The complex societies examined in this chapter emerged later than those in Mesopotamia, Egypt, and the Indus Valley and in more varied ecological conditions, sometimes independently, under the influence of older centers.
Most of the new civilizations discussed in this chapter were shaped by networks of long-distance trade, unlike the older river-valley civilizations who were largely self-sufficient.
In Nubia, the first complex society in tropical Africa continued to develop from the roots observed earlier.
These societies had no contact with one another, and they represent a variety of responses to different environmental and historical circumstances.
They all point to a distinct stage in the development of human societies.
Neolithic cultures developed as early as 8000 b.c.e.
The first and second centuries b.c.e.
saw the evolution of a more complex civilization.
Classical Chinese civilization spread across East Asia under the rule of the Shang and Zhou dynasties.
There is a desert to the north and a grassy hills to the northwest.
The Pacific Ocean is to the east.
Although China's separation was not complete, it was still distinctive because of its people and ideas moving back and forth between China, India, and Central Asia.
It is difficult to travel overland in East Asia because of the mountains.
The east-west movement is aided by rivers and their tributaries.
A rich variety of plant and animal life can be found in the climate zones of East Asia, from the dry, subarctic reaches of Manchuria in the north to the lush, subtropical forests of the south.
The north and south of the eastern agricultural zone are quite different.
The kinds of crops grown and the organization of agricultural labor were developed in each region.
The most beneficial time for agriculture in southern China is in the summer when the monsoons affect India and Southeast Asia.
In northern China the rain is more erratic.
Chinese civilization developed in a relatively adverse environment on the northern plains, which stimulated important technologies and political traditions as well as the philosophy and religious views that became hallmarks of Chinese civilization.
The political and intellectual center moved south due to the gradual flow of population towards the warmer southern lands.
Light silt is deposited by wind and water.
The fertile soil of metals and potentially productive land can be found in the eastern river valleys and North China Plain.
A thick mantle of soil has accumulated over the years and is fertile and soft enough to be worked with wooden digging sticks.
In this landscape, large numbers of people were involved in agriculture.
The forests had to be cleared.
Earthen dikes were built to protect fields from floods on the Yellow River.
To cope with the occasional dry spell, water was dug up to be stored.
Flat arable terraces were partitioned into hillsides by retaining walls.
The staple crops in the northern region were millet and wheat, which had spread from the Middle East to East Asia.
The rise of Olmec civilization was centered on San Lorenzo 1000 B.C.E.
The rise of kingdom civilization in the Andes is based on the writings of Napata 712-660 b.c.e.
500 B.C.E., ascen dancy of Olmec and Tres Zapotes decline.
Celtic elites traded 500 years ago.
The Celts sacked Rome around 347 b.c.e.
The Kingdom of Meroe flourished in the valley.
It took a lot of labor to cultivate rice.
Rice paddies must be flat and surrounded by water channels to bring and lead away water according to a precise schedule.
The paddy is flooded after the seedlings grow in a nursery.
Flooding supports organisms that keep the soil fertile.
When the crop is ripe, the paddy is drained, the rice stalks are cut and the kernels are separated.
The reward for this effort is a harvest that can feed more people than any other grain, which explains why the south became more populous than the north.
The Neolithic population of China grew millet, raised pigs and chickens, and used stone tools.
The pottery was fired in high temperature kilns.
They pioneered the production of silk cloth by raising silkworms on the leaves of mulberry trees.
The early rulers of China were depicted as ideal and benevolent masters.
The rise of the Shang is the beginning of Chinese history because scholars are unsure about the histori people in the earliest reality of the Xia.
Since written doc have written records.
The documents are from the B.C.E.
The king, his court, and religious practices are the focus of the writing on the oracle bones.
The tombs of the ruling class of the Shang were treasure-filled.
The Shang writing system used several hundred characters, which were originally pictures of objects that became simplified over time, with each character representing a one-syllable word for an object or idea.
The system is likely used by a small number of people.
The system still used in China and elsewhere in East Asia is the descendant of the Shang writing system.
Thousands of characters in Chinese writing give information about the meaning of the word and its sound.
The major features of the religion were reconstructed from the oracle bones.
The spirits of dead people live in the same sphere as Di and other gods of nature.
The social hierarchy on earth is mirrored by the heavenly hierarchy of ancestral spirits.
Di can be interceded with by the Shang ruler's more recent ancestors, who have access to earlier generations.
The ruler has access to higher powers that allow him to promote agricultural productivity and protect his people from natural disasters.
This belief, which persisted throughout Chinese history, has been an effective rationale for authoritarian rule.
