The "se cret plan" for peace in Vietnam was included in the platform of the next president, Richard Nixon.
The plan called for the gradual withdrawal of American combat forces.
The plan called for the war to be carried into Cambodia and Laos in order to facilitate the U.S. withdrawal from Vietnam.
The Nixon administration wanted the United States to remain in the South indefinitely as guarantors against a takeover by the North Vietnamese.
Nixon's critics in Congress called for a complete withdrawal of American forces from Vietnam.
Domestic politics in the United States have become more focused on the war.
By the summer of 1971, the antiwar movement had displayed growing strength in mass marches on Washington and other cities.
Nixon sent his security adviser, Henry Kissinger, to engage in peace talks with the North Vietnamese.
The political objectives between the North and the South were irreconcilable.
Most voters believed that the Nixon-Kissinger "magic" had ended the fighting for good and cast their votes for the president.
In 1973, there was a time of revelation for Nixon and the American people.
The communist forces of Vietnam believed that South Vietnam would never allow the political compromises suggested in the agreement.
The west's armies began to give ground after most American forces were withdrawn.
In 1975, South Vietnam was quickly taken over by "liberation" troops.
The leaders in the North have tried to consolidate the two halves of the country, repair the enormous damages left by the war, and develop a workable national economy.
Foreign investment came in during the 1980s and 1990s.
The United States extended full diplomatic recognition to the Hanoi regime in 1995.
Cambodia had a disastrous sequel to the Vietnam War.
Cambodia fell to the Khmer Rouge, an extreme Marxist group that had fought for years as guerrillas against various governments in the capital.
Pol Pot sealed off the country in 1976 and proceeded to transform it into a collectivized society.
People were forced to leave the cities and clear new lands to work on irrigation projects and farms.
Several million Cambodians perished as a result of these shocking dislocations.
The genocidal government was overthrown by Cambodian rebels in 1978 and the Khmer Rouge fought on as guerrillas.
The United Nations tried to resolve the political and military situation in Cambodia but could not because of the unpopularity of the Vietnamese.
Thousands of refugees fled Cambodia, as well as other parts of Asia, over land and by sea, loaded onto rickety vessels headed for any foreign port that would accept them.
The UN succeeded in establishing a democratic government in Cambodia in 1993, headed by a respected constitutional monarch.
In 1996, a large group came over to the government after the Khmer Rouge refused to participate.
The country has largely been free of civil war since then, though the democratic legitimacy of the present prime minister, Samdech Hung Sen, who staged rigged elections in 1998, is questionable.
In the 70s, there was an effort to pursue the path of resistance through peaceful and democratic methods.
The president is elected by regular constitutional procedures.
While in office, Allende sought authority for sweeping landholding reforms and for state ownership of banks and basic industries; he defended democratic methods, legality, and civil liberties.
The conservative opponents of the president used the press, the Congress, and their economic power to block Allende's legislative program and his efforts to increase national production.
By 1973, Allende was faced with staggering inflation, internal unrest, and secret intervention by the American CIA.
His generals and admirals staged a bloody military coup against his government.
The president was killed by the rebels at his desk in the palace.
The new military government, headed by General Augusto Pinochet, proceeded to kill its opponents.
Pinochet set out to establish a laissez-faire economy with the help of American loans and financial advisers, after it was recognized by the United States government.
The economy of the country was stable.
Moderate leftwing and right-wing forces cooperated against Pinochet's dictatorship and he left office in 1989.
He was able to avoid prosecution for the crimes of his regime because of his age and health.
In Latin America, most countries remained under the control of the wealthy, the Catholic Church, and the military even after democratic forms of government were adopted.
The first independent states of Latin America were mostly dictatorships and repressive in the twentieth century.
A new "liberation theology" was preached by many parish priests towards the end of the century to improve the conditions of the poor.
The rapid spread of evangelical Protestant faiths in the area diminished Catholic power as a whole.
The main goal of the Latin nations was economic modernization, and with it came the impact of foreign capital.
The major outside influence was American business.
Mexico tried to conduct a foreign policy that was free of American influence.
In Brazil, military rulers used foreign investment to pursue an independent course of economic growth.
In 1978 Panama regained control of the Canal Zone, which had been occupied by the United States in 1903.
The treaty of transfer was approved by the Senate despite furious objections from some senators.
The United States regained its power in Panama in 1990.
