The poor, orphanages, asylums, and institutions for the blind were given more attention by the Radicals.
roads, bridges, and buildings were repaired or rebuilt.
It is possible for Americans to achieve rights and opportunities that would be repeatedly violated in coming decades but would never be taken away, at least in principle, such as equality before the law, attend schools, learn to read and write, enter professions, and carry on business.
Government officials were also involved in corrupt practices.
Bribes and kick backs are when companies give government officials cash or stock in exchange for government contracts.
Henry Clay Warmoth, a twenty-six year old carpetbagger, turned his annual salary of $8,000 into a million dollar fortune while he was governor of Louisiana.
In the North and the Midwest, state governments gave money to corporations under certain conditions that invited shady dealings and corruption.
Some railroad corporations received state funds but never built railroads.
The Radical Republican regimes did not invent corruption.
Governor Warmoth said that corruption is a problem in Louisiana.
Andrew Johnson's presidency made it possible for Republicans to choose their own president in 1868.
The Union victory in the Civil War was credited to the "Lion of Vicksburg", and both parties wooed him.
The Republicans unanimously nominated him as their presidential candidate because of his falling out with Johnson.
Congressional Reconstruction was endorsed by the Republican party.
Grant promised that if elected, he would enforce the laws and promote prosperity.
The false belief that black men were sexual pred ators waiting for white women was used as a justification for lynchings in the South.
Blair's comments cost Seymour a close election according to a Democrat.
Grant won all but eight states and swept the electoral college, but his popular major was only 307,000 out of 6 million votes.
This campaign banner made reference to the South, which accounted for Grant's margin to the working class origins of victory, and many of the presidential candidates risked their lives to support him.
The efforts of Radical Republicans to ensure voting rights for southern blacks had paid off.
As far as black voters were concerned, the Republican party was the only thing that mattered.
Grant was blind to the political forces and self-serving influence peddlers around him.
He showed poor judgement in his selection of cabinet members, often favoring friendship, family, loyalty, and military service over integrity and ability.
His cabinet positions changed frequently during his two terms in office.
Some of the men betrayed his trust.
General William T. Sherman said he felt sorry for Grant because so many Republicans used the president for their own selfish gains.
Carl Schurz, a Union war hero who became a Republican senator from Missouri, expressed frustration that Grant was misled by cunning advisers.
Grant brought diversity to the federal government.
President Grant insisted that freed people be allowed to exercise their civil rights without fear of violence, even though he viewed Recon struction of the South as the nation's top priority.
On March 30, 1870, Grant delivered a speech to Congress in which he celebrated the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, which gave voting rights to American men nationwide.
The backlash in the South was caused by the Fifteenth Amendment.
The resentment of Reconstruction was deepened by the idea of the federal government guaranteeing the right of freedmen to vote.
New ways to restrict black voting were devised by white officials in Georgia.
Other states followed suit.
The Naturalization Act of 1870 was passed four months after the Fifteenth Amendment became law.
Asians and Native Americans were not included in the new law.
The consequences of the Fifteenth Amendment were enormous.
Republicans were eager to recruit black voters while Southern whites were afraid of them.
The Union Leagues were organized by Republicans.
The Loyal League was founded by Republicans in the 19th century to support Lincoln, the war, and the party.
The league claimed more than half a million members by late 1863.
In the postwar South, the league operated like a frat, with initiations and rituals and secret meetings to protect freed people from being attacked by angry white Democrats.
They met in churches, schools, homes, and fields, often hearing from northern speakers who traveled the South extolling the Republican party and encouraging blacks to register and vote.
The Union League in the South became one of the largest black social movements in history by the early 1870s.
With the help of the Union Leagues, 90 percent of the freedmen in the South registered to vote, almost all of them as Republicans, and they voted in record numbers.
Black voters outnumbered whites in Mississippi and South Carolina.
Most white Southerners were eager to deny freedmen the vote, so voting was not easy.