The king traveled to the courts of his subordinates to reinforce their loyalty, but it is not known how much of the North China Plain was controlled by the Shang.
The products of independent groups are what A are.
These vessels were often buried in tombs.
The warrior class of the Shang elite enjoyed warfare, hunting, exchanging gifts, and drinking.
They fought with bronze weapons and rode into battle on horse-drawn chariots.
The warriors were provided with a theater for their brave achievements.
These campaigns took many prisoners of war and made them slaves.
Ancestors used these vessels to make offerings to their spirits.
The possession of bronze objects was a sign of authority.
The bodies of family members, servants, and prisoners of war are in the tombs.
The objects and people were supposed to serve the main occupant of the tomb in the afterlife.
The cli mate of northern China and the use of building materials are some of the reasons why the Shang cities are not well preserved in the archaeological record.
With stone in short supply, cities were protected by massive walls of pounded earth and buildings were constructed with wooden posts and dried mud.
palaces, administrative buildings and storehouses, royal tombs, shrines of gods and ancestors, and houses of the nobility are some of the sites that appear to have served at different times as centers of political control and religion.
Outside the centers, the common people lived in agricultural villages.
northern China depends on irrigation and southern China benefits from monsoon rains.
The Han Chinese migrated from their eastern homeland to other parts of China as the population increased.
The nomadic peoples of the northwest constantly challenged the authority of the Chinese.
L A Y A M T S.
The gods were thought to control the labeled with explanations of features.
The smoke from burning incense and examining the patterns that interpretation of phenomena in the natural world as signs of resulted when oil was thrown on water were two other techniques of divination.
Mesopotamian diviners sought to communicate with the gods in order to anticipate the future.
The Shang ruling class in China often sought infor ries after 1000 b.c.e.
The source of predictions about the future and specialists main monarch himself, with the help of religious experts, often tained precise records of astronomical events.
The most sophisticated in the ancient Mid world was Mesopotamian, since he had access to his own mathematics, essential for calculations of the movements of ancestors, who had a high ranking in the hierarchy of the spirit celestial bodies.
The bones oracle were one of the tools of divination.
The use of the stars tom shell of a turtle, and a red-hot pointed stick to predict planets were some of the methods used in astrology.
The cracks of long-standing Mesopotamian attention to the movements were then "read" by skilled interpreters as answers.
The ancestors who were being consulted and predictions based on an individual's date of birth have been asked.
The questions, answers, and con were found before 400 b.c.e.
Delphi, located in a stunning location overlooking the yield of the upcoming harvest and the health of the king, was one of the most famous oracle sites in Greece.
The sands of the oracle bones are a major source of information about the life of the Shang.
Archaeologists have found models of sheeps' organs.
The Zhou's traditions acknowledge that their ancestors had lived in China from the Shang and that they created the concept of the ture.
The longest lasting dynasty in Chi Mandate of Heaven was the Zhou line of kings.
After being held prisoner for a time, the two founding rulers were a man and a woman.
The Zhou era started a rebellion of disaffected Shang subjects and his son, who was vigorous early on, mounted a successful attack on the capital of the new period.
The last Shang ruler was a bad one.
The kingdom's prosperity and stability was proof of divine favor.
The diviner applied a red-hot Romans to justify the conquest of Celtic peoples in order to "civilize" them.
The god at Delphi was thought to have helped the Greeks choose where to place a supernatural realm.
During the centuries of coloni basins found in the Mediterranean holds, painted ments have been compared to Black Seas and Delphic priests may have collected information from American groups.
In the latter, the travelers who came with their women threw maize kernels in the air and then put it on the surface of the oracles.
By this, they know Celts.
It may seem odd that there are rificial offerings.
In Ireland a ritual specialist is being treated as a form of ate the meat of a freshly killed bull, lay down to hilology.
Interpretations of patterns in dreams are considered by C and P.
The Romans stopped the customs.
Heaven could withdraw this "Mandate" and transfer it to another, more worthy ruler and family because Chinese religious and political ideol neglected the warning signs of flood, famine, invasion, or other disasters.
The Zhou elite recorded their careers and cited honors received from the rulers in bronze inscriptions.
To consolidate his power, King Wu gave territories to his relatives and allies, which they were to administer and profit from, as long as they remained loyal to him.
The Mandate of Heaven is the name of the Duke of Zhou.
The Zhou rulers built a new capital city in their homeland and other urban centers in the succeeding centuries.
The grids were aligned with the north polar star, with major buildings facing south and gates opening to the direction of the star.
New forms of divination developed as a result of the Zhou deity and the continuation of religious practices.
Throwing down a few long and short stalks of the milfoil or yarrow plant is a method that is becoming more and more popular.
