A plastic tube is inserted into the coronary arteries.
A metal stent with a balloon inside it is pushed out of a plastic tube.
When the balloon is inflated, the vessel opens and the stent is left in place.
Predict what type of conditions will occur as a result of chronic hypertension and plaque.
List the major types of blood cells.
The formation of a blood clot can be caused by a number of processes.
The ABO and Rh blood classification systems can be compared and contrasted.
Blood contains cells within a fluid matrix.
Blood is normally contained within the blood vessels of a closed circulatory system.
Blood has two main portions, a liquid portion and formed elements, consisting of cells and platelets.
Cells and platelets are contained within a liquid matrix.
The buffering of the blood is done by some of these proteins.
The osmotic pressure of the blood is maintained so that water doesn't enter the blood capillaries.
Several blood clotting factors are involved, and others transport large organic molecules in the blood.
Various types of lipoproteins transport cholesterol, as well as albumin, the most plentiful of the plasma proteins.
Red blood cells and erythrocytes are the types of elements formed.
Red blood cells are small, biconcave disks that lack a nucleus and contain the respiratory pigment hemoglobin.
The average adult human has 5 to 6 million red blood cells per cm3 of blood, and each one of these cells contains about 250 million hemoglobin molecules.
The iron-Containing group heme is associated with four globin protein chains.
Oxygen is carried in the blood when iron is combined with it.
In adults, the red bone marrow of the skull, the ribs, the vertebrae, and the ends of the long bones are used to make RBCs.
The hormone erythropoietin is produced by the kidneys.
Erythropoietin is helpful to people with anemia and can be abused by athletes who want to increase their oxygen-carrying capacity.
They are released from the bone marrow into the blood.
After 120 days, they are destroyed by large cells in the body.
hemoglobin is released when the RBCs are destroyed.
The iron is returned to the red bone marrow.
The heme portions of the molecule are degraded and end up in the bile.
The bile is responsible for the color of feces.
The early attempts at blood donations resulted in illness and death.
It was found that only certain donors and recipients are compatible, because the red blood cell membranes carry certain genes.
"forming, causing" is a molecule that can cause an immune response.
The ABO and Rh systems are the most significant of the groups.
It is important that the blood groups are cross-matched to avoid a potentially deadly reaction.
A person's blood type is determined by the presence or absence of type A and type B.
The molecule is considered self by the immune system, so it can't be an antigen to a recipient who doesn't have type A blood.
There are four blood types in the ABO system.
The A and B antigens are found on a lot of the organisms present in and on our bodies.
They are called anti-A and anti-B.
A donor with type A blood can give blood to a recipient with type A blood because they have anti-B and anti-A in the blood.
If type A blood is given to a type B recipient, the blood can clump together and cause organ damage.
Matched blood donation.
The donor and recipient have the same type of blood.
There was a mismatch of blood transfusion.
Blood type B has anti-A antibodies.
Universal donors are people with type O blood.
It is sometimes called the universal recipient because it has no anti-A or anti-B antibodies.
It is not safe to rely solely on the ABO system when matching blood.
Instead, samples of the two types of blood are physically mixed, and the result is examined for agglutination before blood transfusions are done.
Ensuring that the donor is free from transmissible infectious agents is an equally important concern.
The Rh factor is an important part of the RBCs.
The majority of the US population have this particular antigen on their blood vessels.
Some people do not have the antigen and are Rh-negative.
The person's blood type is usually determined by whether or not they have or do not have the Rh factor.
When exposed to the Rh factor, Rh negative individuals can make their own antibodies to the Rh factor, unlike the case with the A and B antigens.
If the mother is Rh negative and the father is Rh positive, the child may be Rh positive.
Anti-Rh antibodies may be produced by the mother if the Rh-positive fetal RBCs leak.
There is a fatal condition called hemolytic disease of the newborn.
Rh incompatibility can be prevented by giving Rh negative women an Rh immunoglobulin injection at the end of their pregnancies and within 72 hours of giving birth to a Rh positive child.
This treatment helps destroy Rh-positive blood cells in the mother's blood before her immune system produces high levels of anti-Rh.
The functions of white blood cells are discussed in detail in Section 33.4, but only briefly.
White blood cells (leukocytes), also referred to as WBCs, are usually larger, have a nucleus, lack hemoglobin, and appear translucent.
The number of WBCs in the blood is less than the number of RBCs.
The cells of the neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils use spherical vesicles to help defend the body against invading microbes and other parasites.
Neutrophils are sometimes called polymorphonuclear cells because of their multilobed nucleus.
They are the most abundant of the WBCs and are able to enter the tissues through capillary walls.
The eosinophils stain a deep red and are involved in fighting parasites.
Monocytes are the largest of the WBCs, and they migrate into tissues in response to chronic, ongoing infections, where they 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- 888-609- These long-lived cells fight infections and release growth factors that increase the production of different types of WBCs by the bone marrow.
Some of the factors are useful for people with low immunity, such as AIDS patients.
The third function of the macrophages is to interact with the lymphocytes.
The second most common type of WBC in the blood is Lymphocytes.
Most of the other cell types involved in adaptive immunity are influenced by the helper T cell.
The cytotoxic T cell attacks cells that have a viruses.
The main function of B cells is to produce antibodies.
Each B cell produces a specific type of antibody.
The complex is often killed by a macrophage.
Section 33.4 contains more detail on the activities of lymphocytes and other aspects of the animal immune system.
Platelets are produced at a rate of 200 billion a day.
The formed elements are involved in blood clotting.
The formation of fibrin threads is the result of a series of enzymatic reactions.
When a blood vessel in the body is damaged, platelets clump at the site of the puncture and partially seal the leak.
The injured tissues release prothrombin, a factor that converts prothrombin in the blood to thrombin.
