There were reasons for people to change their loyalties.
Luther's attack on authority was seen by some German peasants as a sanction for their own social rebel ion against landlords.
Luther's approval of many types of religious belief drew some people to him.
Lutheranism was more open to moneymaking and other earthly activities than traditional Catholicism was.
The form of Protes Lutherans did not see special vocations as particularly holy, monasteries were abolished, and some of the Christian bias against moneymaking was present.
Elizabeth I, Henry's daughter, was Protestant and attracted to some of the new doctrines.
Calvinist ministers encouraged preachers of God's word.
Calvinists wanted the participation of all believers in local church access to government, which promoted the idea of a wider access to government.
Calvinism spread from popular education so that more people could read the Bible.
Calvinism was accepted in parts of Germany and France, but not in Switzerland, where it produced strong north America.
Catholicism maintained its hold on significant portions of the continent despite the inroads made by different Protestant denominations.
Puritan exiles brought it to North America by the 17th century.
It was not possible to restore religious unity, but it was able to revive Catholic doctrine and the Catholic faith in southern Europe, Austria, Poland, Hungary, and parts of Germany.
There is a new religious order.
They attacked popular superstitions and remnants of magical belief, which meant that Catholics and Protestants alike were trying to find new ways to shape the outlook of ordinary reformation.
Catholic missionary sponsored missions to Asia and the Americas were sponsored by Jesuit fervor.
There was a series of bloody religious wars.
The Early Modern Period, 1450-1750: The World Shrinks for a full century, cutting population by as much as 60 percent in some regions.
The Netherlands gave up its independence to Spain.
Sweden is locked in combat with Calvinists, Anglicans, and some remaining Catholics Protestants.
There was tension between the claims of parliament and the emperor's assertions of authority by a new line of English kings.
The civil war ended in 1660 after King and Spain, but full resolution came only in 1688-1689, when limited after great destruction with the Treaty of religious toleration was granted to most Protestants.
Religious issues dominated European politics for a long time.
Although the idea of full religious liberty was still in the future, the idea of Christian unity could not be restored.
Map 22.2 shows that the wars affected the political balance of Europe.
France was on the rise after a period of weakness.
Conflict from Britain galvanized into an international role.
Spain was briefly ascendant.
Some kings and princes benefited from the decline of papal authority by taking a stronger role in reli disputes.
This was true in both Protestant and Catholic areas.
In some cases, Protestant issues about the powers of the monarchy encouraged popular political movements and enhanced parliamentary power.
The impact of religious change was much more than politics.
The execution of the previous king changed popular beliefs.
New impulses were produced by Catholic reform.
Western people were less likely to see a connection between God and nature.
The idea of miracles or other interventions in nature's course was resisted by Protestants.
Increased concentration on family life was promoted by religious change.
Love between husband and wife was encouraged by religious writers.
There were ambiguous implications for women after this promotion of the family.
Civil war over religious issues resulted in the beheading of Charles I in London in 1649.
One of the most controversial events in English history was the regicide.
The rise of absolute monarchies led to the consolidation of national borders.
A recent study shows that villages that straddled the French-Spanish border were undifferentiated before 1600, but by 1700 they showed marked national differences because of different state policies and the greater impact of belonging to one state or another.
The religious training of the children was done by the fathers.
With the new emphasis on affection, women's emotional role in the family improved.
The spread of the printing press along with religious change promoted literacy.
In the town of Durham, England, only 20 percent of the population were literate by the year 1570.
People were given new ideas and ways of thinking as a result of growing literacy.
The European Reformation was a fascinating case where long-run consequences did not coincide with the intentions of early leaders, or with initial, short-term change.
The two movements could combine to an extent in their effects on politics and culture by the 17th century.
The protest was spurred by a more commercial economy.
The economic structure of the West was fundamentally redefined during the 16th century.
Market and merchant involvement increased.
The impact of the new world economy in western Europe was clear.
The price inflation that occurred throughout western Europe during the 16th century spurred greater commercialization.
The import of gold and silver from Spain's new colonies in Latin America caused prices to go up.
The price rise was caused by the availability of more money.
New wealth increased demand for products to sell in the colonies and Europe, but western production could not keep up.
When money was losing value, it was cheap to borrow.
It made sense to take loans for new investments since a sum borrowed one year would be worth less five years later.
The great trading companies were formed in Spain, England, the Netherlands, and France because of inflation and the new colonial opportunities.
The Dutch East India Company used to dominate trade with the islands of Indonesia.
European merchants brought new profits back to Europe.
Manufacturing was stimulated by colonial markets.
