2 -- Part 1: The Rise of the State in Southwest Asia and the Nile Valley
Humans were living in most parts of the planet 5000 years ago.
They designed technologies to meet the challenges presented by deep forests and jungles.
The tombs of domesticated plants reflected this.
People were able to live in close proximity to the tomb of an official because of the mural from and animals.
Larger groups of people good afterlife would include music.
Human history can be seen as a response to opportunities, challenges, and conflicts.
People continued to develop technologies and systems to deal with new issues as small villages grew into cities.
Military forces and taxation systems were created to support the structures of governance.
They used writing to record taxes, inventories, and payments in some places and later used it to preserve stories, traditions, and history.
Archaeological remains show how people lived in the past.
A new technology, writing, was developed by people in some parts of the world around five thousand years ago.
Writing was developed to meet the needs of complex urban societies, and particularly to meet the needs of the state, a new political form that developed during the time covered in this chapter.
Many of the same types of physical evidence are used by historians who study societies without writ ing.
Our knowledge of people in other cultures is dependent on physical evidence, because the writing or record-keeping systems have not yet been deciphered.
The writing of many societies can be read by scholars.
In this letter from a city in southern Turkey, a merchant complains to his brother that life is hard and comments on the trade in silver, gold, tin, and textiles.
The letters were sealed with a piece of soft clay that was stamped, just as you would use a wax seal today.
The sender's seal shows people approaching a king.
Chapter Chronology can be copied and recopied years after the writing is first produced.
There is an invention of writing resources.
The New Kingdom had other hard materials that were supposed to be permanent.
The Assyrian conquest of northern tations was done on soft clay tablets.
Taxes and wages are part of everyday life in Egypt.
In Egypt, the conquest of southern Hebrew is a thing of the past.
Most of the Babylonians material is hardened clay.
Cyrus's conquest of shells from about 1200 b.c.e.
was the beginning of the writing of Babylonia; Jewish exiles began earlier on less permanent materials such as return to Jerusalem silk and bamboo.
However limited they are, written records are often the most important original sources for researching the past.
The discovery of a new piece of written evidence from the past is a major event.
It can take decades to reconstruct and decipher crumbling documents, and disputes about how these records affect our under standing of the past can go on forever.
Along with writing, the growth of cities has been a way that scholars have marked the increasing complexity of human societies.
In the ancient world, residents of cities viewed themselves as more advanced than rural people.
The depiction of people as either civilized or uncivilized was gradual.
Civilizations had cities, laws that governed human relationships, and codes of manners and social conduct that regulated how people were to behave.
Historians used to refer to the earliest places where writing and cities developed as the "cradles of civilization", suggesting a model of development for all humanity patterned on that of an individual person.
The idea that a new form of human ciety appeared around 5,000 years ago is still alive and well.
The cities of these societies had tens of thousands of people.
Cities had more elaborate mechanisms to make them work than small agricultural villages did.
These mecha nisms were part of what political scientists call "the state," an organization distinct from a tribe or kinship group in which a small share of the population is able to force resources out of everyone else in order to gain and maintain power.
In a state, the interest that gains power might be one family, a group of religious leaders, or even a charismatic or talented individual.
When they are established, states use violence or the threat of violence to get people to join their armies.
States establish bu reaucracies and systems of taxation because using armed force every time they need food is not very efficient.
States need to keep track of people and goods, so they develop systems of recording information and accounting through writing.
The creation of more elaborate rules of behavior, often written down in the form of law codes or religious traditions, is a result of systems of recording information.
More elaborate social hierarchies are created by written laws and traditions, in which divisions between elite groups and common people are established more firmly.
Men are more likely to establish laws and norms that favor them when they gain power.
We can either call it the birth of civilization or the growth of the state.
Neolithic agricultural vil ages expanded into cities, where most people did not raise their own food but depended on that produced by the surrounding countryside and carried out other tasks.
The interests of the rulers of cities were served by social and gender hierarchies that were more complex.
The growth of cities and larger populations was the result of sustained agriculture in Mesopotamia, which relied on irrigation from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
Priests and rulers were able to control and organize these societies.
The Fertile Crescent was where agriculture first developed.
The part of southern Mesopotamia known as Sumer was the location of more and more villages that were built around 7000 b.c.
The area did not have enough rain for farming, so villagers built irrigation ditches that took water from the rivers, allowing more food to be grown and the population to expand.
By about 3000 b.c.e., some villages, including Ur and Uruk, had grown into true cities with populations of 40,000 to 50,000.
Because they ruled the surrounding countryside, they were really city-states, and the irrigation system depended on required cooperation and at least some level of social and political cohesion.
The authority to run the system was assumed by the priests.
