In order to evaluate your understanding of how living things survive and reproduce, the AP exam will ask you questions about how animals respond to external stimuli.
The stimuli may come from the physical environment or from other living things.
The behaviors can be learned or they can be individual and coordinated with other individuals.
It is possible to learn animal behavior through interactions with the environment or through genes.
Natural selection and other evolutionary forces influence behavior that is influenced by genes.
Genetics should increase the fitness and reproductive success of the individual.
Female parents care for their offspring in mammals.
A FAP is initiated by a specific event.
Even if the original intent of the behavior can't be fulfilled, the behavior is carried out to completion.
When a graylag goose sees an egg outside its nest, it will roll the egg back into the nest with a series of maneuvers.
There is an egg outside the nest.
The goose will retrieve any object that resembles its egg, and once the FAP has begun, it will continue the motions until it has completed the motions back to the nest.
The goose completes the FAP by returning an "imaginary" egg to the nest even if the egg is removed.
The males defend their territory.
The red belly of males makes them aggressive.
The same aggressive FAP can be initiated by any object with a red underside.
The behavior is irreversible once acquired.
Konrad Lorenz discovered that graylag goslings will accept any moving object as their mother on the first day of life.
Lorenz was accepted as their mother for the rest of their lives.
Their real mother was rejected after the critical period.
Salmon migrate to the ocean to eat.
When they are reproductively mature, they return to their birthplace to breed.
The odors associated with their birthplace were imprinted during early life.
Dogs salivate when presented with food.
Dogs salivate when a bell is rung just before they are given food, according to Ivan Pavlov.
Dogs associated the ring of the bell with the presentation of food.
It happens when an animal connects its behavior with the environment.
If the response is desirable, the animal will repeat the behavior in order to get the same response.
The animal will avoid the behavior if the response is unpleasant.
Most animal training is done by humans.
The rats were trained to push levers to get food.
Learning can be forgotten or reversed if the performed behavior no longer elicits the expected response.
When an animal associates attributes of a location with a reward, it occurs.
Tinbergen observed that the wasp was able to associate nearby markers with the location of their nest.
The was unable to locate their nest after Tinbergen removed the markers.
Sea anemones eat by pulling food into their mouths.
Japanese monkeys remove sand from a potato by holding it in one hand and brushing it away with the other.
The monkey found that it could brush the sand away if it held the potato in the water.
The other monkeys in the troop learned the behavior through observational learning.
A primate will stack boxes so it can climb them and get access to bananas.
Birds seem to learn to fly by trial and error.
If the birds are physically capable of flying, they will fly on their first try.
The ability to fly is innate, but only after the bird has matured.
Animals have evolved because they increase their fitness.
A particular challenge can not be resolved by every generation.
There is a certain amount of flexibility in imprinting.
If a mother is killed before a chick is born, the chick will choose another bird for her, most likely the same species.
They can respond to the next occurrence more efficiently if they form an association with the event.
Habituation allows people to ignore repetitive events.
The animals are able to remain focused on other events.
The time required for new behaviors to be acquired is reduced by this.
It must respond in a way that maximizes its survival and reproductive success.
The body is prepared for action by dilating blood vessels in skeletal muscles, increasing heart rate, and releasing sugar into the blood, when the nervous system is stimulated by a stress response.
Areas that provide little camouflage can be avoided.
An avoidance response may be triggered by objects or living things that are unfamiliar.
An avoidance response can be triggered by smells, sounds, or out-of-context images that are unfamiliar or strange.
The alarm warns other people in the group to flee.
Vervet monkeys call for a snake, a bird, and a leopard.
Belding's ground squirrel make alarm calls to warn others of a predator.
The fitness of an individual depends on the rearing of young into adults.
The young must be protected from the stresses of the environment as well as from predator.
Birds feed their hatchlings.
Since females have invested the most in producing the offspring, they are usually the caretakers, but in some species both males and females participate.
Female sea horses deposit their eggs into the pouch of a male who fertilizes and protects them until they hatch.
Milk produced by mammals provides protection and guidance for many years.
In many cases, the vision and olfactory abilities of animals have evolved with flower color and scent.
Yellow or blue flowers are attractive to bees.
Birds have a poor sense of smell and are attracted to red and yellow flowers.
The flowers provide animals with a source of food.
Animals are used to spread pollen.
Red coloring distinguishes toxic tomatoes fromedible tomatoes.
Fruit color is a warning that the fruit is poisonous.
Chemical signals from aromatic compounds released from fruit can provide clues as to whether the fruit is healthy.
It is important to note that a food toxic to one animal may be healthy for another, as many animals have evolved pathways to detoxify plant materials, and in some cases, utilize the toxins for their own use.
Monarch butterflies use the toxins in milkweed plants to make themselves unpalatable to birds.
The body odor of lions increases the vigilance of zebras.
Lions will often change their hunting strategy to get to their prey.
Animals respond to stimuli by moving.
Animals can move to seek food, shelter, or mates.
The animal slows down in either a favorable or unfavorable environment.
The animal stays longer in favorable environments.
Animals will run when a log or rock is lifted.
These movements are responses to stimuli that are unfavorable.
Thebacterial move away from toxic substances or towards oxygen.
They move when there is a concentration of signaling molecule emitted by the same species.
The grouping ofbacteria into colonies makes it difficult to remove them.
The Moths move at night.
When food odors reach the sharks, they move toward it.
Female mosquitos move toward CO2 and lactic acid to find mammals.
It's usually in response to seasonal availability of food.
Some animals migrate to warmer climates.
Birds use the sun or stars to find their way to their destinations.
The kangaroo rat is only active in the early evening hours when the temperatures are cooler and the risk of being eaten by a predator is low.
Owl's pose a high risk to the survival of the kangaroo rat.
The forebrain is associated with the pineal gland.
The eye has neural connections that allow it to see changes in light intensities.
Animals respond to the changes in seasons with behavioral rhythms.
Changes in weather, length of day and night, and availability of food are all part of the changing seasons.
To maximize fitness, animals adjust their behavior to take advantage of the benefits or protect themselves from the challenges that each season brings.
In addition to cold weather, food is hard to come by because annual plants die and other plants slow their growth.
Animals that are hibernating reduce energy use by lowering their body temperatures and using energy reserves such as fat to eat food.
Some animals, such as bears, bats, and hummingbirds, who awaken for short periods of time during their period of reduced metabolism, are not true hibernators and are said to be in a state of torpor during their inactive periods.
Estivating animals burrow into mud or tunnels to protect themselves from desiccation.
There are various insects and animals.
snails will climb plants and shield body openings from desiccation until temperatures return to normal.
Frogs and tortoises escape to their underground burrows.
There is an abundance of food with spring.
Grasses and other annuals start growing again after the winter.
Abundance of food provides energy for courting and mating, as well as providing the pregnant mother with food for fetal development and the development of the young offspring.
Communication in animals is used in many ways.
Some chemicals evoke responses when they're smelled and others when they're eaten.
Female moths emit releaser pheromones into the air to attract male moths.
The ants use a releaser to mark trails that lead to food.
Workers eat primer pheromones produced by queen bees, queen termites, and queen ants.
The reproductive ability is prevented by the pheromones.
There are many visual displays observed in animals during acts of aggression.