Judicial restraint is a court that maintains the status quo.
The Marbury v Madison decision gave the Supreme Court the power to interpret the Constitution.
The Senate committee that recommends judicial appointments to the full Senate is called the Judiciary committee.
At the national nominating convention, the keynote address outlines the themes of the campaign.
A philosophy of nongovernment intervention in economic matters such as regulation of business or establishing tariffs is called an economic philosophy.
The term "lame duck" refers to an officeholder who is either defeated or retiring from the office in which he is serving, but is still in office until his successor is sworn in.
Landslide is an election where the winning candidate gets more than 60 percent of the votes cast.
Federalism is characterized by a national government exercising its power.
The Supreme Court ruled that the legislative veto provision was unconstitutional.
There are publications that print false information about an individual.
A Liberal believes in higher taxes and a smaller military.
Jefferson adopted limited government, which restricts the power of government in order to protect the rights of the people.
The line item veto allows the president to veto unnecessary spending items.
The Supreme Court ruled that it was unconstitutional.
Individuals can express preferences regarding the development of public policy through a linkage institution.
Political parties, special interest groups and the media are examples of linkage institutions.
After the Civil War, southern states passed literacy laws that were declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Lobbyists are the primary instruments of fostering a special interest group's goals.
The term comes from people who are waiting in the lobbies of legislative bodies for senators and representatives to come and go from the floor.
The majority leader is selected by the political party and holds a majority of the seats in the House and Senate.
The majority of justices heard a case.
Budget items that must be allocated are called mandatory spending.
Social Security, Medicare, Medicaid, payment on the national debt, and certain components of defense spending are mandatory in the federal budget.
During the New Deal, marble cake federalism was developed and is characterized by the federal government becoming more intrusive in what was traditionally states' powers.
John Marshall's tenure as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court resulted in landmark decisions such as Marbury v Madison.
The power of these cases was shifted to the judiciary.
After World War II, the Secretary of State, George C. Marshall, developed the Marshall Plan, which gave massive aid to help rebuild Europe.
Mass media reach a large segment of the population.
One of the linkage institutions is it.
Federal funds are given to presidential candidates that match private donations raised during the campaign.
The case established that the federal government was supreme over the state.
Significant representation changes to the Democratic Party were brought about by the McGovern-Frasier Commission.
Future conventions were made more democratic by including more minority representation.
One of the institutions that connects citizens to groups that influence public policy is the media.
Print and broadcast journalism are represented by the old media.
The new media includes social sites like Facebook.
Medicaid is a program that covers hospital and nursing home costs for low-income people.
Medicare covers hospital and medical costs of people 65 years of age and older as well as disabled individuals receiving Social Security.
A minority of seats in the House and Senate are held by people who are selected by the political party.
A minority opinion is a dissent written by a justice in the losing side of a Supreme Court decision.
If the accused cannot afford a lawyer, they have the right to consult with one at any time during the process.
Raising or lowering interest rates are policies developed by the Federal Reserve Board to create and maintain a healthy economy.
The Motor Voter Act of 1993 allows people to register to vote at motor vehicle departments.
State and national party leaders make up the national committee.
Each major political party chooses its candidate for president and vice president at a national convention.
The governing authority of the political party is the national nominating convention.
They give direction to the chairperson of the national party, the spokesman of the party, and the person who heads the national committee.
Presidential candidates are given the official nod by their parties in these forums.
The National Security Council is the lead advisory board in the area of national and international security.
The other members of the council are the vice president, secretaries of state and defense, director of the Central Intelligence Agency, and chair of the joint chiefs of staff.
Nationalization of the Bill of Rights is a judicial doctrine that applied the Bill of Rights to the states in matters such as segregation.
Locke believed in natural rights, which include life, liberty, and property.
The term New Democrat was created by the Democratic Leadership Council in 1992.
Ronald Reagan carried out new federalism, a political theory first advocated by Richard Nixon.
The devolution of power to the states is advocated by new federalism.
The first-in-the-nation presidential vote in New Hampshire is a secret ballot where registered voters and nonaffiliated Independents can vote.
At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, the New Jersey Plan was offered.
President Bush's vision for world peace centered around the United States taking the lead to ensure that aggression be dealt with by a mutual agreement of the United Nations, NATO, and other countries acting in concert.