We don't know how the priests assumed power, but it appears that the uncertainties of life in Sumerian cities convinced people that they needed to obey the gods in order to bring rain, prevent floods, and ensure good harvests.
To ensure order, people believed they needed to serve the gods by obeying the rules set by religious leaders.
A number of gods were worshipped by the citizens of each city, but the majority of them were focused on one god who was in charge of the city's economy.
The best way to honor the gods was to make the temple grand and as impressive as a step-pyramid can be.
temples became elaborate complexes of buildings with storage space for a Mesopotamian city to honor the gods.
To support these construction efforts and to support themselves, temple officials developed taxation systems in which people paid a portion of their harvest to the temple or worked a certain number of days per year on land owned directly by the temple.
During times of emergencies, such as floods or invasions by other cities, a chief priest or sometimes a military leader assumed what was supposed to be temporary authority over a city.
The permanent kingship began sometime before 2600 b.c.e.
The palace was the symbol of royal status and it was very grand.
Through marriage and a hereditary aristocracy of nobles developed, kings made al iances with other pow erful individuals.
The landscape of the Sumerian city was dominated by the ziggurat.
It was a monument to the gods.
Grain, animals, and equipment stores were within the outer enclosure, and religious ceremonies were performed on the top.
The king and the nobles held a lot of land that was used by clients and slaves.
They were slaves, prisoners, and debtors.
They were free to engage in trade, make profits, and even buy their freedom.
Free people were depen dent on the nobility.
They received small plots of land to work on in return for their labor.
Some individuals and families paid taxes on their land in the form of agricultural products or things they had made.
The city-states of Mesopotamia had similar social categories.
There were clear distinctions based on gender.
Most power in Al Mesopotamian city-states was held by older adult men.
Women who were connected to wealthy men saw themselves as either privileged or not, rather than as members of a single lower-ranking group.
They did not object to institutions or intellectual structures that subordinated them.
In the past, people used smal clay objects to represent different types of goods that they owned.
Woman doesn't like ideas that are hard to depict.
The signs were combined.
Water is used to represent sounds.
It sounded similar.
The University of Chicago Press made possible the use of signs.
There are signs to convey ideas.
After many years of study, only professional writers mastered the Sumerian system of writing.
The scribal schools were wedge shaped.
Male students came from a writing system that developed in lies.
Each school had a teacher and a master.
The first writing system in the world was Discipline.
Scribal schools were intended to produce individuals who could keep records of the property and wealth of temple officials, kings, and nobles.
It came to be used for the purpose of enhancing the power of elites, not for the purpose of recording speech.
Writing was used to record religious traditions and stories of great heroes.
Historians can use epic poems to learn about the ideals of a society.
This type of writing is about the mythical king of the Sumerian city of Uruk.
The oldest was developed in ancient Sumer.
The first book of the Hebrew Bible states that only the primeval sea existed at first.
Heaven and earth were united by the sea.
The creation of the other gods was made possible by the god Enlil, who separated Heaven and Earth.
The Sumerians didn't think about the origins of the universe.
The building of cities, palaces, temples, and irrigation canals required a practical knowldge edge of geometry and trigonometry.
We derive our division of hours into sixty minutes and sixty seconds from a numerical system based on units of sixty, ten, and six.
The concept of place value is that the value of a number is related to other numbers.
To Gilgamesh, fill your belly with good things; day and night, night and day, dance and Gilgamesh's quest for immortality be merry, feast and rejoicing.
The lot of man wants his clothes to be fresh, his water to be fresh, his child to hold his hand, and his wife to be happy in his embrace.
Many cultures have a human desire to escape death.
In a dream, Enkidu sees his own death.
The heavens roared, and the earth rumbled back an answer from Utnapishtim.
Do we build a house to stand forever, or do we seal a con man-bird?
I stood before an awful being, somber-faced, and he had directed on me his purpose.
His hand was an eagle's talon and his foot was a lion's foot.
He transformed me so that my arms were covered in nence.
There is something between the master and the feathers.
When palace of Irkalla, the Queen of Darkness, the gods of the Underworld, the judges, world, and Mammetun, the goddess of fate, came to the house from which and the mother.
You will never find that life, I will tell you a secret for which you are looking.
The gods gave the gods to man.
The city-states of Sumer fought one another because they had walls and other fortifications.
Irrigation in one area reduced or altered the flow of the rivers into other areas sparking battles.
The climate became warmer and drier during the third millennium b.c.
The conquerors from the north were attracted to the wealth of the Sumerian cities.
The world's first permanent army was probably created by the leader of a group of vil ages to the north of Sumer.
The destiny was fulfilled by N. K. Permission was granted for the use of the father of the gods.
Men will say who has 2.
There is no light if that is the case.