"All the blacks who vote against my ticket will walk the plank," said the former Georgia governor, who had been a Confederate general.
African American workers who exercised their political rights were fired, as a Union officer reported from Virginia.
Black Republicans were coercive at times.
A white South Carolina Democrat said that the Negroes were as intol erant of opposition as the whites.
Black men were able to win elected offices for the first time in the states of the former Confederacy because of the Union Leagues' help.
In 1870, Francis Cardozo, a black minister who served as president of the South Carolina Council of Union Leagues, declared that the state had "prospered in every respect" because of the enfranchisement of black voters.
President Grant looked at Native Americans the same way he looked at African Americans.
The first Native Ameri to hold the position of Commissioner of Indian Affairs was appointed by him in 1869.
During the war, he was Grant's military secretary.
Many Indians were pressured by white settlers, miners, railroads, and telegraph companies to give up their ancestral lands as a result of the policies created by the commissioner.
Grant created a new policy for peace with Native Americans.
Grant promised to end chronic corruption in which congressmen appointed cronies as government traders with access to the Indian reservations.
Food, clothing, and other provisions intended for the reservations were supplied by many traders who used their positions to scam the Native Americans out of the federal government.
The brother of the pres ident was one of the accused traders.
Grant moved the Bureau of Indian Affairs out of the control of Congress and into the War Department to clean up the Indian Ring.
The Board of Indian Commissioners was created to oversee the operations of the Bureau of Indian Affairs to make sure that there was no corruption.
Grant assumed that honesty, humility, and pacifism would improve the distribution of government resources when he appointed Quakers as reservation traders.
Grant told them that it would take the fight out of the Indians if they could make the Quakers out of them.
Government bureaucrats were better able to manage Indian policy than the Quakers were.
Grant found a gap between the policies he created and the implementation of them by others.
Many of the officers and soldiers sent to the West to "pacify" Indian peoples in the Great Plains had a different attitude than Grant's.
He argued that Native Americans who refused to move should be killed.
T. Sherman agreed with General Wil liam.
Indians were one of the only groups denied citizenship because of such attitudes.
He said race hatred was the greatest poison of the age and it was directed at both African Americans and Native Americans.
Most white Americans didn't care that racism was happening.
We will never be able to be just to other races.
President Grant's naive trust in people led to his administration's downfall.
Grant may have been awestruck by the men of wealth because of his own failures as a storekeeper and farmer.
He was lured into their web of self-serving deception as they lavished gifts and attention on him.
In the summer of 1869, two unprincipled financial schemers, Jay Gould and James Fisk Jr., both notorious for bribing politicians and judges, plotted with the president's brother- in- law to "corner" the nation's gold.
They wanted to create a public craze for gold by chasing large quantities of the precious metal.
If the federal Treasury were to sell large amounts of gold, it would deflate the market value of the scheme.
People assumed that Grant supported Gould and Fisk when he was in public with them.
The value of the rumor that the president endorsed the run-up in gold went up as it spread in New York City.
The Gould- Fisk scheme worked for a while on September 24, 1869.
The price of gold went from $150 an ounce to $165 in a single day.
Grant and his Treasury secretary realized what was happening and began selling gold.
The price dropped to $138 within fifteen minutes.
The schemers lost money.
Some traders cried.
One fainted and the other felt the need to take his own life.
The turmoil spread to the entire stock market.
After the gold bubble burst, financial markets were in a state of disrepair.
The first scandal to rock the Grant administration was the plot to corner the gold market.
Merchants who traded with Indians at army posts in the West bribed the secretary of war.
Whiskey distillers bribed federal Treasury agents in order to avoid paying excise taxes on alcohol.
Grant's personal secretary took secret payments in exchange for confidential information.
Grant urged Congress to investigate.
He said that no guilty man should escape.
There was no evidence that Grant was involved in any way.
His poor choice of associates earned him a lot of criticism.
