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34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask

- In one case, the sample exhibited a figure of about 230 K, whereas in the others it did not.
- The lack of reproducibility is typical of forefront experiments.

- We have noted throughout the text how important it is to be curious and to ask questions in order to understand what is known.
- Some questions may go unanswered for a long time, but some may have answers.
- Knowing which questions to ask is part of discovery.
- You need to know something before you can ask a decent question.
- Asking a question can give you an answer.
- Physicists now know to ask the following questions, which are representative of the forefronts of physics.
- If answers are found to the questions, they will be replaced by others.
- The fun continues.

- Theorists would prefer it to be barely closed.
- There is a connection between small-scale physics and closing the universe.

- One of the possibilities may explain it.
- It is possible that most of what is out there is not known to us, a completely different form of matter.

- The recent measurement of fluctuations in the CMBR may be able to explain the formation of the galaxy.

- Many black hole candidates can't be explained by other, less exotic possibilities.
- We don't know much about how they form, what their role in the history of evolution has been, and the nature of space in their vicinity.
- correlations between black hole mass and the characteristics of the universe are being studied.

- The objects seem to be early stages of the evolution of the universe.
- There is evidence that shows that there is less consuming black holes at the center of older galaxies.
- New instruments allow us to see deeper into our own universe for evidence of a massive black hole.

- The sources of the rays that come from all directions in space are very far away from us.
- Some bursts are being correlated with known sources so that the possibility of them coming from black holes eating a companion star can be explored.

- We know a lot about phase transitions, such as water freezing, but the details of how they occur molecule by molecule are not well understood.
- Questions about heat a century ago led to quantum mechanics.
- It is an example of a complex adaptive system that may yield insights into other self-organizing systems.

- The lack of a direct or linear proportionality makes it easier to understand the phenomena.
- There are implications for chaos.

- Understanding how they work may help make them more practical or may result in unexpected discoveries.

- Beyond the scope of this text, there is a lot to learn aboutCondensed matter physics.
- Surprises may be similar to lasing, the quantum Hall effect, and the quantization of magnetic flux.
- There may be a role for complexity here.

- Some answers may be provided by the higher energy accelerators that are being constructed, but there will also be input from other systematics.

- This question should be answered if both are fundamental and analogous.
- It is related to the previous question.

- The answer may have to be obtained indirectly because we think they are unified.

- There were claims of a fifth and a sixth force a few years ago.
- The forces have not been detected consistently.
- The proposed forces are very difficult to detect in the presence of stronger forces.
- If there are no other forces, we need to ask why four and why these four.

- The question is related to fundamental aspects of the unification of forces.
- We may never know if the protons is stable, only that it is very long lived.

- There are many particle theories that call for massive individual north- and south-pole particles.

- There is strong evidence that the neutrinos have mass.
- The implications are discussed in this chapter.
- The closing of the universe and the patterns in particle physics have effects.

- The elements with or less have now been discovered.

- The lists of questions are not meant to be complete or consistently important.
- Certain particle symmetries, which are of current interest to physicists, are not discussed in this text.
- The point is clear, no matter how much we learn, there always seems to be more to know.
- We can look forward to new enlightenment because we have the hard-won wisdom of those who preceded us.

- The Big bang created the universe.

- The character and evolution of Galaxies farther away than our local group are studied inlogy.

- Explanations of the large-scale characteristics of the mechanics and unification of forces are included in the theory of quantum gravity.

- There is an unconfirmed connection between general relativity and the dominance of matter over antimatter.

- The laws of physics show that the universe is back to very 34.3 Superstrings.

- The earliest epochs are tied to the unification of forces, one-dimensional vibrations analogous to those on, strings and is an attempt at a theory of quantum the GUT epoch being speculative.

- Dark matter is non-luminous matter detected in and symmetry breaking.
- The energy was released around the clusters.

- The determining factor is the critical density of the universe and the cosmological constant.

- The critical density r experiments have been verified multiple times and are needed to stop universal expansion.
- It is estimated to be small.