This reaction requires calcium ion.
The framework for the clot is provided by the fibrin threads that wind around the damaged area of the blood vessel.
The red blood cells are trapped within the fibrin threads.
There is a clot in the body.
"How Horseshoe Crabs Save Human Lives" is a feature in the Nature of Science.
There is a capillary exchange between a systemic capillary and a interstitial fluid.
The blood that enters a capillary is rich in oxygen and is under pressure because of the pumping of the heart.
Osmotic pressure and blood pressure control the movement of fluid through the capillary wall.
The osmotic pressure at the end of a capillary is lower than the blood pressure.
Osmotic pressure is created by the presence of salts.
The osmotic pressure at the end of the capillary is lower than the blood pressure.
The forces that aid the process are shown in a capillary.
Oxygen and CO2 follow their concentration gradients in the midsection.
Water tends to enter the bloodstream when the osmotic pressure is higher than the blood pressure.
The red blood cells are too large to leave a capillary.
There is a beach in the northeastern U.S.
Crabs are classified in the same way as insects, arachnids, and crustaceans.
Because of their prehistoric appearance, horseshoe crabs are sometimes called "living fossils," and in fact, they were living on Earth before the dinosaurs.
They have an open circulatory system, with a heart that pumps hemolymph between the gills and the body, without returning to the heart in between.
The hemolymph of horseshoe crabs contains hemocyanin, which binding to oxygen using copper instead of iron gives the blood a light blue color.
Amoebocytes, cells that are similar to the neutrophils or macrophages of higher animals, are found in the blood.
The Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, had a scientist working there in the summer of 1950.
He wanted to study the immune system of primitive organisms, so he injected various types ofbacteria into horseshoe crabs.
He found that injecting any Gram-negative type ofbacteria, or an extract of their cell walls, caused the horseshoe crabs to die quickly, not from the infection, but from a massive coagulation of their circulatory fluid.
The extract of the amoebocytes was mixed with any sample to determine if it contained any Gram-negativebacteria.
Within 45 minutes, the material would clot.
The existing pyrogen test required that materials be injected into rabbits, took more time, and was less sensitive to low levels ofContamination, but this LAL test is less sensitive to low levels ofContamination.
The LAL test requires the removal of hemolymph from horseshoe crabs.
Adult horseshoe crabs can be caught with the help of biomedical companies.
About 30% of the animal's hemolymph is removed from the animal's heart with a large-gauge needle.
The hemolymph is separated from the amoebocytes, distilled water is added to lyse the cells, and the clotting reaction is separated and processed into the product used for the LAL test.
The horseshoe crabs are usually returned to the ocean within 72 hours of being wounded, and studies suggest that most of them survive.
The companies have good reason to preserve this ancient, fascinating species because 1 quart of hemolymph is worth about $15,000.
Hemocyanins are larger than hemoglobin.
The amoebocytes of horseshoe crabs cause the animal's hemolymph to clot.
450 million years ago, horseshoe crabs lived on the Earth.
Near the capillary, where blood pressure is lower, the two forces cancel each other, and there is no net movement of water.
Carbon dioxide and waste diffuse into the capillary.
There are red blood cells in the capillaries.
There are substances that leave a capillary.
Page 614 has a lower amount of protein.
The amount of fluid that left the capillary is almost the same as it was before.
Lymph is the fluid contained within the vessels.
Lymph is returned to the systemic veins when the major vessels enter the shoulder region.
Section 33.2 gives more information about the lymphatic system.
There is a bed next to a blood capillary bed.
Excess tissue fluid is taken up by the lymphatic capillaries.
The precapillary sphincters can shut down a blood capillary.
Some capillary beds are not open at the same time.
The capillary bed is open when the precapillary sphincters are relaxed.
When precapillary sphincters are contracted, blood flows through a shunt that carries blood from an arteriole to a venule.
The blood distributes heat to the body parts.
Your face is flushed when you are warm because many of the capillaries that serve the skin are open.
The body has excess heat.
Your skin takes on a bluish hue when you are cold.
Some animals lack a transport system.
The needs of cells in cnidarians and flatworms can be supplied by the presence of a gastrovascular cavity.
Roundworms and echinoderms use their pseudocoelom the same way.
Other animals have a transport system.
The fish's heart pumps blood to the gills and then to the body without a second pass through the heart.
Both pulmonary and systemic circuits are found in the other animals.
Amphibians have two atria.
Oxygen-rich blood is always separate from oxygen-poor blood in the hearts of Crocodilians, birds, and mammals.
The two ventricles contract when the SA is stimulated.
All chambers will rest.
Following a heart-healthy diet, getting regular exercise, maintaining a proper weight, and not smoking cigarettes can help protect against the development of these conditions.
The majority of the blood is water, but it also contains 7-8% of the body's vital fluids.
The red blood cells have hemoglobin in them.
Platelets and injured tissue release prothrombin activator are two of the three major events in blood clotting.
The ABO blood-typing system is based on the presence or absence of A and B antigens on the red blood cells.
The Rh factor is a type of red blood cell antigen.
If an Rh-negative woman becomes pregnant with an Rh-positive fetus, she may produce anti-Rh antibodies that could damage the Rh-positive fetus she carries.
Water leaves the capillary due to blood pressure.
In between, waste diffuses into the capillary according to concentration.
Pick the best answer for the question.
All animals have a closed circulatory system.
A major difference between veins and arteries is that veins do not carry oxygenated blood.
Blood returns to the heart from the lungs in humans.
The ventricles relax at the same time.
Some human tissues do not have any blood vessels.
If you have a heart rate of 70 beats per minute, your heart pumps 5.25 liters of blood per minute.
The need for heart transplants is not met by enough living hearts.