The Fertile Crescent was spread by the armies of Sargon, who encouraged trading networks that brought in goods from as far away as the Nile and the Indus River in Pakistan.
The empire was absorbed into the empire centered on the city of Babylon after two hundred years.
It was fortunate to have a ruler in Hammurabi who was able to dominate trade on both the Tigris and the Euphrates.
He used military force, alliances with the rulers of smaller territories, and religious ideas to unify Mesopotamia.
Babylonian traders spread their ideas and beliefs further as they reached the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and the Harappan cities of the Indus River Valley.
The map shows the spread of the Mesopotamian and Egyptian cultures through the Fertile Crescent.
The code that established the law of the land was the most memorable achievement of Hammurabi.
The laws that promoted the welfare of the people were supported by divine authority, according to Hammurabi.
Laws for regulating behavior and punishments for crimes were different for social status and gender.
Information about daily life in Mesopotamia can be found in Hammurabi's code.
The code dealt with agriculture because of its impor tance.
Tenants were expected to cultivate the land careful and to keep canals and ditches in good repair.
Marriage and the family were given careful attention by Hammurabi.
The fathers of the prospective bride and groom legally arranged the marriage, with the bride's father giving her a gift for the rest of her life.
The bride's father received a gift from the groom's father.
A woman could be put to death if she was found guilty of adultery.
The code was ordered to be set up in public throughout the Babylonian empire.
The scepter of authority is depicted at the top of the pillar.
The husband had total control over his household.
Family life was not so bad according to the law code.
The testaments and ideas of the Mesopotamians show that husbands left their estates to their wives and that their culture spread beyond the borders of Mesopotamia.
A more cohesive state under a single ruler grew in the valley of the Nile River in North Africa at the same time that Sumerian city-states developed in the Tigris and Euphrates Valleys.
For a long time, Egypt was prosperous and cure.
Groups migrated into Egypt to seek better lives.
When they established an empire and engaged in trade, Egyp tians carried their traditions with them.
The Nile River was the most important geographical factor in shaping Egyptian life, society, and history.
The Nile floods once a year, bringing fertile soil and water for farming.
He drinks the desert.
He is the one who makes barley and brings it into being.
He brings grass to the cattle.
Every beloved tree is made to grow by him.
The Egyptians developed strong ideas about life after death because of the regular flooding of the Nile.
They saw life on this earth and life after death as pleasant, not as bleak as the Mesopotamians thought.
Easy communication was promoted by the Nile highway.
The Nile was linked to the political power structures in Egypt.
Historians have combined the many and political life in the Old King dynasties into periods with distinctive characteristics.
The political unifica- dom, he commanded the wealth, the resources, and the people of Egypt ushered in the period known as the Old Kingdom.
The pharaoh was the focal point of religious and political life in the Old Kingdom.
The sun-god, who brought life to the land and its people trade or conquest, or combined the powers and fea and commanded the sky, the earth, and the Underworld were some of the new deities Egyptians adopted.
Amon- Ra was a god who combined the attributes of Amon and Ra during the Old Kingdom.
After he died, the pharaoh went to a great pyramid and the tomb contained everything he needed in his afterlife.
The other people with an afterlife were not the only ones.
The conduct of proper funeral rituals and how one had lived their life on earth were both important in determining life after death for all Egyptians.
Justice and order were embodied by the pharaoh.
The way to chaos was opened if the pharaoh was weak or allowed anyone to challenge his position.
The pharaoh failed to maintain centralized power twice.
Egypt was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 In each period a strong pharaoh came to restore order and crush the rebels.
The pyramids were reflected in Egyptian society.
The pharaoh relied on a group of people to administer the kingdom.
Both ideograms and pho are included in Egyptian hieroglyphs.
The cities of the Nile netic signs, written with a brush on Valley, were home to artisans of all types.
The wealthier lived in large homes with gardens and specialized rooms for sleeping, eating and entertaining.
People in Egypt were farmers.
Farmers didn't have to worry about bad weather or damaged crops because the agri cultural year was a routine and dependable one.
Farmers grew a wide variety of crops, tended cattle and poultry, and hunted and fished in the Nile.
They lived in small family groups and not as large extended families.
The couple's families arranged the marriage at a young age.
Having children, especially sons, was a high priority for married couples.
In terms of property rights within marriages, women in Egypt owned and control more property than they did in Mesopotamia, and they were more active in doing so when they were widows.
The grave painting depicts an intimate moment in the life of a family, with the father and mother in the center and their children around them.
There are statuettes of cats, family pets and the goddess Bastet found in Egyptian tombs.
The New Kingdom (1570- 1070 b.c.e.)
was the beginning of true slavery.
Young men were drafted into the pharaoh's army, which was both a fighting force and a labor corps.