- An open universe is negatively curved, a closed universe is negatively curved, and a universe with exactly the galaxies, also seen in the microlensing of light by critical density is flat.

- Dark matter's composition is a major mystery, but it may be related to the existence of black holes, which may be due to the mass of neutrinos.

- The event horizon is the distance from the object at which the escape velocity is equal to the speed of light.
- The evidence is growing.

- There are many possibilities of time travel, such as biological evolution, as well as the fact that physics is unknown inside the event horizon.

- Candidates for black holes may power the extremely depend on some variables and energetic emissions of quasars, distant objects that are impossible to predict.

- Studies of chaos have led to methods for understanding a nucleus that hint that black holes could form from it.

- On the intermediate scale, we can ask about gravity, which is a material that is superconducting.

- The source distance is one of the causes of red shift in light.
- Is there a correction needed to be in a high field?
- Discuss whether the shifts are proportional to distance or not.

- If quantum gravity is developed, the universe is infinite and any line of sight should improve on both general relativity and quantum eventually falling on a star's surface.
- The sky mechanics are more difficult to explain.
- Discuss what circumstances would be necessary to use the universe as a solution to the paradoxes of evolution.

- We expect to see hot and cold regions in the remnant of the Big Bang's fireball.

- If you measure the red shifts of the images you will see that nature favors matter over antimatter.
- Is it the shift?

- It is necessary for a system to be chaotic.

- The boiling point of liquid nitrogen is higher than that of liquid helium.

- Will they violate observation if they do occur?
- The various lepton family numbers are not accounted for in Supernova 1987A.
- The fifth force is not widely accepted.

- Discuss why forefront experiments are more likely to involve observational problems than those involving on the known forms of matter.

- Discuss if there are limits to what humans can understand about the laws of physics.

- You should support your arguments.

- You can give an example to support your answer.

- There is an answer to (b) by two since there is an answer to the dark and Luminous mass.
- The dark matter space is due to stars of average mass 1.5 times that of our Sun, so take the dark matter space instead of the luminous matter.

- The time it average separation is calculated in a time of y.

- The mass of the Milky Way galaxy is assumed to be a single mass at the center of the following information.

- It's located 30,000 ly away.

- A person is formed due to the collapse of the core of a star in a supernova.
- The mass of the core is that of the Sun and so it spins quickly.
- The closest star to the large galaxy is Andromeda.

- One revolution per 30.0 days is how long the closest large galaxy is.

- If the core's mass is 1.3 of the Sun and lies 2 Mly away, you can find the increase to the Sun using data from the previous problem.

- Two rays of equal energy can be created by the distance to the nearest stars.
- If you look at Figure 34.26, you'll see a characteristic -ray energy that is measured by a technique called parallax.

- The average particle energy is needed to understand why they are similar.

- The length of entities in Superstring theory is roughly.

- If the average mass of a MACHO is 1/1000 that of the Sun, then the dark matter has a mass 10 times that of the Milky Way, with its stars of average mass 1.5 times the Sun's mass.

- Approximately is the critical mass density needed to stop the expansion of the universe.

- The angle of needed to close the universe if their average mass is line of sight to the star is measured at intervals for six months.

- The universe has an average density of 0.1 of the Earth's diameter.
- This can be done for stars with critical density.

- Black holes are thought to be necessary to stop the expansion of the universe because stars must be more massive than the Sun.

- A section of wire carries a current of 100 A and requires liquid nitrogen to keep it below its critical temperature.
- If the cost of cooling the wire is less than the cost of energy lost to heat in the wire, it will be an advantage.

- The daughter is the same as the nucleus would decay.
- It is a change from a stable excited state.
- The maxima is the average energies for decays.

- There are several tables with this appendix.

- The National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty contains important Constants1 1 Stated values.
- There are uncertainties in the last digits.

- Numbers without uncertainties are the same as defined.

- The National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty has Metric Prefixes for Powers of Ten and Their Symbols 2 Stated values.
- There are uncertainties in the last digits.

- Numbers without uncertainties are the same as defined.