Most peasants continued to produce for their own needs, but agricultural specialty areas developed in the production of wines, cheeses, wool, and the like.
Commercial farming and paid laborers were favored by some industries.
Shoemaking, pottery, metalworking, and other manufacturing specializations were found in both rural villages and the cities.
In metals and mining, technical improvements followed.
Many ordinary people saw their prosperity increase as well as the great merchants.
The average Western peasant or artisan owned five times as many things as their counterparts in southeastern Europe by the year 1600, according to a historian.
A 16th-century Englishman said that in the past a peasant and his family slept on the floor and had only a pan or two as cookware, but by the last decades of the century a farmer might have a fair amount of pewter in his cupboard, three or four feather beds.
The result of higher productivity and better trade and transport facilities was that French peasants began to enjoy wine more frequently.
There were people who were victims of change.
Many people had to sell their small plots of land because of rising food prices.
Some people without access to producing proletarians became manufacturing workers, depending on orders from merchant capitalists to keep property, and typically manufacturing their tools in their cottages.
Others became paid laborers on agricultural estates, where landlords workers, paid laborers in agricultural were eager for a more manipulable workforce to take advantage of business opportunities in the cities.
A new attitude toward 16th and 17th century was blaming the poor for moral failures.
The changes in popular economic and cultural traditions provoked a lot of outcries.
The wave of popular protest in western Europe began at the end of the 16th century.
Peasants and townspeople rose for protection from poverty and loss of property.
The currents of change were not affected by the uprisings.
Social tension and new ideas of equality were revealed in the popular rebellions of the 17th century.
The English group called the Levelers gained 100,000 signatures on a petition for political rights after the uprisings of 1648.
Common people praised the kings while attacking their "bad advisors" and high taxes.
"We should cut off all the gentlemen's heads," said an Englishman.
Europe experienced new levels of population concentration in some urban areas by 1600.
In the same decades, there was an eruption against suspected witches in various parts of western Europe and New England.
The new scale reflected the social and cultural upheaval of the time.
The death of over 100,000 of the most common targets of persecution was revealed by the hysteria.
Many of the accused witches thought they had Europeans between 1590 and 1650; however many were accused by their neighbors of being self-serving.
The society faced with forces of unusual complexity was revealed by the whole witchcraft common in Protestant experience.
Between 1450 and 1650 there were Balance Sheet Changes in Europe.
Secular interests clashed with spiritual ones.
Sharp reactions to change were explained by the confusion of change.
There were some basic directions to follow.
The role of families was changing.
Religion remained strong, but it became more political.
The stage for further change was set by all of this.
The cultural reorientation state took on new forms after the revolution in science in the 17th century.
Changes in popular outlook were promoted by this wave of change.
The political upheavals intensified after 1650.
The emergence of the nation-state was the focus of the new government forms in the West.
The state's functions expanded.
In the 17th century, key variant such as absolute monarchies and parliamentary regimes emerged, but there were some common patterns beneath the surface.
There were big changes in western Europe during the early modern period.
The rise of science in intellectual life was a key development.
The center of the universe was where this discovery set was located.
The hero of western science and rationalism is usually Copernicus.
The central position of the sun was already realized by scientists in other traditions.
The intellectual history of other societies, including classical Greece, had never seen science take on more importance than it did in the West.
Change can happen but it does.
The traditions of the later Middle Ages were used in scientific research during the 16th century.
His father abandoned the family and his mother was tried for witchcraft, which is unusual for a major researcher.
He was drawn to astronomy and mathematics while he was at university, but he wanted to be a Lutheran minister.
He used the work of Copernicus and his own observations to resolve some issues of planetary motion.
He also practiced astrology, casting horoscopes for wealthy patrons, and worked on optics, with the mixed interests so common in real intellectual life.
Around 1600, the Belgian Vesalius gained greater precision in his work.
One of the leading accepted ideas is Johannes Kepler.
Gains in biology and astronomy were the basis for new instruments such as the microscope.
The Scientific revolution was condemned.
The universe was published.
Chemical research has advanced understanding of gravity and planetary motion.
The various astronomer and physical influential member of the Scientific observations and wider theories were brought together in a neat framework of natural laws.
The revolution was set forth byNewton, best known for his work on basic principles of all motion.
The basic review of all received wisdom (17th scientific method in terms of a mixture of rational hypothesis and generalization and careful century) was stated byNewton.
There was a vision of a natural universe that could be created and laws that would be captured in simple laws.
There is a method of knowing that might do away with blind reliance on tradition or nature.
To advance research and dissemination of the findings, new scientific institutions were set up.
Beliefs in witchcraft began to decline and establish principles of motion.
