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23.7 and Protein Synthesis -- Part 1
All those genes are not expressed by any particular cell.
Cells only make the proteins that are important to their function.
The nucleus of a Pancreatic cell is where theinsulin gene is located.
Pancreatic cells do not have the same genes as hair cells, but they do have the same genes in their nuclei.
The cells in our body have both genes in their nucleus, but not in the same place.
Most of the 1013 cells in the human body have complete copies of the original DNA that was present in the fertilized egg.
Cells make complete copies of their genes when they divide.
The structure of the DNA is related to its ability to copy itself.
Evidence from X-ray photos proved that there are two strands of DNA in a double helix.
The bases on each strand are directed towards the inside of the helix.
The double helix and the pair of complimentary bases were discovered by Francis Crick.
The two strands are wrapped into a coil and only one pairs with the other.
When a cell is about to divide, its genetic material relaxes.
When a cell is about to divide, the hydrogen bonds joining the bases break, forming two daughter strands.
Two complete copies of the original DNA, one for each daughter cell, are created when hydrogen bonds between old strands and newly formed strands.
Living organisms must continually synthesise thousands of proteins to survive, each time it is needed and in the quantities required.
The section of the DNA that codes for a particularProtein is unraveled when a cell needs to make it.
At the ribosome, there is a process of synthesis.
The ribosome moves along the mRNA chain to read the sequence of codons.
The specified amino acid is brought into place at each codon.
The necessary reactions are accomplished by the use of enzymes.
The ribosome has ribosome and ribosome subunits.
A ribosome moves along a strand of mRNA.
The order of the base pairs in the U.S. Department of Energy and the National # is the same as in the other Institutes of Health.
Over 2500 researchers from 18 countries have contributed to this research, which has been referred to as the fied in the human genome.
Understanding the genes can help Mount Everest.
Individuals who are susceptible to certain diseases were identified in the initial draft of the map.
We highlight some of what has been learned through this drugs to match individuals.
Knowledge of the human genome is expected to lead to new therapies.
The current procedure for developing drugs is trial and error.
Knowledge of a specific gene will allow scientists to design drugs that carry out a specific function related to that it contains 2.4 million base pairs.
The human genome contains about 30,000 genes.
Half of these are still unknown.
In Section 23.1 we talked about how the Human Genome Project can make a drug, and researchers estimated that there were 100,000 genes in humans.
The needed drug has a number of genes.
It may be possible in humans that it is not much larger than the number of genes found in the cells of sick organisms.
The genes in a roundworm are nearly 20,000.
Whatever makes development, but they may eventually give us a powerful new humans, it is not the number of genes in our tool for fighting inherited diseases.
Less than 2% of human DNA actually consists of genes, despite the completion of the Human Genome Project.
The data obtained within the genome will be used in the coming years to aggregate these genes in seemingly random areas.
Other organisms tend to have more uniform distribution of genes throughout their genome.
The code for the sequence of amino acids is contained in DNA.
Cells have structures called chromosomes that contain genes.
Humans have a number of chromosomes in their cells.
Each daughter cell gets a complete copy of the genes when a human cell divides.
The base sequence of the gene that codes for the cell's synthesis is transferred to the messenger RNA.
The ribosome is where the correct sequence of the amino acids is found.
There is a section of DNA.
The chemical structure of insulin can be found in either fat or oil.
Frederick Sanger was the man who made it possible for insulin to be synthesised.
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