The idea of outlining each and every leaf on a piece of grid paper makes even the most dedicated AP Biology student weep, so here's a suggestion: calculate the surface area for only one lucky little leaf, and then weigh it.
You can use the conversion ratio to determine the approximate surface area for all the leaves.
All you have to do is figure out how much leaves weigh.
A potometer is a device used to measure water loss.
The pipette stuck on the other end tracks transpiration from a single part of a plant.
The water is pulled down the pipette as it falls from the leaves.
Any treatment that increased water loss through either more light or wind would decrease the plant's weight.
You would expect water loss to be slowed if you slowed down transpiration by creating a humid environment or by sticking the poor plant in the dark.
The rate of transpiration increases with the leaf surface area.
The more water loss, the more stomata.
An increase in water potential would increase the amount of water that can be used.
Big Idea 4 Ethology and Chapter 17 Behavior Ecology are included in this experiment.
This experiment is about messing with fruit flies.
Environmental factors that attract or repel them are explored.
Get to know your flies.
Males have a darker abdomen while females have a pale one.
A choice chamber is what you will create next.
The chamber consists of two plastic bottles with their bottoms cut off and 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 888-270-6611 One of the substances you decide to test will be located at each end of the chamber.
You can use the chamber to investigate the flies' responses to other variables.
No matter what you're interested in, get 25 of those little creatures in there and 888-276-5932 888-276-5932 888-276-5932 888-276-5932s.
Place a cotton ball with a few drops of water in the cap at one end and a few drops of the substance at the other end.
If the flies move toward the substance you're testing, there will be positive and negative chemotaxis.
Fruit flies enjoy the scent of one type of substance over another, so it's not important that you take away from the experiment.
It's important that you know how to set up an experiment such as this one that involves the choice chamber.
Determine environmental factors that attract or repel fruit flies in a controlled experiment.
Analyze your data to find out how environmental factors affect your flies' behavior.
The products produced are measured.
Refer to Chapter 5 if you don't feel comfortable with your knowledge of enzyme-substrate interactions.
The reaction does occur without the help of peroxidase, but at a slow rate.
The reaction occurs at a much faster clip when our friend peroxidase is added to the mix.
The rate slows after the sixth minute as if the enzyme is tired.
As the reaction proceeds, the number of substrate molecule remaining decreases, which means that fewer interactions can occur.
The rate is accepted for the enzyme.
The slowing portion of the curve should not be taken into account.
In this particular experiment, a beaker with H2O2 is added to and allowed to react for a period of time.
The knowledge you need to score high is measured using a color indicator.
Guaiacol is a brown chemical.
The darker your solution becomes, the greater the amount of oxygen produced.
The relative amount of oxygen is determined by comparing the color of the tube to a turnip peroxidase color chart.
Once you're comfortable with the setup, you can investigate what works best.
Each of the six test tubes has a different buffer.
Once the reaction has lasted long enough to produce a nice color spectrum, record the color for each tube.
If you use the lab manual's turnip peroxidase color chart to help you quantify the relative amounts of oxygen produced, you can graph your data as color intensity versus pH.
Depending on the source, peroxidase can be found in many different forms with optimum pHs ranging from 4 to 11.
Turnip peroxidase works best at pH 5.
The appearance of product or the disappearance of reactant can be used to find the rate of reaction.
Either measure can give insight into the effectiveness of an enzyme.
The rate of reaction is the portion of the graph with a constant slope.
Measure the various reaction rates and run the reaction at a series of different pH values to determine the ideal pH.
The water will flow from the bag to the beaker.
The water will flow into the bag.
The solution is in equilibrium.
The temperature of the gel water will not increase.
The amount of DNA added to the well E can't be determined from the charge of gel.
The flower colors range from white to dark pink.
Only those plants with the darkest pink flowers are used for cross-pollination.
The numbers of flower colors are relative.
The genes are approximately how far apart.
The selection would be disruptive.
Your results would show the direction of travel.
The agar plates would show the growth of your culture, but not the control.
The culture wouldn't grow on the agar-only plates.
The thicker the bands, the more water will flow into the bag.
If the bag has positive and negative ends, the direc will be higher than the beaker.
This causes the DNA to migrate.
The osmotic driving force that moves water into the gel for a longer amount of time will increase the bag in an effort to equalize the discrepancy in distance that the DNA fragments travel and solute concentrations.
The graph is an example of genetic drift.
A random chunk of the population is eliminated in 5 minutes for an approximate rate and a change in frequencies of 3mmoles/min.
The average flower color quotient should be changed by 100 to reflect the darker end of the spectrum.
The factors that increase the rate of transpibacteria are not able to do otherwise.
If you have high light intensity, high temperature, and low humidity, you have successfully transformed your culture.
The faster the DNA migrates, the more current you put through the gel.
To demonstrate evolution in a plant population, cross-pollinate only between plants that have the same trait.
If this trait is more prevalent in the new population, check the offspring to see if they have it.
When members of a population at one end of a spectrum are selected for, the trait at the other end of the spectrum becomes more rare.
The Hardy-Weinberg equation is used to check the frequencies of alleles in a population that is not evolving.