There was a belief that people could control their environment.
Insurance companies were formed to help guard against risk.
Doctors increased their attacks on the popular role of divinity in order to promote a more scientific diagnosis of illness.
The power of the universe of the Scientific Revolution's senses and reason made it impossible for writers affected by the new science to disrupt nature's laws.
Scientific advances made assumptions about the possibility of human progress.
The idea that past styles set timeless standards of perfection came under fire.
Science was central to intellectual life before.
Continuing contacts with work in the Middle East are the subject of Europe's science Locke, essay.
The West was not alone in developing important scientific ideas, but it was now the leading center for scientific advancement.
The key thinkers were alone in seeing science as the key to gaining and defining knowledge.
The picture shows the grand 17th-century palace at Versailles.
The classical style is seen to be most prestigious for public buildings.
It is thought that architecture is the most socially revealing of all the arts because it depends most heavily on public support, and it is harder for architects to be as eccentric as painters or poets.
New political forms gained ground in Europe.
The political change from 1600 to 1750 was complicated.
A tradition of strong monarchy developed in France and other countries.
In Britain and Holland there was a different emphasis on parliamentary check on royal power.
Europe's political future was shaped by both traditions.
More effective central governments and better-trained bureaucrats helped Europe catch up to countries like China.
There was a new element in politics that would spread to other parts of the world as a result of growing suggestions of what would be called the nation-state.
The rise of science and the new political currents connected at times.
The balance between king and nobles was lost in the 17th century.
The tradition of noble pressure or revolt was curbed in most countries after the cooling of the religious wars.
More ambitious military organization in states that defined war as a central purpose required more careful administration and improved tax collection.
France is the West's largest and most powerful nation.
The power of French kings increased in the 17th century.
The medieval parliament was stopped and laws were passed as they saw fit.
gunpowder was undercutting the military basis of feudalism and they blew up the castles of dissident nobles.
Merchants and lawyers were brought in to create a bureaucracy.
The end of witchcraft hysteria in the West was caused by out manufacturing jobs.
From economic control of their lives, the explanation focuses on new efforts by elites, such as local magis trates the power disparity in Western society.
Discipline mass impulses is what ordinary peo trates.
Authorities stopped believing that people knuckled under or protested, but they were reacting, not in demonic disruptions of natural processes.
They were open to new ideas about how to handle health problems without fully converting to a scientific outlook.
The rise of science edies has been suggested by some historians that they needed witches less.
A more independent role has been shifted by widespread.
There was a decline from repeated decisions by peasants and artisans, not just both in witchcraft beliefs, once a key element in the Western men from those at the top.
The steady technological improvements in tality flowed upward from the practicing artisans of the 16th century.
New ways of thinking were reflected in the decline.
It involved complex interac had taken shape by the 16th century and was an innovation between various segments of Western society.
It helped new parents, villagers, scientists and priests.
Young groups and creative individuals had to wait to marry until their property-owning caused change.
The growing importance of social history could cause many to seek new lands or new eco called attention to ordinary people, as we have seen, but it has nomic methods.
Ordinary people changed their answers to questions about their role.
These changes had a big impact.
Europe is an operation created by elites, with the mass as pas.
It is important to determine whether change was imposed or if ordinary people had to take action by key leadership groups.
They professionalized the army, giving more formal training to officers, providing uniforms and support, and creating military hospitals and pensions.
Louis became a major patron of the arts and gave the government a cultural role that was never before seen in the West.
Social functions should not interfere with state affairs.
Louis and his ministers created additional functions for nation-states in western Europe using the new bureaucratic structure.
They created a new state-run during the 17th century and reduced internal tariffs, which acted as barriers to trade.
mercantilism held that governments should promote monarchs who passed laws without the internal economy to improve tax revenues and to limit imports from other nations.
Louis XIV set tariffs on imported goods, established state churches, tried to encourage their merchant fleets, and sought to provide raw materials and state economic policies.
The basic structure of absolute monarchy was developed in other states.
The most important spread of absolute monarchy was in the central European states.
The power of the Habsburg rulers increased after they pushed back the last Turk invasion threat in the 17th century and then added Hungary to their domain.
A strong military was seen as a key political goal by most absolute monarchs.
The basis for a series of wars from the 1680s onward was Louis XIV's strong state.
The wars gave France some new territory, but also attracted an opposing alliance system that prevented further advancement.
In the 18th century, a series of conflicts won new territory for the kings of Prussia, who had long been cautious in exposing their military to the risk of war.
The trend toward absolute monarchy in the 17th century was different for Parliamentary Monarchies Britain and the Netherlands.
