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40.1 Animal Hormones -- Part 1
The metabolism of a cell changes when it has a nuclear receptor.
In this chapter, you will learn how hormones affect the body.
You'll see how the endocrine system works when it's functioning properly.
The human body has a number of hormones.
The mechanisms of action of hormones.
The nervous and endocrine systems work together.
Both systems use chemical signals to respond to changes.
They have different ways of delivering these signals.
The release of a neurotransmitter is caused by nerve impulses passing along an axon.
The neurotransmitter causes the wall of an arteriole to relax.
Communication is dependent on nerve signals and neurotransmitters.
A neurotransmitter is released across the short distance of a synapse.
The nervous system responds quickly to stimuli.
If theStimulus is an external event that endangers our safety, we can move quickly to avoid being hurt.
The endocrine system is made up of glands.
It takes time to deliver hormones, and it takes time for cells to respond, but the effect is longer lasting.
The endocrine system is organized for a slower but longer response.
The hormones they produce are depicted.
The heart, the gastrointestinal tract, and the kidneys produce hormones, but not as a primary function of these organs.
There is a difference between the exocrine and the endocrine glands in the body.
The salivary ducts send saliva into the mouth.
metabolism, growth, reproduction, osmoregulation, and digestion are some of the functions hormones influence.
It is not surprising that hormones are produced by animals.
In insects and molluscs, there are signs of an early evolutionary origin of the hormone insulin, which is a key regulator of metabolism.
Some processes that are unique to Page 748 are controlled by hormones.
New uses for the same hormones can be produced by evolution.
Variable hormone functions can be seen in animals.
In this chapter, you'll see that all vertebrates have the ability to increase metabolism.
A surge of hormones seems to promote the transformation of tadpoles into adults.
In mammals, the hormone prolactin stimulates milk production, in reptiles it stimulates skin pigmentation, and in birds it stimulates eggs.
Only certain cells can respond to a specific hormone.
A target cell has a binding agent for a hormone.
The way a key fits a lock is determined by the way the hormone and receptor protein bind together.
The cell responds to the hormone.
The bloodstream contains most hormones to target cells.
As a key fits a lock, the hormone combines with the target cell's receptors.
Although their influence has been difficult to prove in humans, pheromones have been documented in several animal species.
Women who live in the same household tend to have the same menstrual cycles as other women in the household.
Studies show that women prefer the smell of t-shirts worn by men with different MHC types.
There are a wide range of hormones that affect cells.
Some hormones cause target cells to increase their absorption of a particular molecule.
The target cell's structure is altered by others.
In this section, we look at what happens in muscle cells after the hormone epinephrine is binding to a receptor in the plasma membrane.
In muscle cells, the reception of epinephrine leads to the breakdown of the energy source.
In this example, epinephrine acts as the first messenger, binding to specific receptors.
The second messengers influence various cellular processes.
The molecule is long.
The cascade of reactions that follow the formation of cAMP is called the signaling cascade.
Every step of the cascade becomes more involved with the use of the enzyme because it can be used over and over again.
Many molecules of glycogen are broken down by the bloodstream.
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