The accompanying text was used as a vehicle for self-examination and contemplation of the workings of the world.
There are poems about the situation of women in early China.
Some describe men and women having sex outside of marriage.
There are poems about arranged marriages in which a young woman leaves her family behind and goes to live with an unknown husband and new family.
The different ways in which infant boys and girls were welcomed into a family is described in a poem.
The male was given a jade scepter to play with as a symbol of his future authority, while the female was placed on the floor and given the weight from a weaving loom to indicate her future obligations.
From the eleventh to the eighth century b.c.e.
Writers added commentaries to flesh out the record.
The states of this era were often at odds with one another and used various tactics to protect themselves and advance their interests, including diplomatic initiatives, shifting alliances, and coups and assassinations.
The consolidation trend was gradual and resulted in a smaller number of powerful kingdoms.
There were important changes in the character and technology of war during the period.
In the early Zhou periods, warfare was conducted by members of the elite, who rode in chariots, and followed a code of heroic conduct.
In the high-stakes conflicts of the Eastern Zhou era, large armies made up of conscripted farmers fought bloody battles in which large numbers were slaughtered.
Sunzi approaches war as a chess game in which the successful general uses deception, intuits the energy potential of the landscape, and psychologically manipulates both friend and foe.
One can incorporate the unimpaired resources of the other side with the best victories achieved without fighting.
warfare was impacted by technological advances.
The Chi nese learned from the nomadic peoples of the north to put fighters on horseback.
Metalworkers in China were the first in the world to remove carbon during the iron-smelting process.
The complexity of govern ments that administered Chinese states has increased.
The rulers ordered the careful recording of the population, the land, and its agricultural products so that the government could compel peasants to donate labor for public works projects.
The rulers were advised on various matters by skilled officials.
There was a class of educated and ambitious men who traveled from state to state offering their services to the rulers and their theories of ideal government.
The Eastern Zhou era was a time of great cultural development despite being plagued by political uncertainty, frequent warfare, and anxious uncertainty.
The two most influential "philosophical" systems of Chinese civilization-- Confucianism and Daoism-- had their roots in this period.
He sent his ideas on morality, conduct, and government to a group of students.
His sayings were given to Kongzi.
The core code of conduct was created for govern texts of Confucianism.
Traditional institutions and values were given new meaning by Confucius.
He looked back to the early Zhou period as a Golden Age of wise rulers and benevolent government, models to which the people of his own "broken" society should return.
Therituals, or forms of behavior, that guide people in their daily interactions with one another, promote harmony in human relations.
The way in which family members regulated their conduct in the home prepared them to serve as citizens of the state.
Each person had his or her place and duties determined by their age and gender.
The devotion of subjects to the ruler was similar to the filiality of children to parents.
The practical task of making society function smoothly was placed immense value by Confucianism.
It gave a framework for conducting one's life and understanding one's place in the world.
It wasn't a religion.
While he encouraged respect for gods, ancestors, and religious traditions, he felt that supernatural matters were not known.
Although his ideas were little known in his own time, his teachings gradually spread to a wider audience.
Confucianism was taken in new directions by some disciples.
In Chapter 6, we will see that a revised Confucianism became the dominant political philosophy of the Warring States Period with Laozi.
The core of the educational system for government officials was Daoism.
The man asked about the government.
"If they can't be avoided, food," The Master said.
Confucius was asked about the government.
Suppose I kill the unjust in order to advance the just.
The Superior Man is in awe of the decree of Heaven and what is the need of things?
The people will be good if you want good.
The superior man is like the wind, the inferior man does not know the decree of Heaven, and the great man is like the grass.
"You must win the hearts of the people!
", "Advance the upright and set aside the invariably say, "You must win the hearts of the people!"
The people will follow you.
How can I make the people sicker than ever?
It will bring great benefit later if it suffers little pain now.
They will be respectful if you approach them with dignity.
The ruler will push the people to till the land and be compassionate and loyal.
To use generous and violent ways.
This is the misfortune that is caused by ignorant people.
A person who rules the state doesn't depend on people doing good for themselves; he sees that they are not allowed to do bad things.
Within his borders, he can count less than ten instances of success if he depends on people doing good of themselves.
The whole state can be brought to a level of order if he sees that they are not allowed to do bad things.
Those who rule should use measures that will be effective with the majority and those that will be effective with a few.
They devote themselves to law because they don't want to virtue.
The Confucians of the present time do not praise the measures that will bring order today, but only the men who brought order in the past.
The enlightened ruler uses facts by A. Charles Muller.
He doesn't listen to the words of Columbia University Press because he copyrighted 2000 by humaneness and rightness.