They emphasized the role of the central state, but also built parliamentary regimes in which the kings shared power with representatives selected by the nobility and upper urban classes.
The king is English.
The English parliament did not depend on the king to convene because regular sessions were scheduled to overthrow James II.
It was able to approve taxation, which allowed it to start most major policies.
In the 17th century, a growing body of political theory built on these as having basic sovereignty over the parliamentary ideas.
John Locke argued that power came from the people.
Monarchs should be restrained by institutions that protect the public interest.
There is a right of revolution.
The tension originated in England and Holland and was expressed in new ways.
Both the absolute monarchies and the parliamentary monarchies had characteristics that made them nation-states.
They ruled peoples who shared a common culture and language, but some important minorities were not included.
They could appeal to a certain type of loyalty.
The idea of special rights for Englishmen helped feed the parliamentary movement in France.
Ordinary people in many nation-states, even though not directly represented in government, believe that government should act for their interests.
When bad harvests drove up food prices, the government was obligated to help people out, as Louis XIV faced recurrent popular riots.
Under the banner of mercantilism, nation-states developed a growing list of functions, which were shared by monarchists and parliamentary leaders alike.
New political values and loyalties were very different from the political traditions of other civilizations.
They kept the West at war.
Basic changes continued in western Europe during the first half of the 18th century.
New agricultural developments added an important element to the results of commercial changes.
Europe's cultural transformation continued at both elite and popular levels.
The Enlightenment resulted in important results for Europe and other parts of the world.
Key political groups competed for influence without major policy differences during the 18th century, as English politics settled into a parliamentary routine.
In France, absolute monarchy became less effective.
It couldn't force changes in the tax structure that would give it more solid financial footing because it couldn't get the aristocrats to give up their traditional exemptions.
The political developments of the king of Prussia were more frequent in central Europe.
His government built on military and better agricultural methods and promoted the use of the American potato as a staple crop.
Laws promoting greater commercial coordination and greater equity were enacted by the bureaucratic foundations.
This type of ruler claimed to be enlightened, wielding great of religion, and increased state control of authority but for the good of society at large.
The policies of the major Western nation-states were Enlightened or not.
The Seven Years War between France and Britain focused on battles for the colonial empire.
Prussia gained new land after Austria and Prussia fought.
The wars of the 18th century showed the continued link between statecraft and war that was characteristic of the West.
The 18th century featured scientific breakthrough and new understanding of major elements, but not the same as the 18th century.
The Enlightenment believed that rational laws could be used to sketch the modern social sciences.
Rational laws could describe social behavior.
According to criminolos, a decent society would be able to rehabilitate criminals through education.
Although they disagreed about what political form was best, political theorists wrote about the importance of carefully planned constitutions and controls over privilege.
There is a new school of economists.
Government should avoid regulation in favor of the operation of individual initiative and market avoid regulation of the economy in favor of forces.
This was an important statement of economic policy and an illustration of the growing belief of market forces.
The Enlightenment has an impressive range of single individuals.
Diderot was trained by the best known for his work on the first Jesuits and went on to write about philosophy, mathematics, and psychology.
The Early Modern Period, 1450-1750: The World Shrinks controversies about Women changes in family structure and some shifts in the economic.
When we, whom they style by the name of weaker vessels, other tensions showed in open debate about women's relationships though of a more delicate, fine, soft, and more pliant flesh to men; women not content with a docile wifeliness vied with new therefore of a temper We are set only to land, so we can't vindicate our own injuries, so it may have had wider ramifications.
During the 18th century, when the needle was quieter, some of these arguments about family confinement and inequality popped up again.
If we are taught to read, we are limited to our Mother Tongue, and when a more durable feminist movement took shape in the that limit we are not suffered to pass, it was the West.
When man was sand ways to deceive thee and all such fools as are suitors made of the mere dust of the earth, women had a thousand ways to entice thee.
The woman had her being them, some of them kept in hand with promises, some of them flattery, and some of them delay with dal iances, and some of them difference even in our complexions.
They lay out the folds of their hair to entangle is of a melancholy aspect, having their breasts in the vale of destruc face and a forest upon his Chin.
The representation of a garden of inter eat not men until they are dead, but women devour them alive is called the cheek.
It is said that men have one fault and that women have two, but that they were not created to be slaves or vassals.
It is said that things were not out of his foot to be trod upon, but in a medium that was far 888-247-8873.
He was his fellow feeler, his equal, and companion.
For the pleasure of the fairest woman in the world lasteth but equal with men, and that for luxury, surquidant obscenity, pro a honeymoon, and all that.
He visited Catherine the Great of Russia to thank her for her patronage.