Chapter 19 -- Part 3: New Worldviews and Ways of Life
One sentiment will prevail, from motives of interest as well as justice and humanity.
The blacks would double themselves every fifteen years if they were allowed to stay in their country.
The demand for manufactures will increase in proportion to the increase.
It opens a most immense, glorious and happy prospect -- the clothing, which is ten thousand miles in circumference, and immensely rich in productions of every denominations in return for manufactures.
The spread of Enlightenment thought was encouraged by the rise of new institutions and practices in the Atlantic world.
The production and consumption of books grew from about 1700 to 1789.
Urban people debated new ideas in libraries, bookshops, cafes, and Masonic lodges.
A new open debate informed by critical reason was created by these spaces and institutions.
Europe had an idealized intellectual space during the Enlightenment.
The public came together to discuss important issues.
The public sphere was an idealized space where members of society came together to discuss the social, economic, and political issues of the day.
Enlightenment thinkers addressed their ideas to educated and prosperous readers, but poor and uneducated people learned about issues that were debated at the marketplace or tavern.
The common people could afford to follow fashion for the first time because of a boom in textile production and cheap reproductions of luxury items.
Sugar, tea, coffee, chocolate, and tobacco are rare and previously expensive.
The cities of western Europe saw a new proliferation of consumer goods.
Fans, watches, snuffboxes, umbrellas, ornamental containers, and teapots were once limited to the wealthy, but are now available in cheaper versions for ordinary people.
The Louis XV chairs were specially designed to accommodate the wide hoopskirts that were so popular.
As European settlements grew into well established colonies, new identities and communities emerged.
Creoles in the Atlantic colonies prided themselves on following European ways of life.
The colonial elite felt that their circumstances gave them different interests and characteristics from the people of their home countries.
Creole traders and planters in English colonies resented the regulations and taxes imposed by colonial bureaucrats, and such resentment would eventually lead to revolutions against colonial powers.
Some Europeans in the colonies were not well educated.
Many poor and middle-class whites worked as clerks, shopkeepers, craftsmen, and laborers.
With the exception of the English colonies of North America, white Europeans made up a majority of the population, with the exception of indigenous peoples in Spanish America and the Caribbean.
Most of the colonial population of the Atlantic world was descended from unions between European men and indigenous or African women.
Enlightenment thought on racial differences was influenced by colonial attempts to control racial categories.
In Brazil, many slave masters freed their mixed-race children, leading to large populations of free people of color.
The prosperity of some free people of color brought a backlash from the white population of Saint-Domingue in the form of new race laws prohibiting nonwhites from marrying whites and forcing them to adopt distinctive attire.
In the British colonies of the Caribbean and the southern mainland, masters tended to leave their mixed-race offspring in slavery, maintaining a stark discrepancy between free whites and enslaved people of color.
When people from different parts of Europe crossed the Atlantic, their colonial governments imposed the identities of Spanish and English on them.
The creation of new Creole communities melded cultural and social elements of various groups of origin with the new European cultures.
The status of mixed-race people was not clear.
The Creole society can get many official and unofficial privileges by passing as white.
Mestizos and free people of color established their own communities and social hierarchies based on wealth, family connections, occupation, and skin color.
Jews who were restricted from owning land and holding many occupations in Europe were eager participants in the new Atlantic economy and established a network of mercantile communities along its trade routes.
Discrimination was faced by Jews in European colonies.
Jews were not treated the same as Christians because they were considered ineligible to be slaves.
The status of Jews adds to the complexity of Atlantic identities.
A portrait of Rebecca Protten and her daughter.
A young girl named Rebecca traveled from Antigua to the small sugar colony of St. Thomas in the mid 1720s.
Almost all of the inhabitants of St. Thomas were enslaved.
Rebecca is referred to as a "mulatto" in surviving documents due to her mixed European and African ancestry.
The girl was purchased as a servant by van Beverhout, sparing her work in the sugar fields.
The family taught Rebecca to read, write, and speak Dutch after she won their favor.
They shared their faith with her and freed her.
She continued to work for the van Beverhouts as a free woman because she wanted to spread the message of spiritual freedom.
In 1736 she met missionaries from the Moravian Church, a German-Protestant sect that devoted its mission work to the enslaved peoples of the Caribbean.
A rare but not illegal case of mixed marriage took place in 1738 when Rebecca married a German missionary.
Her husband bought a plantation with slaves to serve as the headquarters of their mission work.
The institution of slavery was not opposed by the Moravians, who wanted to spread Christian faith among slaves and improve their treatment.
Authorities imprisoned Rebecca and Matthaus because they feared that slaves would fight for their freedom.
The couple were saved by the unexpected arrival of a German aristocrat.
Exhausted, they left for Germany in 1741, but Matthaus and the couple's young daughter died soon after arriving.
In Marienborn, a German center of the Moravian faith, Rebecca encountered other black Moravians who lived in equality with their European brethren.
She married another missionary, Christian Jacob Protten, a grandson of a West African king, in 1746.
The first women of color to be dained in the Western Christian Church were Thomas.
In 1763, Rebecca and her husband set out to establish a school for mixed-race children in the birthplace of Rebecca's husband.