Permission was granted by the Columbia University of scholars.
It raises questions about whether the material world in which we operate is real or a dream that blocks us from seeing a higher reality.
It says that education, knowledge, and rational analysis are obstacles to understanding and that we would be better off trusting our intuitions.
Before civilization corrupted it, the primitive world was happy and blessed.
A tranquil existence is achieved by retreating from the stresses and obligations of a chaotic society.
The forces that buffet people can flow harmlessly around him because he avoids useless struggles.
He doesn't act because action almost always leads to a different outcome from the one desired.
Yin changes in Chinese society and incorporating many elements of traditional religion, mysticism, with feminine, dark, and pas and magic, would continue to evolve for many centuries.
Confucianism may appear to be at odds with Daoism regarding sive qualities.
The Zhou period was when the classical Chinese patterns of family and property took shape.
The three-generation family of grandparents, parents, and children became the fundamental social unit in the kinship structures of the Shang and early Zhou periods.
Father could sell the labor of family members, arranged marriages for their offspring, and had absolute authority over women and children.
Women helped maintain the household's ancestral shrines, but only men could conduct rituals and make offerings to the ancestors.
A man was allowed to have more sexual partners than he could have with one wife.
A man whose wife died had a duty to remarry in order to produce male heirs to keep alive the cult of the ancestors, whereas women were discouraged from remarrying.
The theory considered Yin andYang to be equal and domi e A in f F nant, like day and night, to create balance in the world.
The jade birds perched atop the staffs were carved in the Shang era, but the figurine of a youth was made in the Warring States Period.
The youth has braided hair and is wearing a robe.
These were live birds.
Some wars were fought against non- Chinese people living on the margins of the states' territories.
The aim of these campaigns was to increase the territory available for agriculture, since cultivated land was the source of wealth and manpower.
Over time, the conquered peoples became Chinese in language and culture.
The Zhou rulers were exposed to barbarian influences and attacks and commanded a nation of hardy farmers, who were employed in large, well-trained armies.
The vulnerability of their circumstances may have inspired the rulers of the fourth and third centuries b.c.e.
The Lord was in charge of the government.
He said that the Confucians were naive in thinking that the ruler should worry about his subjects' opinions, and that they were mistaken in looking to an idealized past for solutions.
Legalists were willing to sac East Asia due to the challenges of engaging in agriculture.
He eventually became a warfare.
The influence of tages gained from this approach into a Confucianism led to a reduction in women's status and rights.
Nubia is the only continuously inhabited territory connecting sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa.
It has been used as a corridor for trade between Africa and the Mediterranean for thousands of years.
Nubia was rich in natural resources such as gold, copper, and semiprecious stones.
Nubia's location and natural wealth, along with Egypt's hunger for Nubian gold, explain the early rise of a civilization with a complex political organization.
Scholars have moved away from the traditional view that Nubian civilization simply copied Egypt, and they now emphasize the beneficial interactions between Egypt and Nubia and the growing evidence that Nubian culture also drew on influences from sub-Saharan Africa.
Lower Egypt was led by Nubian hostages, mercenaries, and merchants.
Travel and trade were made possible by skirting the river.
Meroe lived near the river.
Ban Naqa wood came through Nubia.
Around 2300 b.c.e., Nubia enters the historical record.
The southern limit of Egyptian control was 35degE.
As we saw in the beginning of this chapter, Egyp (c) Cengage Learning tian officials stationed there led donkey caravans south in search of gold, incense, ebony, ivory, slaves and exotic animals from tropical Africa.
This was dangerous work, requiring delicate negotiations with local Nubian chiefs to secure protection, but it brought substantial rewards to those who succeeded.
The Nubian middlemen who drove up the cost of luxury goods from the tropics were cut out by Egyptian rulers who wanted to control the gold mines in the desert east of the Nile.
The forts were built on islands and riverbanks south of the Second Cataract.
The forts protected the southern frontier of Egypt against Nubians and nomadic raiders from the desert.
The relationship between the Egyptian garrisons and the indigenous population of northern Nubia seemed to have been peaceful.
The Nile River began south of Egypt in the 17th century.
A belief in an afterlife in which attendants and possessions would be useful, as well as the wealth and power of the rulers of Kush traditions, testify to this.
The "Holy Mountain" of Nubia, made of sandstone and with traces of the original paint, was deposited in the Temple of Amon by a Nubian king.
There is a missing door and a figurine inside that could be an image of Amon.
Resting on a band repre senting a swamp with papyrus reeds, the doorway is flanked on either side by relief images of a winged goddess and a king wearing a short kilt.