This snapshot of the population is used as a point of comparison to see if evolution occurs.
The p and q alleles are found in a given gene.
Homozygous dominant organisms can be found in that same gene.
Changing any of the five conditions required for a pop ulation can change your population's genes.
A computer program called BLAST compares genes from different organisms.
The closer the two genes are to each other, the more similar the base sequence is.
A cladogram is a representation of the evolutionary relatedness of a species.
Take bags of solutes of varying con centrations, put them into beakers containing solutions of various concentrations, and record the direction of flow during each experiment.
To determine the photosynthetic rate of plants in various envi ronments, first remove the air from leaf disk samples and add the samples to water with a source of carbon dioxide.
The bottom of the cup is where they will sink.
The disks rise to the surface as the leaf tissue photosynthesizes.
Measure how much photosynthesis occurs and compare it to different environmental conditions.
To determine the rate of respiration in peas, use a respirometer to calcu late the change in volume that occurs around the peas.
Review the knowledge you need to score high nongerminating peas that will have a lower baseline respiration rate.
To determine the percentage of cells in a particular stage, count the number of cells per stage and examine an onion root slide.
The number in each stage should be divided by the total number of cells.
Cross a wild-type strain with a Mutant and look at the patterns among the ascospores to determine how far a gene for an ascomycete fungus is from its centromere.
The ratio of 4:4 means there was no crossing over.
The percent crossover is divided by the total number of offspring.
To get distance from the centromere, divide this by 2.
To run a transformation, add ampicillin-sensitivebacteria to two tubes and to only one of the two, add a plasmid containing both the genes you would like to transform and the genes for ampicillin resistance.
The control is the other tube.
After 15 minutes of ice, heat-shock the cells to pick up foreign DNA.
After ice the tubes, spread thebacteria out on ampicillin-coated plates.
Yourbacteria will grow on the ampicillin plate if transformation occurs.
Gel electrophoresis can be used to determine if an individual committed a crime or if they are the parent of a child.
Each person has their own fingerprints.
A unique pattern will be shown when the individual's DNA is cut with restriction enzymes and run on an electrophoresis gel.
Proper identifications can be made by matching a person's fingerprints with evidence from the crime scene.
A model system can be used to track how much energy is transferred from a single producer to a single consumer.
It is possible to calculate the percent of the plant's energy that was incorporated into the caterpillar's body or used in cellular respiration by weighing the amount of plant eaten by the caterpillar.
There are methods for estimating the efficiency of transfer of energy.
To design an experiment to test the effects of various environmental factors on transpiration, measure the amount of water that evaporates from the surface of plants over a certain amount of time.
You can use a potometer, a device that measures water loss by plants, or you can use the whole-plant method.
When the temperature, humidity, airflow, and light intensity are changed, compare the normal rate with the rates obtained.
It is important to measure the surface area of the leaves in order to see how quickly water can get to them.
A choice chamber is a contraption that is designed to study which of two substances an organisms prefers.
One-half of the choice chamber may have a banana extract in it.
If you want to record how many organisms are on each side of the chamber, place the organisms of interest into the choice chamber.
This procedure can be done for a choice chamber that has different temperatures, humidities, light intensities, salinities, and other parameters.
The reaction rate is affected by a number of factors.
If you want to test the rate of reactivity of an enzyme, you can run the reaction without an enzyme and compare it to the normal reaction.
If you want to determine the ideal temperature for an enzyme, run the reaction at different pH values.
Pick the best answer and fill in the appropriate letter on the answer sheet for the multiple-choice questions.
It is most likely a A. ectotherm.
B. Tiaga C. Tropical rainforest.
There is a group of squirrels that have deceptive markings.
What percentage of the population is related to A.
B. Gene 1 is located on A.
The 21 percent is on the B side of the chromosomes.
There are two C. Genes on the X chromosomes.
Refer to question 15 for more information on the squirrel located far away.
A student conducts an experiment to find out the a(n) efficiency of a certain enzyme.
The temperature of the D. redox reaction is brought.
The trophic levels are labeled.
Adding and not adding the enzyme.
It lives in a new area.
It is an animal.
It requires a high level of parental care.
The offspring themselves can give birth at a relatively young age.
This is the spine of a structure that is vital to the construction of many cells and decreases in relative frequencies compared to those used to produce steroid hormones.
This structure is involved in energy reactions.
This structure is found in the human body.
B. stabilizing selection.
The ribosome was used to make this structure.
The water is either hypertonic or hypotonic.
B. Chemiosmosis uses less oxygen than C.
Air movement increases when oxygen is unavailable.
Two pyruvate, two ATP, and two NADH are produced by this process.
Succession force was created by a proton gradient.
The products of this process are sugar and NADP+.
If you want to know the sequence of a particular gene, please refer to the For questions 31-34.
The answer is that the acids are still added to the chain.
This is an example of a frame shift.
What do you know about testosterone pine forests?
It only helps adult males.
All males reproduce equally.
It helps in breeding.
There are trees that drop their leaves in the winter.
Plants with roots that can't go deep due to the presence of a permafrost.
A behavioral endocrinologist will measure testosterone levels in males of a territorial bird species over the course of a year.