Bush sent an invasion force to oust Noriega.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front brought down the regime of the corrupt Somoza family in 1979.
In spite of ideological reservations, President Carter responded with cautious friendship and assistance after the Sandinistas installed a socialist government.
Ronald Reagan reversed this position in 1981.
Many Third World countries sought national power and industrial wealth through cooperation with the West rather than resistance.
Some felt more threatened by the Soviet Union or China than by the United States or their former colonial rulers, and they hoped for the West's help in disputes with other Third World countries.
The unpopular governments that needed the help of the West in order to hold on to power were so poor that they could not keep going without aid from their former rulers.
To align themselves with the West against the socialist camp, and to welcome Western investment, were some of the things these countries were likely to do.
Japan, a non-Western country that had already learned from the West, joined the ranks of the imperialist powers in the East Asian model.
The defeat of the Second World War gave the Japanese a lot of reasons to cooperate with and learn from the West.
Japan was bound by its peace treaty and its constitution to a nonmilitary foreign policy, it became a fully democratic system of government, and it relied on a close alliance with the United States.
As a loyal member of the "free world," Japan followed a capi talist pattern of economic reconstruction, but it was capitalism in the service of national prosperity and power.
Companies worked closely with each other and with the government to identify new markets and promote new technologies.
Business leaders limited the power and independence of labor unions by not laying off or dismissing workers.
Foreign investors were unable to gain control of Japanese companies because of many formal and informal barriers.
Over the course of a quarter of a century, Japan transformed itself from a devas tated country into a competitive, low-wage supplier of basic industrial products and then became a high-wage exporter of every kind of high-quality manufactured goods.
By 1970, Japan had overtaken China in gross national product and was ranked third in the world.
As the Japanese economy grew, so did the economies of other Third World countries.
The northern half was turned into a communist state by the Soviets, while the southern half was organized as a "democratic-capitalist" state.
One of the powers ruled each area.
In 1950, North Korean troops with Soviet arms attacked the south, which was saved only by swift Western military intervention, authorized by the United Nations Security Council.
The Americans were prevented from overrunning the north by China.
In 1951, a cease-fire was agreed, but two more years of negotiations followed before a final truce was signed.
Korea was divided at the 38th parallel.
South Korea, traditionally the agricultural half of the country, came out of the war as a devastated peasant society, kept going by United States aid and held together by military rule.
South Korea was seen as an outlet for investment and a source of low-cost components by the Japanese in the 1960s.
The South Koreans were afraid of giving control of their economy to their former imperial occupiers, even though they needed Japanese money and machinery.
There are barriers to foreign control of South Korean companies and guaranteed employment in Japan.
By 1980, the country's economy took off, and it was on the way to becoming an advanced industrial society, though still, for the time being, under the authoritarian government of generals.
The communist dictatorship in North Korea had followed a different path from recovery in the 1950s to stagnation and poverty.
The country's problems were made worse by the grotesque cult of its "Great Leader" Kim Il Song and by the pursuit of military superiority over the south, to include, in time, nuclear weapons.
The socialist camp was embarrassed by the contrast between the two halves of Korea.
By 1980, Japanese investment and Japanese-style economic and indus trial practices were bringing prosperity to other Far Eastern countries, above all Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand.
European industries vied for markets with Far Eastern competitors.
The United States could not convince Japan to change its restrictive policies on imports because it owed the country billions of dollars.
The path of cooperation turned the East Asian countries into rivals of the West.
Islam claims to have a special knowledge of and close relationship to the almighty God.
It has been a formative force in many societies that stretch across the Eastern Hemisphere from West Africa to Indonesia.
A new division has appeared in the Islamic world due to new secular ideologies and deep social changes.
On the other hand, there are Muslims who are influenced by secular ideologies who are optimistic about the effect of social change.
Christianity and Judaism have the same split between modernizers and fundamentalists.
The changes and challenges that Islam is facing today are not from the Muslim world.
The values and ways of a different civilization are what Muslim modernizers are trying to introduce into their societies.
Muslim modernizers have failed to give Islamic societies a place in the world equal to that of the West.
Many reforms were introduced by the Muslim monarchs of the 19th century, but most of their countries ended up as part of a European empire.
A new generation of modernizing leaders of Islamic countries who were committed to the Third World goal of reproducing the achievements of the West came after decolonization.
Third World problems included corrupt elites, ethnic and tribal rivalries, struggles over the inheritance of the colonial empires, and dependency on one or other of the power blocs.
