ChAPTER 31 -- Part 8: Civilizations in Crisis: The Ottoman
The most dowager empress was crushed by her and her group in 1898.
Leading advocates for reform in China were executed or driven from the country, as her nephew, the emperor, was imprisoned in the Forbidden City.
The Boxer rebellion in 1898 was supported by a lot of people, as it was reported that Cixi used funds raised to build a means of driving out Westerners.
The Manchus relied on divisions among the provincial officials and the European powers to maintain their position after genuine reform was blocked.
The Boxer uprising began in 1898 and was intended to expel foreigners through the intervention of the imperialist powers in 1901.
It failed because of greater control over China's internal affairs by the Europeans and a further devolution of power to provincial officials.
The days of the Manchus were numbered by the beginning of the 20th century.
In the late 19th century, these underground organizations inspired many local uprisings.
The efforts failed because of insufficient resources and lack of coordination.
The secret society cells became a training ground for a new kind of resistance to the Manchus, even though they briefly elected a president.
By the end of the 19th century, the sons of some of the scholar-gentry were dead and the port cities were becoming involved in secret society operations.
The resistance was aimed at more than just getting rid of the Manchus, because many of these young men had received European-style educations.
They thought that a new, strong nation-state in China would be built by Western-educated, reformist leaders who would follow in the footsteps of the West.
The revolutionaries from the rising middle classes were hostile to the imperialist powers in Chinese affairs because they drew heavily on the West for ideas and organizational models.
The Manchus failed to control the foreigners.
The Industrial Age was marked by uprisings, assassinations, and acts of sabotage.
Attempts to coordinate an all-China rising failed because of incompetence or personal ani mosities.
Protests against the government's reliance on the Western powers for railway loans led to secret society uprisings and student demonstrations.
The Manchus had no choice but to abdicate when key provincial officials refused to put down the rebellion.
The revolution of 1911 brought down the Qing dynasty, but in many ways it was the turning of a small boy in 1912.
For the last time, the civil service exams were given.
Reluctantly, even the ultraconservative advisors of the empress Cixi decided that solutions to China's dilemma could not be found in the Confucian learning the exams tested.
One of the biggest problems of the world today is economic competition in China, which the Manchu dynasty appeared powerless to resist.
The powers attempt to conquer us.
Chinese political leaders and intellectuals debated how to fight for our existence.
The importance of China renewing itself and surviving the challenges of our foreign trade has been recognized by everyone.
The posed by the industrialized West.
It is necessary to complement them with other laws.
The basic features of Chinese society were preserved by the late 19th- and early 20th-century champions of renewal, who wanted to define the powers of the judiciary.
Over two millennia of history, they had developed bad legislation.
If we want to make our nation strong, we need to investigate are not punished, laws will become void as soon as they are followed by other nations, and the duties of the judiciary need to be defined.
It will be appropriate for them to make up our own weaknesses when they are carried to the logical conclusion.
Foreign trade can't be promoted without politics, academic learning, and techniques, a parliament, and a responsible government.
The answer is that the people's virtue, the people's wisdom, and the people's potic and confused governmental system are the basis of politics, academic learning, and years.
The mix of philosophy and values that came to be known as the Confucian system, the massive civil bureaucracy, rule by an educated and cultivated scholar-gentry elite, and even the artistic accomplishments of the old order came under increasing criticism in the early 20th century.
The hallmarks of the most enduring civilization were destroyed.
The end of Islamic indepen dence did not mean the end of Global Connections and Critical Themes.
Both Chinese and Islamic civilization were weakened by the Chinese and were thrown into crisis by the growing challenges posed.
The dynasty col apsed with the West.
The Chinese lost faith in the formula for civilization and the West did a lot to explain why Islam survived.
Timing was critical again.
Domestic upheavals and foreign aggression seemed to be the cause of the crisis in China.
The Western threat has existed since the Middle Ages, and the Qing went from being For the Muslims, who had been warring and trading with Christian the arrogant controller of the barbarians, to being a defeated and Europe since the Middle Ages.
When the dynasty failed, it became clear that the bar the ongoing contest, which resulted from their global expansion barians, had outdone the Chinese in so many fields of civilized and their scientific and industrial revolutions.
The Chinese had little to lose in the chal endeavor.
The West came suddenly and brutally.
The Chinese had to revise their image of their empire as the cen of the material world after they excelled in social and political organization.
Unlike the Hindus or the Muslims, they had the source of civilization itself to take into no great religious tradition with which to counter the European account of severe defeats at the hands of peoples.