What are carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates ( carbon + water) include both simple sugars ( glucose and fructose) and polymers such as starch.
What is its ratio and is it hydrophilic or hydrophobic?
The ratio for carbohydrates are 2 hydrogen: 1 oxygen. Carbohydrates are hydrophilic, meaning that they are able to form bonds with water.
What is the function of carbohydrates?
Carbohydrates function to serve as fuel and building material.
- MONOSACCHARIDES: monomers of carbohydrates
- POLYSACCHARIDES: polymers of monosaccharides, where the energy of carbohydrates is found
- Ex: starch: found in plants & glycogen: found in animals
- CELLULOSE: found in plant cell walls
- CHITIN: found in exoskeleton of anthropoids
What are Lipids?
Lipids are a Diverse group of hydrophobic molecules, they are not polymers, they are composed of a variety of components ( do not repeat).
What are Lipids made up of?
Triglycerides are made up of a glycerol molecule and three fatty acids (hydrocarbon chains that are non polar).
Saturated Fats Qualities:
- No double bonds
- room temperature= solid
- related to cardiovascular disease
- produced by animals (butter, lard)
Unsaturated Fats Qualities:
- Have some carbon double bond, which leads to kinks
- room temperature= liquid
- produced by plants (corn oil, olive oil)
Functions of Lipids?
The functions of lipid include energy storage 2x more than carbohydrates, lipids serve to protect vital internal organs, and lastly lipids serve as insulation for the body.
Are proteins monomers or polymers?
Proteins, or polypeptides are polymers made up of amino acid monomers.
What do proteins contain?
Amino acids contain central carbon bond to a carboxyl group, an amino group at the other end, a hydrogen atom and an R group.
What bonds connect amino acids?
Peptide bonds link amino acids and are formed by dehydration synthesis, between carboxyl groups of adjacent monomers.
- PRIMARY STURUCTURE: sequence in which amino acids are joined (linear)
- SECONDARY STRUCTURE: one of two 3D shapes that have hydrogen bonding between the polypeptide backbone.
- TERTIARY STRUCTURE: complex globular structure that involves the interaction of R groups. (hydrophobic, Van der Waals, ionic bonds, disulfide bridge)
- QUARTERNARY STURUCTURE: 2 or more polypeptide chains into 1 large protein ex: hemoglobin
When does a protein denature?
A protein is denatured when there is a loss in shape and ability to function due to change in heat, pH, etc.