In the Middle East, both blocs were determined to wield the maximum influence as they both had vital interests there.
The soviet union did not want the west to become too powerful in a region that lay directly on its southern border.
The inability of secular-minded Arab nationalist leaders to stop the Jewish state of Israel from coming into being was the single greatest failure of the Islamic modernizers.
For these reasons, fundamentalism in Islam has been more radical than in Christianity or Judaism.
Its appeal is felt by groups in Islamic societies whose lives have changed the most under Western influence, such as peasants who move to the towns or college students.
In spite of its traditionalism, its belief and practice are more rigorous than in the past and are promoted by Western-style methods.
A kind of religious dictatorship that is actually an innovation in Islam is called fundamentalism.
The Islamic variety sees the West as the ultimate source of evil, not only in the Muslim world, but also in the United States.
Iran's history goes back before Islam to the ancient Persian Empire.
After the discovery of huge oil reserves in the early twentieth century, Britain and Russia competed for influence over Iran, but the country kept its independence.
Iran turned to the United States as a counterbalance against the Soviets after the Second World War.
In 1951, a nationalist leader, Muhammad Mossadeq, came to power and took control of the oil fields away from American and British companies.
After Mossadeq was overthrown by Iran's ruler, Reza Shah Pahlavi, Iran became an absolute monarchy.
Shah Pahlavi used American aid and his government's oil revenues.
He started a program of rapid modernization and industrialization after lavishing funds on his armed forces.
Many members of the Iranian middle class shared in the oil prosperity, but most of the benefits went to a few.
The modernization efforts of the shah were against Islamic tradition.
He used oppression and harassment to undermine the power of the Shiite clergy, made clear his sympathy with Western secular ways, and promoted a cult of himself as successor of the Persian kings of the times before Islam.
The leaders called for a return to religious tradition and a fair economic order.
The shah was under pressure in 1979.
There were riots and street demonstrations.
Thousands of people were imprisoned, tortured, or killed by the military, but at last the shah's soldiers refused to shoot at their rebelling fellow Iranians.
The monarch was forced to flee for his life because of American support, and the leader of the revolt returned to Tehran in triumph.
The Islamic Republic of Iran was established once the revolutionaries were in power.
Hundreds of the shah's military and civilian officials were put on trial and executed by the new Revolutionary Council.
It respected dress and behavior, especially for women.
The shah's policies of expanding women's education at every level from grade school to college continued despite the regime's efforts to mobilize women in political and social organizations.
The Iranian fundamentalists wanted to build a modern society with Islamic religious values instead of Western secular ones.
The confrontation with America began when the hated shah received medical treatment in New York City.
The staff of the American embassy in Tehran were taken hostage.
In return for their release, the militant demanded the return of the shah, recovery of the enormous wealth he had transferred abroad, and an end to American interference in Iran's affairs.
The public reaction in the United States was very angry.
President Carter's concern for the lives of the hostages overruled the desire to resort to force.
Carter cut off all trade with Iran and froze Iranian assets in the US in response to the crisis.
He appealed to the UN and his European allies to take action against violators of international law.
The Iranians did not relent.
They were gripped by hatred for the American government and religious fervor.
After a failed rescue mission by the Americans, the hostages were finally released in 1981.
They did it in exchange for the unfreezing of Iranian assets and a pledge of non interference in Iranian affairs.
The loss of Iran was a blow to American interests.
The Carter administration was worried that the oil fields of the Middle East were in danger.
Carter was aware of the possibility of a Soviet march into a weakened Iran, as well as the danger of Iranian-style revolutions spreading to nearby oil states.
He responded by increasing the number of American warships in the Persian Gulf and by starting a rapid deployment force for use in the Middle East.
The Soviets were delighted by the humiliation of the United States, but at the same time they were worried that the Islamic tide could flow from Iran to a Muslim country like Afghanistan.
The Soviets sent troops into Afghanistan late in 1979 to install a pro-Soviet regime because of this concern.
This move caused a negative reaction in the United States and Europe and jeopardized the detente with Russia.
The Soviets are being made as much of a target of Islamic fundamentalist hatred as Israel and the United States.
The conflict continued until the United Nations brokered a ceasefire in 1988.
The United States placed a trade embargo on Iran because of their suspected support of international terrorism.