- Key symbols and notation are briefly defined in this glossary.

- Contents

- Preface About OpenStax About OpenStax Resources Customization Errata Format About College Physics Coverage and Scope Concepts and Calculations Modern Perspective Key Features Modularity Learning Objectives Call-Outs Key Terms Worked Examples Problem-Solving Strategies Misconception Alerts Take-Home Investigations Things Great and Small Simulations Summary Glossary End-of-Module Problems Integrated Concept Problems Unreasonable Results Construct Your Own Problem Additional Resources Student and Instructor Resources Partner Resources About the Authors Senior Contributing Authors Contributing Authors Reviewers

- Chapter 1 Introduction: The Nature of Science and Physics Chapter Outline Introduction to Science and the Realm of Physics, Physical Quantities, and Units 1.1 Physics: An Introduction Science and the Realm of Physics Applications of Physics Models, Theories, and Laws; The Role of Experimentation Models, Theories, and Laws The Scientific Method The Evolution of Natural Philosophy into Modern Physics Limits on the Laws of Classical Physics Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Equation Grapher 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units SI Units: Fundamental and Derived Units Units of Time, Length, and Mass: The Second, Meter, and Kilogram The Second The Meter The Kilogram Metric Prefixes The Quest for Microscopic Standards for Basic Units Known Ranges of Length, Mass, and Time Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis Example 1.1 Unit Conversions: A Short Drive Home Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Nonstandard Units Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures Accuracy and Precision of a Measurement Accuracy, Precision, and Uncertainty Making Connections: Real-World Connections - Fevers or Chills? Percent Uncertainty Example 1.2 Calculating Percent Uncertainty: A Bag of Apples Strategy Solution Discussion Uncertainties in Calculations Check Your Understanding Solution Precision of Measuring Tools and Significant Figures Zeros Check Your Understanding Solution Significant Figures in Calculations Significant Figures in this Text Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Estimation 1.4 Approximation Example 1.3 Approximate the Height of a Building Strategy Solution Discussion Example 1.4 Approximating Vast Numbers: a Trillion Dollars Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution Glossary Section Summary 1.1 Physics: An Introduction 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures 1.4 Approximation Conceptual Questions 1.1 Physics: An Introduction 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures Problems & Exercises 1.2 Physical Quantities and Units 1.3 Accuracy, Precision, and Significant Figures 1.4 Approximation

