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18 Ecology in Further Detail
The main concepts of ecology are population growth, biotic potential, life history strategies, and predator-prey relationships.
This chapter talks about concepts such as succession, trophic levels, energy and biomass pyramids, and biogeochemical cycles.
clumped, uniform, and random are the main types of dispersion patterns.
Desert, taiga, temperate forest, tropical forest, tundra, and water are some of the things that come up on the AP exam.
You should have a general understanding of the biogeochemical cycles.
The main concepts of ecology are population growth, biotic potential, life history "strategies" and predator-prey relationships.
The chapter will look at between- and within community interactions.
We will discuss succession, trophic levels, energy pyramids, and biogeochemical cycles.
In schools of fish or herds of cattle, the individuals live in packs that are separated from each other.
Birds on a wire sitting above a highway are evenly distributed across a geographic area.
There is a tree distribution in a forest.
It takes into account a lot of variables.
Each time period, offspring is produced.
Individuals need time to reach reproductive maturity.
Rate the number of people who move into a population.
Rate the number of people who move out of a population.
The size and growth rate of a population are determined by these statistics.
A lower death rate will give a faster rate of population growth.
A high female sex ratio could lead to more births in the population.
The offspring can be produced at a faster rate with a short generation time.
An age structure that consists of more individuals in the middle of their reproductive years will grow at a faster rate than one weighted toward older people.
Food supplies, diseases, and waste produced by organisms are a few examples of limiting factors.
As the population approaches and passes the carrying capacity, these limiting factors rear their ugly heads.
The bubonic plague, which just stink, is one of the examples of density- dependent limiting factors.
The population size has nothing to do with these limiting factors.
Floods, earthquakes, and other natural disasters are examples of density-independent limiting factors.
The S shape of the curve is caused by limiting factors that limit the size of the population.
Natural resources, such as food, will run out eventually.
The members of the population will have to compete for food.
There are winners and sinners in competition.
The population is above the carrying capacity.
Being overpopulated will cause a rise in the death rate that will push the population back down to the carrying capacity or below.
Resources replenish when it drops below the carrying capacity, allowing for an increase in the birth rate and decline in the death rate.
When the population size falls below the carrying capacity, it will come back to it and even surpass it.
There is a chance that when a population dips below the carrying capacity due to some major change in the environment, it may equilibrate at a new, lower carrying capacity.
The organisms need extensive care until they are mature.
The population was selected.
Selected organisms need very little care after they mature.
The population grows quickly, reproduces quickly, and dies quickly.
The population was selected.
The survival rates for different age groups are shown in the curves.
Humans and other large mammals are examples of type I organisms.
lizards, hydra, and other small mammals are examples of type II species.
Many fishes, oysters, and other marine organisms are examples of type III organisms.
There are a lot of species within a community.
They are bound to interact because they share a home.
The interactions range from positive to negative.
One of the organisms benefits while the other is unaffected.
Cattle egrets feast on insects that are aroused into flight by cattle.
The birds get food, but the cattle don't.
Both organisms benefit from the interaction.
There is a mutualistic relationship between acacia trees and ants.
Everything from being able to feast on the delicious sugar produced by the trees, to the trees being protected by the ants' attack on any potentially harmful foreign insects.
A collection of organisms living as one is affected by interactions involving a lichen.
The weight is pulled by the matter and energy created by the fungus component.
They are doomed without each other's contribution.
Tapeworms, which live in the gut of their hosts, are a popular example of a parasitic relationship.
They reap the benefits of the meals their host consumes by stealing the nutrition from them.
I and my younger brother own a PS2 console.
Both species are hurt by this type of interaction.
There are two major forms of competition.
The members of the same species rely on the same resources for survival.
Resources interact in complex ways when they become lations.
The predator hunts the prey.
The hunted may develop mechanisms to defend against predatory attack if they don't fight.
The defense mechanisms developed by prey are described in the next section.
It is warning coloration adopted by animals that have a chemical defense mechanism.
The predator has grown cautious of bright color animals due to the fact that prey of a certain color have sprayed the predator with a chemical defense in the past.
The potential for an alarm system to be encountered when attempting to steal a car is a factor that may deter a person from doing so.
An example of this is a beetle.
There is a chance that the beetle is a bee.
It is similar to camouflage worn by army soldiers.
The terrain is harder to see if you look like it.
Some insects have designs on their wings that look like large eyes, making them look more imposing than they really are.
The faster the negative association is made, the more dangerous the prey is.
There is a reduction in the predator population when the prey population decreases.
The predator runs low on a valuable resource needed to survive.
As the predator population declines, more of the prey are able to survive and reproduce, which leads to an increase in the population of the prey.
As the prey population density increases, the predator has enough food to sustain a higher population, and their population density returns to a higher level again.
Unless there is a dramatic environmental change, this pattern will continue.
Imagine that the hunted prey learns a new character trait that will allow it to better evade the predator.
The predator needs to evolve so that it can catch its victim and eat.
The local composition of species is affected by changes over time.