Forty years after the end of the Second World War, the rivalry and partnership of the capitalist First World and the communist Second World, with the Third World uncomfortably straddling the other two, seemed a permanent fact of the world order.
The world as a whole faced grave threats in the 1980s due to the rapid growth of modern civilization's technical and industrial capacities and its vulnerability to disruption.
Population growth, re source use, and pollution are interrelated threats.
The economic relations between the First and Third Worlds were connected to this.
The large-scale manufacture of nuclear and thermonuclear weapons posed a problem.
The increasing use of terrorism as a weapon in international, ethnic, and social conflicts was a third.
There was a lot of debate about who was to blame for the problems and how they should be solved.
There have been disagreements over these and similar questions for a long time.
The human race faced worldwide threats that needed worldwide measures to counter them.
We have seen advances in science and technology.
sweeping changes in social conditions were primarily responsible for.
Improvements in food production and medical practices led to an increase in the number of people in the world after 1800.
The number of people added to the world's population each year was greater than ever before in the twentieth century.
More than five billion people were added in the decade of the 1980s, bringing the cumulative increase to more than one billion.
The total reached six billion by the year 2000.
The food supply kept up with population growth, but there wasn't much improvement in nutrition.
The Green Revolution, which introduced better grain seeds in the 1970s, lifted yields, but the increases were limited by inadequate supplies of water andfertilizer.
The two-thirds of the globe where numbers rose the fastest were Asia and Latin America, where there were periodic famines.
Nuclear power stations split atoms in radioactive materials and use the resulting heat to produce steam.
The picture shows a reactor at Chernobyl, the day after an explosion caused by overheating and melting of the fuel.
The aftermath shows the violence of the blast, and radioactive steam is still oozing into the atmosphere.
The average American or European eats a lot more calories than Asian or African people.
Other resources came up short as well.
The residents of industrialized countries were shocked by the Arab oil embargo of 1973.
The wheels of cars and factories slowed suddenly.
For the first time in their lives, many consumers in the West became aware of the extended and intricate resource network on which their lifestyle rested.
The fourfold increase in oil prices after the embargo was lifted showed the true value of a substance that had been bought cheaply and wasted.
The flow of international monetary payments and the world balance of economic power were upset by the dramatic price hikes by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.
Fossil fuels, such as oil and coal, were urged to be replaced by atomic energy.
The dilemma of modern technologists is that while the reactor helped fill energy needs, they created new problems such as operational safety, disposal of radioactive wastes, and the possible misuse by terrorists of the plutonium produced.
Environmental pollution is caused by rising energy consumption, industrial waste, and the use of chemicals.
The accidental release of a deadly gas from an American plant in India in 1985 highlighted the dangers.
In a matter of hours or days, thousands of people were killed by this gas.
As the upward trend in energy use continued, it seemed that there were serious possibilities for the degradation of the earth's air and water.
Many scientists believed that the survival of the species required a reduction in total population and a reduction in energy and resource consumption.
The poor of the Third World and their economic betters were affected by the problems of population and resources.
In order to reach at least survivable standards of living, the poor asked for the creation of a new international economic order based on fairness and sharing rather than on power and inequality.
They wanted control over what resources and natural advantages they had.
The relation between prices received for their exports and prices paid for their imports needs to be changed.
The satisfied countries accepted the fact of global dependence, but they insisted on being the ones to make the adjustments.
The Third World was not helped by the "North-South dialogue" of the 1970s and 1980s.
The poor countries made more mistakes in economic planning and execution in the 1980s than they did in the 1970s.
There was a rise in the number of immigrants to the better-off states because of the contrasting living standards among nations.
Europeans migrated to the New World in the 19th century.
The United States and Third World countries were the main destinations of emigration in the twentieth century as Europe became more prosperous.
The migrants were joined by refugees from political oppression, ethnic cleansing, and social chaos.
The number of refugees increased from 2.5 million in 1973, to 19 million in 1993, according to a United Nations study.
Millions more migrated for the simple reason of crushing poverty in their homelands.
Governments were strained to deal with private humanitarian aid agencies that were unable to meet the needs.
Germany, France, Britain, the United States, and others faced the inflow.
Immigration, legal and illegal, became a big problem for housing, education, and medical care.
The resulting financial cost, job competition, and social tensions with the newcomers disturbed the established residents and produced worrisome consequences.
Extremist right-wing political parties began exploiting the situation to their advantage as antiforeign and racist sentiment mounted.