents appealed to the gover but received no help.
It was the first time in the United States that a lawful elected municipal govern ment had been overthrown.
The South was conquered by white supremacy by the end of the 19th century.
Some African Americans left in search of opportunity.
The people who resisted white supremacy were suppressed.
Sarah Barnett fought back when Mrs. Pines struck her with a stick.
She was convicted of assault and jailed.
Ann Beston, a black domestic servant, killed her mistress in Rome, Georgia.
She was lynched by a mob.
Most African Americans had to adjust to the realities of white supremacy.
James Plunkett, a Virginian, said that he had to walk a quiet life.
When shopping at white- owned stores, black people had to wear a mask of deference and behave in a "servile" way.
News of lynchings, burnings, and beatings reminded them of the dangers they faced.
Richard Wright remembered how in his native Missis, the "sustained expectation of violence" at the hands of whites caused a "paralysis of will and impulse" in him and others.
His speech, movements, and manners were affected by it.
Accommodated did not mean surrender.
African Americans created their own culture.
Blacks were able to use public buildings for large gatherings, such as club meetings, political rallies, and social events, because churches were the only public buildings they could use.
Church leadership roles and political status were offered to men.
Being a deacon is one of the most prestigious roles a black man can achieve.
In white churches, the men preached and the women did everything else.
Religious life gave comfort to people who were worn down by the daily hardship and abuses associated with segregation.
The Reverend Benja min Mays said that he and his black neighbors in South Carolina believed that the world would end when one got to heaven.
Jim Crow segregation opened up new economic opportunities for African Americans.
Black entrepreneurs provided essential services to the black community.
Black people formed their own clubs and organizations that provided opportunities for service and fellowship.
Middle- class African American women formed a network of social clubs that served as engines of community service.
They cared for the aged, infirm, orphans, and abandoned, provided homes for single mothers and nurseries for working mothers, and sponsored health clinics and classes in home economics.
The National Association of Colored Women was formed in 1896.
African American women said that black men weren't giving enough leadership.
One of the most outspoken African American activists was Ida B. Wel s., who was born into slavery and attended a school staffed by white missionaries.
She gained entrance to the social life of the African American middle class after moving to Memphis, Tennessee.
Wel s became the first African American to file a suit after losing her seat on a railroad car because she was black.
The Tennessee Supreme Court overturned the circuit court's decision to fine the railroad.
She discovered that journalism was her only love and that she used to fight for justice.
After three of her friends were lynched by a white mob, Wel launched a crusade against lynching.
Angry whites destroyed her office and threatened to lynch her.
She moved to Chicago where she continued to criticize Jim Crow laws and fought for black voting rights.
She worked for women's suffrage and helped found the National Association for the Advance ment of Colored People.
While raising four, Wells found herself in direct opposition to children.
Booker T. Washington, the son of a black mother and a white father, was born a slave in Virginia in 1856 and went to college at the age of sixteen.
Washington listened and learned.
Nine years later, a group in northern Alabama requested the start of a black college.
The college needed a president, and was urged to hire Washington by Armstrong.
Washington went to work after getting the job.
The first buildings had to be made from bricks.
As the years went by, the college became known for it's dedication to discipline and training.
Washington gathered gifts from wealthy whites, most of them northerners.
The complicated racial dynamics of the late nineteenth century required him to walk a tight rope between being candid and being an effective college president.
He hid his militancy to maintain the support of whites.
The prag matic Washington was a source of hope and inspiration for millions of blacks.
He argued that African Americans should be the nation's most prominent leader because he wanted to please his white donors.
They should work hard and not cause trouble.
Their priority should be self improvement.
Washington told them to start at the bottom, not as social activists.
Washington's emphasis on economic self-sufficiency did not satisfy many white racists.
Washington didn't listen to critics.
He told the African American community not to migrate to northern states or to other nations but to cast down their water bucket in order to have friends.
He warned that fighting for social equality and directly challenging white rule would backfire.
African Americans needed to become self sufficient.
Civil rights would have to wait.
Some African American leaders disagreed with Booker T. Washington's strategy.
Washington's foremost rival was Du Bois.
Du Bois was a student at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee, when he first experienced racial prejudice.
He was the first African American to earn a degree from Harvard.
He authored more than twenty books.
He explored how double consciousness set black people apart.
After teaching at Atlanta University, Du Bois launched a public attack on Booker T. Washington's strategy for improving the quality of life for African Americans.
Du Bois said that African American leaders should use a strategy of "ceaseless agitation" to ensure the right to vote and win civil equality.
He maintained that the education of black people should be comparable to that of the white elite and that it should help develop bold leaders willing to challenge Jim Crow segregation and discrimination.
The dispute between Washington and Du Bois defined the tensions that would divide the twentieth century civil rights movement.
Washington secretly worked to challenge segregation, stop brutal lynchings, and increase funding for public schools, but Du Bois and others didn't know about it.
He was afraid that public activism would lead to violence against himself and others.
Washington wanted his students to believe in a better future.
The West has always been a region wrapped in myths and stereotypes, reinforced by popular novels, movies, and television shows.
There are majestic mountains, roaring rivers, deep- sculpted canyons, searing deserts, grassy plains, and dense forests in the vast land west of the Mississippi River.
Indians, Mexicans, Asians, farmers, ranchers, trappers, miners, and Mormons are scattered through its plains, valleys, and mountains.
Between 1870 and 1900, Americans settled more land in the West than they had in the past.
The New West came to symbolize economic opportunity and personal freedom as a third of the nation lived west of the Mississippi River by 1900.
The economic exploitation of the West was a story of irresponsible behavior and abuse of nature that scarred the land, decimated its wildlife, and nearly wiped out Native American culture.
Farmers and their families spread west across the Great Plains after midcentury.
From California, miners moved eastward to Utah and Nevada.
From Texas, nomadic cowboys migrated northward each year to the plains and the Great Basin of Utah and Nevada.
The challenges faced by the settlers were vastly different from those they had left behind.
The axe, log cabin, rail fence, and traditional methods of tilling the soil were useless because of the lack of rain and trees in the Great Plains.
For a long time, the region had been called the Great American Desert, and it was the perfect refuge for Indians who refused to accept the white way of life.
The view changed in the last half of the 19th century.
With the completion of the transcontinental railroads, the diminishing threat of Indian violence, and a seemingly unlimited supply of natural resources, it became clear that the New West held the key to national prosperity.
Capitalists made huge profits investing in western mines, cattle, railroads, buffalo hides, and commercial farms.
The Great American Desert was fruitful after the development of new techniques of dry farming and irrigation.