Primary and secondary succession are two major forms of succession.
The pioneer species does grunt work to improve the volcanic rock until the future species take over.
Animals are drawn in by the presence of new plant life as the plant species come and go.
The animals contribute to the area's development with the addition of waste.
Plants develop when their roots are under the water and their leaves are above the water.
As these plants cover the entire area of the pond, the debris continues to build up, transforming the once empty pond into a marsh.
The marsh becomes a swamp when enough trees are in the area.
If the conditions are good.
This type of succession is different from primary succession because there is already soil on the terrain when the process begins.
The individuals of the community and the Big Idea 2.A.1 environment in which they exist are part of the Ecosystem.
Organisms are either producers or consumers.
Chapter 8, Photosynthesis, describes the producers of the world.
There are two types of autotrophs: photosynthetic or chemo input of energy.
Heterotrophs are the consumers of the world.
They can get their energy by consuming other living things.
Decomposers are people who consume dead animal and plant matter, but then release the nutrients back into the environment.
The subcategory includes organisms that break down.
There is another hierarchy for you to remember.
The pyramid shows the decrease in energy level.
The primary producers make up the first level.
The primary and secondary carnivores eat each other to create distribution.
This is an important explanation of how trophic levels work.
Energy is lost from each level of the food chain as it progresses higher, so there are only four or five trophic levels.
The energy pyramid is only one type of ecological pyramid that you might see on the AP Biology exam.
The knowledge you need to score high is reviewed.
The pyramids vary from one community to another.
The base of the pyramid is the primary producers and tends to be the largest.
The number of mem interactions among bers of that level is represented by each box in the pyramid.
The highest consumers in the chain tend to be large, resulting in organisms and with their environment smaller number of individuals spread out over an area.
The bugs are eaten.
Food webs know that bugs are eaten by more than one spider.
Food webs show all the various relationships between food.
If you read through the list, you will be able to add some knowledge to an essay on ecological principles.
Deserts that don't get enough rain will have no life.
Plants such as cacti seem to have adjusted to desert life and have done well in this area, given enough time.
During the heat of the day, much of the wildlife in deserts is nocturnal and conserves energy and water.
Due to the fact that water moderates temperature, this biome shows the greatest daily fluctuations in temperature.
The Savanna soil tends to be low in nutrition.
The savannas of this planet are home to many of the grazing species of this planet.
Gymnosperms are the main plant life in this biome, which is characterized by lengthy cold and wet winters.
In regions that experience cold winters, the plant life is not active and the warm summers provide enough water to keep large trees alive.
The soil is considered to be one of the most fertile.
The biome gets less water than the savannas.
In lowland areas that have dry seasons, they tend to be dry forests, whereas near the equator they can be rainforests.
A thick cover of tall trees blocks the light from reaching the floor of the forest, where there is little growth.
The greatest diversity of species can be found in tropical rainforests.
This prevents plants from forming deep roots in the soil and dictates what type of plant life can survive.
The plant life that tends to be the most popular is short shrubs or grasses.
The movement of elements, such as nitrogen and carbon, from organisms to the environment and back in a continuous cycle is represented by these cycles.
You should understand the basics if you want to become a master of these cycles.
The building block of organic life is carbon.
CO2 is present in most of the carbon in the atmosphere.
Plants contribute to the carbon cycle by taking in carbon and using it to make sugars.
Animals send the carbon back to the atmosphere when they die.
Nitrogen is important for plant growth.
Plants are the only source of nitrogen for animals.
Nitrogen can be found in the organisms' remains when they die.
Decomposers break down nitrogen in the organisms.
The earth is wet.
The water evapo goes back to the clouds each day.
The water is returned to the earth in the form of precipitation.
B is growing rapidly.
A lizard has a chemical defense mechanism.
Populations tend to be small.
Offspring needs exten D. Cryptic coloration.
The organisms were selected.
Large quantities of D. Offspring are produced.
The offspring were selected.
This is the driest area of the land.
C. Oysters are found in shrubs or grasses.
For questions 13-16, please use the following answer forests.
The population shown in this age structure of the planet that produce energy through the chart is growing rapidly because of the movement of electrons in oxidation reactions.
The age of rabbits is approaching 0.
This shows a pop declining to the point where the foxes are starting ulation that has a high birth rate and a reasonable to feel the reduction in their food supply.
The revival of the rabbits can be traced back to the dominant form of carbon present.
The community and environment are dependent on density- dependent limiting factors.
There are examples of density dependent uals of the same species.
The nitrogen gas is copied by an animal.
The animal kingdom's success isCryptic coloration.
The producers blend in and hide from their enemies.
Two species that are amatically colored extensive postnatal care until they have suffi as an indicator of their chemical defense have matured.
The anism mimics each other's color scheme and produces many offspring per birth.
Lizards follow a type II survivorship curve.
This is shown in the diagram in question 12.
The defense mechanism follows a type III survivorship adopted by animals that have a chemical curve.
You should read the chapter for more information.
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