Democrats scolded Republicans for their "monstrous corruption and extravagance" and reinforced public suspicion that elected officials were less servants of the people than they were self-serving bandits.
The Republican party lost its identity after the end of slavery.
Republicans were divided into two warring groups due to disagreements over political corruption and Recon struction.
Liberal Republicans, led by Senator Carl Schurz, embraced free trade and opposed any government regulation of business and industry.
Liberal Republicans wanted to remove the "tyrannical" Grant from the pres idency.
They wanted to lower the tariffs on big corporations and promote "civil service reforms" to end the "partisan tyranny" of the "patronage system" whereby new presidents rewarded the "selfish greed" of political supporters with federal government jobs.
Grant and his cronies were accused of making decisions to benefit themselves.
Grant's efforts to suppress racism and the Ku Klux Klan were opposed by them.
There was no need for federal intervention in the South according to them.
The presence of federal troops does not remove white prejudice against the negro.
If the Liberal Republicans were to win, they would need the support of Democrats who were hostile to them.
Southern Democrats liked Greeley's criticism of Reconstruc tion.
The vote was given to "ignorant" former slaves whose "Nigger Government" exercised "absolute political supremacy" in sev eral states and was transferring wealth from the "most intelligent" and "influ ential" southern whites to themselves.
The majority of Northerners were appalled at Greeley's candidacy.
In the 1872 balloting, Greeley did not carry a single state in the North.
Grant won thirty- one states and got 3,598,235 votes.
His wife died six days before the election, and he died three weeks later.
Grant was delighted that the "soreheads and thieves who had deserted the Republican party" were defeated, and he promised to avoid the "mistakes" he had made in his first term.
Grant's second term was dominated by complex financial issues.
Prior to the Civil War, paper money was issued by state banks and could be exchanged for gold coins.
State bank notes and gold coins can be used as currency.
When the greenbacks were issued, this happened.
After the war, the U.S. Treasury assumed that gold, silver, and copper coins would be recalled from circulation so that consumer prices would decline and the nation could return to a " hard- money" currency.
The most vocal supporters of a return to hard money were eastern cred itors who did not want their debtor to pay them in paper currency.
The gold standard was criticized by farmers and other people.
Soft money advocates opposed taking green backs out of circulation because it would make it harder for them to pay their debts and bring down prices for their crops and livestock.
The Treasury stopped withdrawing dollars in 1868 because of congressional supporters of the soft money policy.
President Grant was in favor of the hard- money camp.
On March 18, 1869, he signed the Public Credit Act, which said that investors who purchased bonds to help finance the war effort must be paid back in gold.
The act led to a decline in consumer prices.
There was a ferocious political debate over the merits of hard and soft money that would last throughout the 19th century.
President Grant's effort to withdraw greenbacks from circulation caused a major economic problem.
Jay Cooke and Company, the nation's leading business lender, went bankrupt and closed its doors on September 18, 1873, after two dozen overextended railroads stopped paying their bil s.
Other hard- pressed banks began shutting down as a result of the shocking news.
3 million workers lost their jobs, and those with jobs saw their wages slashed.
In major cities, the homeless and the unemployed formed long lines at soup kitchens.
The U.S. Treasury reversed course after the depression and began printing more dollars.
In 1874, Grant overruled his cabinet and vetoed a bill to issue even more green backs.
His decision was applauded by bankers and other lenders.
What was then the worst depres sion in the nation's history was only prolonged by Grant's decision.
The 1874 congressional elections brought about a catastrophe for Republicans, as Democrats blamed them for the hard times.
The Republicans in the House went from 70 percent major to 37 percent minority.
The Senate was placed on the defensive.
President Grant tried to enforce federal efforts to reconstruct the postwar South, but southern resistance to "Radical rule" increased and turned violent.
The program of murder, violence, and intimidation was focused on prominent Republicans, black and white, elected officials, teachers in black schools, state militias.
In Mississippi, a black Republican leader was killed in front of his family.