Party delegates from caucus and primary votes are used to pick the party's candidate for president and vice president at a convention.
Voters can choose delegates who are not bound to vote for the winning candidate in a preferential primary.
Natural resources such as oil are limited due to consumption.
The act prohibited employers from punishing workers who joined unions and gave labor the right to form unions.
The North American Free Trade Agreement called for dramatic reductions of tariffs among the United States, Canada, and Mexico.
The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty of 1968 stopped the spread of nuclear weapons to countries that did not have the bomb.
The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 gave the Nuclear Regulatory Commission jurisdiction to license and regulate the commercial use of nuclear technologies.
The Nuclear Test Ban Treaty was signed in 1963.
The director of the Office of Management and Budget is responsible for the preparation of the massive federal budget, which must be submitted to the Congress in January each year.
The OMB is in charge of congressional appropriations.
An oral argument is a legal argument made by an attorney to a court in order to persuade them to make a decision in their client's favor.
Pardon is the power to excuse an offense without penalty.
In 1993 President Clinton announced a policy that allowed for gradual admission into NATO of new member nations from the former Warsaw Pact and gave associate status to Russia.
The party conference is a means for each party to develop a strategy or position on a particular issue.
A time period characterized by national dominance by one political party.
The era of good feeling, the Republican era following the Civil War, and the Democratic era following the election of Franklin Roosevelt are the four major party eras in American history.
Party identification is the way in which a person is associated with a political party.
Party machine is a party organization that uses patronage to keep its members in line.
Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall are examples.
The ideological point of view of a political party is represented by the party platforms.
A major shift in the political spectrum is caused by the movement of voters from one political party to another.
Party regulars are usually active in the organization of a political party and support party positions.
There are photo opportunities.
Any principles contained in a political party's platform are called plank.
The case ruled that states have the right to impose separate but equal facilities on their citizens as well as create other laws that separate the races.
A group theory that involves different groups vying for control of the policy agenda.
The groups had to compromise because no single group emerged.
In a race with more than two candidates, the winning number of votes is less than half of the total votes cast.
If the president does not sign a bill within 10 days, the Congress also adjourns.
The Tenth Amendment gives police power to the states.
Political action committees make contributions to political campaigns on behalf of the special interest group.
The person is a political consultant.
Political consultants include James Carville and Karl Rove.
The fundamental values that people have about their government translate into voting patterns.
There are different ways an average citizen can get involved in the political process, ranging from conventional means of influencing government to more radical unconventional tools that have influenced our elected officials.
The aim of the political party is to get candidates elected in order to develop and implement public policy.
An organization that is responsible to the electorate and has a role in government is what it is.
The factors that determine voting behavior are family, religion, and ethnic background.
Who gets what, when, how, and why.
The Twenty-Fourth Amendment to the Constitution made it illegal to impose a poll tax as a condition to vote, and it had the effect of preventing African-Americans from voting.
Government is created by and subject to the will of the people according to popular sovereignty.
Pork barrel legislation is the practice of legislators getting funds through legislation that favors their home districts.
The preamble outlines the goals of the document.
Precedent, also known as stare decisis, is a legal concept in which earlier court decisions serve as models in justifying decisions in subsequent cases.
Presidential primary elections are held in individual states to determine the preference of the voters and to allocate the number of delegates to the national convention.
The government subsidizes farmers to not grow certain crops and also buys food directly and stores it, rather than letting the oversupply in the market bring the prices down.
The actions of a governmental body can result in the suppression of written material.
In the "Pentagon Papers" case, President Nixon asked for an injunction to stop the publication of the confidential Defense Department documents by The New York Times.
Privileges and immunities guarantee that the rights of a citizen in one state will be respected by other states.
The Fourteenth Amendment protects citizens from abuses by a state.
The rights of the accused at every step of the investigation are protected by procedural due process.
A progressive tax is a tax based on the amount of money an individual earned.
Public opinion polls are used to gauge public preference of candidates and issues.
Public policy is the final action taken by the government.
Independent regulatory agencies give judicial power to interpret regulations they create.
Independent regulatory agencies have legislative powers that allow them to issue regulations.
A ranking committee member is a senior member of the minority party who works closely with the committee chair to decide on committee business.
Reagan Democrats were traditional Democratic middle-class voters.
The process in which a state legislature draws congressional districts is called reapportionment.
