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29 -- Part 5: Nationalism in Asia
The situation changed after 1921.
The United States is an isolationist.
Despite Arab protests, the British began honoring the Declaration.
In the interwar years, Jewish immigration from Europe to Palestine grew rapidly.
There was a mass of Jewish refugees in the 1930s.
Since 1914, the Jewish population of Palestine has increased fivefold and now accounts for 30 percent of the population.
The British tried to slow Jewish immigration.
Neither Jews nor Arabs were satisfied by this effort and the two communities ended up in a civil war.
On the eve of the Second World War, the Brit ish proposed an independent Palestine with only a third of the population Jews.
Zionism was in danger of losing its dream of an independent Jewish state.
In the face of adversity Jewish settlers from many different countries banded together to forge a cohesive community in Palestine.
For hundreds of years, Hebrew used defense.
Rural development achieved many re markable results despite slow beginnings.
The work, rewards, and defense states emerged.
The aftermath of the acterized industry resulted in the char Middle East.
Hindu and Muslim cultures came to see themselves as fundamentally different in rising to challenge British rule, which led to the national movement in British India.
In India, modern nationalism's power to unify and to divide has been most strikingly demonstrated.
When the First World War began, the British feared a revolt, as Indian nationalism had emerged in the late 19th century.
Indians supported the war effort with supplies, money, and soldiers.
More good government jobs were opened to Indians by the British.
Inflation, high taxes, food shortages, and a terrible influ enza epidemic created widespread suffering and discontent as the war ground on.
Moderates and radicals in the Indian National Con gress Party joined forces after the war.
The Pact was forged between Hindus and Muslims in Lucknow.
It called for India and the Indian National Congress to be treated the same by the British.
The British response was conflicting.
The British established a dual administration in the late 19th century.
The activities of agriculture and health were transferred from British to Indian officials.
The courts, police, and taxes were all British.
The positive impact of this re form was undermined by old-fashioned authoritarian rule.
The Rowlatt Acts were rammed through India's Imperial Leg islative Council by the British.
There was a wave of rioting in India.
A crowd of ten thousand people gathered to celebrate a Sikh religious festival in an enclosed square in the Sikh holy city of Amritsar in the northern Punjab province.
The local English commander had banned all public meetings that day.
He ordered his troops to fire into the crowd without warning.
The official British records of the Amritsar massacre list ed and wounded, but they are disputed as being too low.
India was on the verge of more violence and oppression, and terrorism and guerril a war, as tensions flared.
India took a different path to national liberation because of Mohandas K. Gandhi.
By the time of Gandhi's birth, the British were firmly in control of the Indian subcontinent.
Part of the country was ruled by British officials, who were answerable to the British Parliament in London.
Gandhi had advice from the British resident assigned to his court.
Gandhi grew up in a well-to-do family during British rule and his campaign of resistance inspired the Indian people.
After the outbreak of World War II, he arrives for talks with the British viceroy.
Gandhi passed the English bar while studying law after his father's death.
He decided in 1893 to try a case for some wealthy Indian merchants in the colony of Natal in modern South Africa.
The plight of the ex patriate Indian community was taken up by Gandhi in Natal.
Thousands of poor Indians were imported as indentured laborers from the white plantation.
Some of the Indians who completed their contracts remained in Natal as free persons and economic competitors.
The Afrikaner and British settlers passed laws that discriminated against them.
Poor Indians were forced to work on plantations or return to India.
Rich Indians lost the vote in Natal in 1896.
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