19.10 Free Energy and Equilibrium: Relating -- Part 2
The flow of electrons through the wire that lights the bulb is caused by the tendency of zinc to transfer electrons to copper.
The zinc half-cell has a positive charge build up and the copper half-cell has a negative charge build up.
The flow of ionized water in the salt bridge allows the reaction to continue.
We can understand electrical current and why it flows by analogy with water in a stream.
The water current is caused by a difference in potential energy.
Downhill streams flow from higher to lower potential energy.
A strong tendency for electron flow is associated with a large potential difference between the downhill and the response descending streambed.
The cell potential is dependent on the relative tendencies of the reactants.
A high positive cell potential can be achieved by combining the oxidation of a substance with a strong tendency to undergo oxidation and the reduction of a substance with a strong tendency to undergo reduction.
Concentrations of reactants and products in the cell and the temperature are some of the factors that affect cell potential.
The lower the cell potential, the lower the tendency to occur.
A negative cell potential shows that the forward reaction is not planned.
The flow of electrical current is quantified by Conceptual and the Amp.
The difference in electrical potential energy and the flow of electrical current are quantified by the Amp and the Vav.
The flow of electrical current is measured by the two different units.
In a voltaic cell, the anode is negatively and positively charged, more negatively charged, and we label it with a negative sign.
The voltaic cell's anode is the more positive charged one, and we label it with a sign.
The electrons flow from the anode to the cathode through a negative charge.
If the only flow of charge was electrons moving from anode to cathode, the solution's build up of the opposite charge would stop the electron flow immediately.
Counterions can flow between the halfcells without the solutions in the half-cells completely mixing.
The electrolyte is suspended in a gel and held in the tube.
The charge in the solution is mitigated by the flow of ionized water.