Even though Egypt flourished, momentous changes were taking place around it that would leave a mark on this rich, insular civilization.
The changes involved a lot of movements of people throughout the Fertile Crescent.
The speakers of a Semitic language were part of one of the groups.
The bands of Hyksos entered the eastern Nile Delta looking for good land.
The migration of the Hyksos, combined with a series of famines and internal struggles for power, led Egypt to fragment politically in the Second Intermediate Period.
The rise and fall of empires in the eastern Mediterranean were shaped by internal developments, military conflicts, and the migration of peoples to new areas.
The Egyptians adopted bronze technology and new weaponry from the Hyksos, while the newcomers worshiped Egyptian deities and modeled their political structures on those of the Egyptians.
The first Egyptian empire was created during this period when the pharaohs expanded Egyptian power beyond the Nile Valley.
Widespread slavery became a feature of Egyptian life for the first time during this period.
A new labor force for imperial building projects was formed after the pharaoh's armies returned from conquests.
The line of pharaohs was extraordinary and one of the most extraordinary was the one called Akhenaten.
His wife and queen encouraged him to be religious.
monotheists believed in only one god, Aton, a newer version of the sun-god.
The ancient India group migrated into the Nile Delta at the same time as the hyksos.
The Hittites settled in modern Turkey around 1600 b.c.e.
The Hittites were different from the other peoples in the region.
Historians of language believe that the home land of the Indo-European languages is central Asia.
Iron weapons were used by the Hittites at the end of their period of expansion.
It is believed that the first techniques for smelting iron were invented in Anatolia.
By 1000 b.c.e., iron swords and spear tips are stronger than bronze ones.
The Hittite kings and Egyptian pharaohs used the peace to promote prosperity, and the exchange of ideas, because of the al i ance.
Peace lasted only a short time.
About 1200 b.c.e.
New powers emerged as a result of the decline of Egypt.
South of Egypt along the Nile was a region called Nubia.
There were large buildings and rich tombs in this area.
A winged goddess and the Egyptian god Amon-Ra are shown in a small silver sheath.
It was found in the tombs of the king of Kush and suggests that Egyptian artistic styles and religious ideas influenced cultures further up the Nile.
There are silver and colored paste inclusions.
His connection with the divine extended to his siblings and children, so that they were also viewed as divine.
A pharaoh would often take his sister or half- sister as one of his wives.
The pharaonic family was different from other Egyptians because they had concentrated divine blood, which allowed the pharaohs to marry their siblings.
One of the pharaoh's wives was chosen to be the principal queen.
This was a relative of Hatshepsut.
A few women of power were allowed because of the connection with the divine.
The cult of Aton was developed there to rule in their own right.
The traditional deities are not included in the names.
The most famous of the female pharaohs was Hatshepsut, who was the only literary survivor of their religious belief.
She was an adviser and co-ruler for her god, and served as the sister and wife of Thutmose II.
Nefertiti was the great royal consort young stepson Thutmose III, who was the son of another woman.
She built one of the world's great buildings, an elaborate her husband, and in some inscriptions she is performing a terraced temple at Deir el Bahri, which eventually served as her religious rituals.
Hatshepsut's status as a powerful female ruler was taken away by the pharaoh.
The details of her are hard for Egyptians to understand.
An older is often depicted in male dress or with a theory that her husband removed her from a false beard, thus looking more like the power, though there is also speculation that she male rulers who were the norm.
After her death, Thutmose III tried to destroy his death.
Nefertiti's tomb has been missing for a long time, and some scholars think that she may have been the Valley of the Kings.
What opportunities do hereditary wives have?
The most famous was Nefertiti.
"How does this fit (or beautiful) woman has come, and inscriptions with gender hierarchies in which men give her many other titles."
The new religion of the sun-god Aton was spread by Nefertiti.
The new palace was built by her and Akhenaten.
Nubians became offi cials in the Egyptian bureaucracy and officers in the army, and there was significant intermarriage between the two groups.
With the fall of the Egyptian empire, the kingdom of Kush rose to power in Nu bia, with its capital located in Sudan.
The Kushites conquered southern Egypt.
The Egyptian culture influenced that of its conquerors during a brief period of peace.
Iron products from Meroe were traded across the Red Sea and the Indian Ocean to India.
One group rose to prominence along the Mediterranean while another group expanded in the southern Nile Valley.
The people of the pros are talking about people who had lived in several cities along the coast of modern Lebanon and who took to the sea to become explorers and merchants.
Lebanon dominated trade throughout the Mediterranean and was based on the prosperous commercial city-states of Tyre, Sidon, and Byblos.
From 1100 to 700 b.c.e., the Phoeni cians played a major role in international trade.