Each state should have the same number of seats in the House based on the census.
cess appointment is a presidential appointment made when the Congress is not in session that usually lacks enough votes in the Senate for confirmation.
The position must be confirmed by the Senate by the end of the next Congress.
It is difficult to get answers from a bureaucratic agency.
Redistricting is a process that takes place every ten years and is mandated by the federal census.
The practice of submitting to popular vote a measure proposed by a legislative body is called a referendum.
A sales tax is imposed on individuals regardless of how much they earn.
Protection of the environment and consumer protection are examples of regulatory policy.
William Rehnquist was confirmed as the 16th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court after Warren Burger retired in 1986.
He was known as a conservative jurist and his stewardship over the court reflected his conservative tendencies.
Many of the religious right's activists support the Republican Party.
Natural resources such as solar energy can be used again.
Representative democracy is a form of government that relies on the consent of the people.
The Republican Party came to power after Lincoln's election.
One of the two major political parties is it.
The Tenth Amendment gives states powers not delegated to the national government.
Affirmative action programs can be used to claim reverse discrimination.
An example is Alan Bakke.
Sometimes riders that are in the form of appropriations have nothing to do with the intent of the bill itself and are considered to be pork barrel legislation.
Rule of four is a judicial concept that requires the approval of at least four justices before a case can be heard on appeal.
One of the most important committees of the House of Representatives is the Rules Committee, which creates specific rules for every bill to be debated by the full House.
A safe seat is an elected official who has an easy reelection because of his incumbency or the political makeup of the district.
A safety net is a minimum government guarantee that helps people living in poverty.
Sampling error is a statistical error that is inherent in the polling process.
The principles found in the Declaration of Independence are contained in the Second Treatise of Civil Government.
Special investigations are conducted by congressional committees.
The Watergate Committee and Iran-Contra investigators were Senate committees.
The Senate has the authority to approve appointments made by the president.
The senatorial courtesy policy gives senators the right to be notified of pending judicial nominations.
Once the senators from the state in which the judge comes are informed, the appointment process moves on.
Supreme Court justice nominations do not apply to this courtesy.
Seniority guarantees that those who serve in office the longest get preferential treatment.
In Congress, the representatives who serve the longest are given priority in committee assignments.
The equal protection provision of the Fourteenth Amendment was used by states to establish segregation.
The separation of church and state is a part of the First Amendment to the Constitution.
Montesquieu wrote The Spirit of Natural Laws during the Enlightenment and James Madison used it in Federalist No.
The legislative, executive, and judicial branches of the government were established because of this important doctrine.
There are shared powers between the federal and state governments.
Taxation is a shared power.
Daniel Shays, a farmer who lost his property, tried to revolt against the state government.
At the time the president signs a bill into law, he makes a signing statement that allows him to give an interpretation of the intent of the law.
More than 2 million illegal aliens have been allowed to apply for legal status since the Simpson-Marzzoli Act was enacted.
Slander is the act of giving false information or defaming the character of an individual.
Soccer mom is a term used in the 1996 presidential election to refer to those suburban women who supported Clinton because he articulated their values.
Aid to Dependent Children is paid for by the federal government.
Soft money is legal campaign contributions that are intended for party development.
Abuses of soft money contributions were discovered during the 1996 election.
The Democratic Party had domination in the South after the Civil War.
Ronald Reagan was elected President in 1980 and the Republicans gained control of the Congress in 1994.
The evening news shows and Sunday morning talk shows feature sound bites from politicians.
Speaker of the House is the representative from the majority party in the House of Representatives who sets the House agenda, presides over House meetings, recognizes speakers, refers bills to committees, answers procedural questions, and declares the outcome of votes.
Spin doctor is a name given to political consultants who try to shape the story or actions of their clients to the media in a positive way.
Standing committees deal with proposed bills and act in an oversight function.
The House Ways and Means and Senate Appropriations are permanent.
The concept of stare decisis,Latin for judicial precedent, originated in England in the 12th century.
The president is required to deliver an annual report to Congress regarding the current state of the nation.
The State of the Union address is delivered by the president in the form of a speech before a joint session of Congress.
A straw vote is used to determine the views of a small section of voters.
Strict constructionists believe in a conservative interpretation of the Constitution.
A stump speech is a speech given by a candidate on the campaign trail that contains the candidate's key talking points and is meant to drive home the candidate's message.