The male that followed answered the questions.
The so-called helpers are breeding.
The population has stopped growing.
A researcher is growing a population of ferns.
A Polyploidy example of A. adaptive radiation may be the B. Testosterone level in this population.
There is a suspect and a isolated B.
The accompanying graph shows the frequencies of the A. Fallow deer given trait.
It is possible that individuals are moving A. pH B.
A person interested in studying the movement of water in solutions took a bag of water and put it into a beaker.
The bag will decrease in size if the pedigree is studying an inheritance.
There is a chance that a child will produce water into the bag and cause it to swell in size.
The bag will be the same size.
No water will have moved.
The solute moved out of the bag into the beaker.
They told the counselor that they have an A.
There will be a net flow of water out of the family history of a certain disorder, which will cause the bag to decrease in size.
There will be a net flow of water.
The bag will swell in size if there is no chance of it happening.
The bag will be the same size.
No water will move.
The movement of water comes from a being traced.
What is the proba region of lower water potential to a region of bility that their second child will have?
lute potential is the only factor that deters A.
The water potential is C. 0.2500.
The population had to decline because it became too dense.
There was a major change in the environment.
The limiting factor is C.
A major D. maximum attainable population was caused by a shortage of food.
The population was too large.
The two arms of the U-tube have solutions.
Hypertonic to side B is side A.
Side A and side B are both hypotonic.
Side A is equal to side B.
The volume on both sides is the same.
Rapid evolution of viral and microbial populations is dependent on easily produced genetic variation.
An increase in the concentration of NaCl escape the immune system if there is a variation and an increase in water level.
An example of this antigenic concentration is the increase in water level and no change.
An increase in the water level can be achieved by increasing the concentration of NaCl A. HIV.
There is a disease caused by an allele.
C. MRSA, which has become resistant to many not survive more than a few years, and thus are antibiotics not able to reproduce and pass on the gene, is usually done by individuals with the genetic disorder.
The domi is converted by the B. Spontaneous mutation to the correct form.
The fitness of the individual will sometimes be increased by the genes.
A new plant was discovered and found to have a low number of stomata.
The first simple cells evolved over 3.5 billion years ago, followed by the more complex cells 2.1 billion years ago.
Creating separate environments for metabolic reactions helped increase their efficiency.
There are no structural similarities between B. prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The problem of having a larger surface area-to-volume ratio was taken care of by the organelles in larger cells.
The more complex structure of D. Eukaryotic cells allows them to multiply faster.
Enter the correct answer on the top line of the grid-in area with each number/symbol in a separate column.
Only one filled-in circle per column is needed to fill in the correct circle.
The solution is in a container.
The equation for water potential is a cross between a plant that produced green water potential and a plant that produced yellow P.
The hypothesis that the green-melon parent was het i is assumed to be erozygous for the melon-color genes.
In a population of grasshoppers, the pressure constant is tan R and green R. A liter MPa/mole K) drastic increase in rainfall leads to selection T. When the rainy room temperature drops to 293 K, 23 percent of the remaining grasshoppers have the green phenotype.
A cube with a side length of 2.5 cm is used to determine the surface area-to-volume ratio.
The first 10 minutes are a reading period.
Questions 1 and 2 should take about 20 minutes to answer.
There are questions that should take about 6 minutes to answer.
The outline form is not acceptable.
The answers should be in an essay.
Life on Earth is possible because of certain defendants because of unique characteristics of water.
Over time, the allele frequencies in a population change.
Three mechanisms are listed below.
You are studying a population of field mice the way they do, and why the gel would be that includes individuals with light and dark able to prove, beyond a shadow of a doubt, brown coats.
The defendants were guilty of capture/recapture experiments every six months.
A characteristic of all living is that the skin is covered in an oily substance that slows the loss of water.
Explain how sebum is able to perform maintained.
686 kcal of free energy is produced by three important.
A maximum of 38 moles of the oxidation form of cellular transport can be generated by a mole of glucose in a cell.
The efficiency of B. Endocytosis and exocytosis is close to that of aerobic C.
Explain how A is on each form.
Explain what happens to the rest of the energy using the laws of thermodynamics.
The original question describes animal cells.
The population was selected.
Large central vacuoles are not seen in individuals of this class, as they are con and have low reproductive rates.
There are small vacuoles in animal cells.
A detritivore includes the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Water and decomposers are inputs to the light reactions.
Oxygen comes from water.
This means the temperature.
A frameshift is when the reading frame for the protein construction is less than 0.7.
This can lead to premature stopping of codons.
The movement of electrons can be seen from the data.
Dehydration reactions bring two farthest apart of any pair along the molecule, releasing water as a product.
Only answer choice C is left.
Memory B cells are able to recognize foreign sumers of trophic pyramids and thus would take invaders if they came back into our systems.
Stabilizing selection will eliminate the invader.
The shift toward one of the extremes is a polygenic trait, and the input of multiple genes determines the pheno selection in which the type is.
Poly two extremes are favored over the middle in skin color.
This is a classic example of Batesian mimicry.
The lab experiment question is based on two genes that are far away from each other.