In 1870, three white scalawag Republicans were murdered in Geor gia, and in Alabama, four black people were killed by an armed mob of whites.
The Alabama Republican asked the President to intervene.
G. T. F. Boulding wrote "Give us poor people some guarantee of our lives."
White supremacists were violent in South Carolina.
In 1871, some 500 masked men laid siege to the Union County jail and eventually lynched eight black prisoners.
Thirty African Americans were killed by Klansmen in Mississippi in 1871.
The Republicans in Congress responded with three Enforce ment Acts.
Penalties were imposed on anyone who interfered with a citizen's right to vote.
In southern districts where political terrorism flourished, the second dispatched federal supervisors.
The Ku Klux Klan Act was enacted in order to outlaw various activities of the KKK.
The president could send federal troops to any community where voting rights were being violated.
Grant appeared before Congress to urge passage of the Klan Act when some Republicans were against it.
Grant sent Attorney General Amos Akerman, a Georgian, to recruit prosecutors and marshals to enforce the legislation.
In South Carolina alone, Akerman and federal troops convinced local juries to convict 1,143 Klansmen.
The Klan was killed by Grant's actions.
The Enforcement Acts weren't consistently enforced.
As a result, the violent efforts of southern whites increased.
A group of black Republicans were holed up in the courthouse in the black Republican township of Colfax when a mob of 140 white people attacked them.
An officer reported that federal troops found a lot of black bodies being picked over by dogs and buzzards.
He said they couldn't find the body of a white man.
He imposed military rule after declaring parts of Louisiana to be in a state of insurrection.
The Enforce ment Acts were used to indict seventy whites, but only nine were put on trial and three were convicted.
From state to state, the Klan's impact on southern politics varied.
Democrats won local elections in the Era of Reconstruction.
The Klan had more serious effects in the Lower South.
In Yazoo County, Missis used terrorism to reverse the political balance of power.
In the 1873 elections, the Republicans cast 2,449 votes and the Dem ocrats 638; two years later, the Democrats got 4,049 votes, the Republicans 7.
Black legislators, public schools for black children, and poll taxes were instituted by Democrats after they regained power.
Black and white Repub licans were discouraged by the activities of white supremacists.
"We are powerless and unable to organize," wrote a Mississippi scal awag.
Northerners used federal troops to reconstruct the South.
President Grant wanted to use federal force to serve peace.
Grant was disappointed that the new anti- segregation law gave little authority.
Those who felt their rights were being violated had to file a lawsuit and the penalties were not very high.
The Civil Rights Act was struck down by the Supreme Court because it did not have authority over the policies of private businesses or individuals.
Republican political control in the South and public interest in protecting civil rights gradually loosened during the 1870s as all- white "Conservative" par ties mobilized the anti- Reconstruction vote.
They called themselves Conserva tives because they were conserva tives.
Conservatives used tricks to rig the voting.
Republican political control ended in Virginia and Tennessee as early as 1869, but North Carolina had a Republican governor until 1876.
Whites abandoned the Klan for intimidation in groups such as the Mississippi Rifle Club and the South Carolina Red Shirts.
After the elec tions of 1876, the country's commitment to Congressional Reconstruction was undermined by the return of the old white political elite.
The effects of the Thir teenth and Fourteenth Amendments were weakened by key rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court.
In 1869, the Louisiana legislature granted a single company a monopoly of the livestock slaughtering business in New Orleans as a means of protecting public health.
Competing butchers sued the state, arguing that the monopoly violated their "privileges" as U.S. citizens and deprived them of property without due process of law.
The "privileges and immunities" clause of the Fourteenth Amendment did not violate the monopoly because it only applied to U.S. citizenship.
States retained legal jurisdiction over their citizens, and federal protection of civil rights did not extend to the property rights of businesses.
Stephen was a Dissenting Justice.
Field argued that the Fourteenth Amendment was rendered useless by the Court's ruling.