Rebecca was a widow again after her husband died.
She died in obscurity.
The colonies of British North America were influenced by the Scottish Enlightenment's emphasis on pragmatic approaches to the problems of life.
The colonies adopted a moderate version of the Enlightenment that emphasized self-improvement and ethical conduct.
This version of the Enlightenment was compatible with religion and was spread through the colleges and universities of the colonies.
Spain and the American colonies were often depicted as the epitome of barbarity by the Northern Enlightenment.
The dynasty that took power in Spain in the early 18th century followed the same path as the rest of Europe.
King Carlos III and his son Carlos IV tried to improve government efficiency.
Enlightened administrators debated the status of indigenous peoples and whether it would be better if they were integrated into Spanish society.
The universities, newspapers, and salons of Spanish America produced their own reform ideas because educated Creoles were well aware of the new currents of thought.
One effect of Enlightenment thought was to encourage Creoles to criticize the policies of the mother country and aspire for greater independence.
The synthesis of Christian theology and Aristotelian philosophy was destroyed by the advent of astronomy and physics in the 17th century.
The impact of scientific breakthrough on intellectual life was enormous.
State-sponsored academies, which were typically closed to women, were one of the reasons why an international scientific community arose.
Enlightenment thinkers asked questions about religious tolerance, political power, and racial and sexual difference because they believed that all aspects of life were open to debate and skepticism.
Enlightenment thinker drew inspiration from the new peoples and cultures encountered by Europeans and created new ideas about race as a scientific and biological category.
The ideas of the Enlightenment inspired rulers in central and eastern Europe.
In the second half of the 18th century, agricultural reforms helped increase population growth.
Enlightenment thought was spread by the creation of a public sphere in which ideas could be debated.
The expansion of trade made economic growth possible, as did the lowering of prices on colonial goods due to the growth of slave labor.
The exchange of commodities among Europe, Africa, and the Americas was part of the Atlantic trade.
The identities of colonial inhabitants were shaped by the movement of people and ideas across the Atlantic.
The Scientific Revolution is seen as the origin of modern thought, but also as a product of its past.
Medieval universities gave rise to important new scholarship in mathematics and natural philosophy by drawing from Islamic cultural achievements.
The ambition and wealth of Renaissance patrons encouraged scholarly research and foreign exploration.
Natural philosophers used centuries-old traditions of astrology, alchemy, and magic to create new methods of explaining and observing nature.
A desire to control and profit from empire led the Spanish, followed by their European rivals, to explore and catalogue the flora and fauna of their American colonies.
The Enlightenment ideas of the 18th century were a blend of past and present, progressive and traditional.
Universal rights and liberties were advocated by Enlightenment thinkers, but they also preached the biological inferiority of non-Europeans and women.
Their principles were used to inspire revolutionaries to fight for human rights.
Europeans would embark on world-changing revolutions in politics and industry at the end of the 18th century due to new notions of progress and social improvement.
The basis for modern democracy was provided by these revolutions.
Critics have seen a darker side.
Enlightenment belief in the universal application of reason can lead to intolerance of other people's spiritual, cultural, and political values, and the mastery over nature enabled by the Scientific Revolution threatens to overwhelm the earth's fragile equilibrium.
The era of European exploration and conquest gave way to empire building, which saw increased consolidation of global markets and bitter competition among Europeans.
The tragedy of slavery was discussed in Chapter 20 as part of the web of commercial and human exchange that tied the shores of Europe, the Americas, and Africa.
The Pacific and the Indian Ocean have strong ties with the Atlantic world.
Explain the significance of each item.
The European Enlightenment celebrated tolerance and human liberty.
The era of a tremendous increase in slavery brought suffering and death to millions.
Canizares-Esguerra offers comparative perspectives on population growth and living standards.
The development of science in the early modern period was influenced by Spain and Spanish America.
Enlightenment thinkers transformed traditional thinking about people of African descent into ideas about biological racial difference.
Delbourgo, James, and Nicholas Dew are authors.
The relationship between the Scientific Revolution and the expansion of European powers across the Atlantic is examined in a collection of essays.
The rise of the coffeehouse has an impact on European cultural and social life.
The exchange of Enlightenment ideas, authors, and texts across the Atlantic Ocean is examined in a series of essays.
A portrait of a woman by Catherine the Great.
Discusses how pleasure became seen as a duty of individuals and societies in the Enlightenment.
The life of an Italian woman artist and scientist reflected opportunities and constraints for women in the 18th century.
A study of Enlightenment movements in Scotland and Naples shows similarities between the two kingdoms.
A documentary about the exploits of a pirate.
The story of Galileo's struggle with the Catholic Church over his astronomy discoveries is recounted.
An idealistic British man is trying to end his country's involvement in the slave trade with his allies and a former slave-ship captain.
The German princess who becomes Catherine the Great is the subject of a made-for-television movie.
When a provincial nobleman travels to the French court in the 1780s to present a project to drain a malarial swamp in his district, his naive Enlightenment ideals incur the ridicule of decadent courtiers.
The Republic of Letters is mapped.
The site is hosted by the university and showcases projects using mapping software to create spatial visualization based on correspondence and travel of members of the Republic of Letters.