Substantive due process is a legal process that places limits on the government's power to make laws.
African-Americans in the Fourteenth Amendment and women in the Nineteenth Amendment have the right to vote.
Government entities are not allowed to conduct business in private session and meetings are open to the public.
A number of primary votes take place on Super Tuesday.
Democratic Party leaders and elected party officials are automatically selected as delegates to the National Convention.
The Supreme Court has interpreted symbolic speech as a guarantee of free speech under the First Amendment.
The act outlawed the closed union shop and certain kinds of strikes, allowed the use of injunctions to stop union activities, and gave employers more rights.
The act gave the president the right to prevent a strike by an entire industry, such as the steel or auto industry, if it would endanger the nation's health and safety.
Talking heads are politicians who use sound bites or other means to present a superficial look at a policy position rather than an in-depth approach in explaining their views.
Political parties can be described as ideological, single-issue oriented, economically motivated, and personality driven.
The Free Soil Party, Know-Nothings, Populist, and Bull Moose Parties are examples.
The Reform Party was founded in 1996 by Ross Perot.
Thirty-second spots are paid political ads.
The delegates at the Constitutional Convention adopted Three-Fifths Compromise and counted every five slaves as three people for tax purposes.
Voters choose a candidate from one political party for one office and another from a different party for another office.
Tracking polls are polls conducted by media outlets to gauge the potential outcome of a political election.
There are trial balloons that are meant to test the political waters.
The criteria for presidential selection and presidential disability are outlined in the Twenty-Fifth Amendment.
The government is controlled by two political parties.
Democrats and Republicans have dominated elections in the United States because of the winner-take-all electoral system.
The doctrine of natural rights gives rise to unalienable rights such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
The Supreme Court made a unanimous decision.
The Court made a unanimous decision.
When conventional means fail, people get involved in the political process through unconventional political participation.
Unfunded mandates are regulations passed by Congress or issued by regulatory agencies to the states without federal funds.
A unitary system of government is a type of government in which the powers of government are centralized.
All qualified adults have the right to vote.
Traditions, precedent, and practice are incorporated into our form of government that add to the Constitution's elasticity.
Political parties, the president's cabinet, political action committees, and the federal bureaucracy are some of the important examples.
The president has the power to prevent the enactment of legislation.
A two-thirds majority vote of each house is required to overrule a presidential veto.
The delegates to the Constitutional Convention were urged to create a legislature based on the population of each state.
The Voting Rights Act made the Fifteenth Amendment a reality.
The federal government would direct any state that didn't eliminate the poll tax and literacy requirements to do so.
The establishment of racially gerrymandered congressional districts occurred in the 1980s and 1990s.
The National Labor Relations Act of 1935 gave workers involved in interstate commerce the right to organize labor unions and prevented employers from discriminating against labor leaders.
The War Powers Act states that a president can only commit the military if there is a declaration of war by the Congress, if there is a national emergency, or if the use of force is in the national interest of the United States.
Earl Warren is best known for the court's unanimous decision in Brown v Board of Education after he took office.
His court had a reputation of being liberal and activist.
Watergate refers to the office complex in Washington, D.C., where members of the committee to reelect Richard Nixon broke into the offices of the Democratic Party's national headquarters.
The scandal eventually led to Nixon's resignation.
Change of control in one or both houses of Congress is one of the outcomes of a wave election.
The 2008 presidential election, in which one party took control of the presidency and both houses of Congress, is an example of a wave election.
The whips check with party members and inform the majority leader of the status and feelings of the membership regarding issues that are going to be voted on.
Whips are responsible for keeping party members in line and having an accurate count of who will be voting for or against a particular bill.
The White House staff is managed by the White House Chief of Staff who directly advises the president on a daily basis.
The political offices of the Office of Communications, Legislative Affairs, Political Affairs, and Intergovernmental Affairs are some of the key staff departments.
The support services of Scheduling, Personnel, and Secret Service and the policy offices of the National Security Affairs, Domestic Policy Affairs, and cabinet secretaries are included.
Workfare is an alternative to traditional welfare where an individual is trained to work.
The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development provides monetary assistance to nations for the development of industries and aims to stimulate economic growth of third-world nations.
The process in which the Supreme Court accepts written briefs on appeal is called a writ of certiorari.