- Chapter 2 Kinematics Chapter Outline Introduction to One-Dimensional Kinematics 2.1 Displacement Position Displacement Displacement Distance Misconception Alert: Distance Traveled vs. Magnitude of Displacement Check Your Understanding Solution 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems Coordinate Systems for One-Dimensional Motion Check Your Understanding Solution 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed Time Velocity Average Velocity Speed Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Getting a Sense of Speed Check Your Understanding Solution 2.4 Acceleration Average Acceleration Acceleration as a Vector Misconception Alert: Deceleration vs. Negative Acceleration Example 2.1 Calculating Acceleration: A Racehorse Leaves the Gate Strategy Solution Discussion Instantaneous Acceleration Example 2.2 Calculating Displacement: A Subway Train Strategy Solution Discussion Example 2.3 Comparing Distance Traveled with Displacement: A Subway Train Strategy Solution Discussion Example 2.4 Calculating Acceleration: A Subway Train Speeding Up Strategy Solution Discussion Example 2.5 Calculate Acceleration: A Subway Train Slowing Down Strategy Solution Discussion Example 2.6 Calculating Average Velocity: The Subway Train Strategy Solution Discussion Example 2.7 Calculating Deceleration: The Subway Train Strategy Solution Discussion Sign and Direction Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Moving Man Simulation 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension Notation: t, x, v, a Solving for Displacement ( Equation ) and Final Position ( Equation ) from Average Velocity when Acceleration ( Equation ) is Constant Example 2.8 Calculating Displacement: How Far does the Jogger Run? Strategy Solution Discussion Solving for Final Velocity Example 2.9 Calculating Final Velocity: An Airplane Slowing Down after Landing Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Real-World Connection Solving for Final Position When Velocity is Not Constant ( Equation ) Example 2.10 Calculating Displacement of an Accelerating Object: Dragsters Strategy Solution Discussion Solving for Final Velocity when Velocity Is Not Constant ( Equation ) Example 2.11 Calculating Final Velocity: Dragsters Strategy Solution Discussion Putting Equations Together Summary of Kinematic Equations (constant Equation ) Example 2.12 Calculating Displacement: How Far Does a Car Go When Coming to a Halt? Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion Example 2.13 Calculating Time: A Car Merges into Traffic Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Breaking News Check Your Understanding Solution 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics Problem-Solving Steps Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 Step 4 Step 5 Step 6 Unreasonable Results Step 1 Step 2 Step 3 2.7 Falling Objects Gravity One-Dimensional Motion Involving Gravity Kinematic Equations for Objects in Free-Fall where Acceleration = -g Example 2.14 Calculating Position and Velocity of a Falling Object: A Rock Thrown Upward Strategy Solution for Position Discussion Solution for Velocity Discussion Solution for Remaining Times Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Reaction Time Example 2.15 Calculating Velocity of a Falling Object: A Rock Thrown Down Strategy Solution Discussion Example 2.16 Find g from Data on a Falling Object Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Equation Grapher 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion Slopes and General Relationships Graph of Position vs. Time (a = 0, so v is constant) The Slope of x vs. t Example 2.17 Determining Average Velocity from a Graph of Position versus Time: Jet Car Strategy Solution Discussion Graphs of Motion when Equation is constant but Equation Example 2.18 Determining Instantaneous Velocity from the Slope at a Point: Jet Car Strategy Solution Discussion The Slope of v vs. t Graphs of Motion Where Acceleration is Not Constant Example 2.19 Calculating Acceleration from a Graph of Velocity versus Time Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution Glossary Section Summary 2.1 Displacement 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed 2.4 Acceleration 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics 2.7 Falling Objects 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion Conceptual Questions 2.1 Displacement 2.2 Vectors, Scalars, and Coordinate Systems 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed 2.4 Acceleration 2.6 Problem-Solving Basics for One-Dimensional Kinematics 2.7 Falling Objects 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion Problems & Exercises 2.1 Displacement 2.3 Time, Velocity, and Speed 2.4 Acceleration 2.5 Motion Equations for Constant Acceleration in One Dimension 2.7 Falling Objects 2.8 Graphical Analysis of One-Dimensional Motion

- Chapter 3 Two-Dimensional Kinematics Chapter Outline Introduction to Two-Dimensional Kinematics 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction Two-Dimensional Motion: Walking in a City The Independence of Perpendicular Motions Independence of Motion PhET Explorations Ladybug Motion 2D 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods Vectors in Two Dimensions Vectors in this Text Vector Addition: Head-to-Tail Method Example 3.1 Adding Vectors Graphically Using the Head-to-Tail Method: A Woman Takes a Walk Strategy Solution Discussion Vector Subtraction Example 3.2 Subtracting Vectors Graphically: A Woman Sailing a Boat Strategy Solution Discussion Multiplication of Vectors and Scalars Resolving a Vector into Components PhET Explorations Maze Game 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods Resolving a Vector into Perpendicular Components Calculating a Resultant Vector Determining Vectors and Vector Components with Analytical Methods Adding Vectors Using Analytical Methods Example 3.3 Adding Vectors Using Analytical Methods Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Vector Addition 3.4 Projectile Motion Review of Kinematic Equations (constant Equation ) Example 3.4 A Fireworks Projectile Explodes High and Away Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion for (c) Defining a Coordinate System Example 3.5 Calculating Projectile Motion: Hot Rock Projectile Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) PhET Explorations Projectile Motion 3.5 Addition of Velocities Relative Velocity Take-Home Experiment: Relative Velocity of a Boat Example 3.6 Adding Velocities: A Boat on a River Strategy Solution Discussion Example 3.7 Calculating Velocity: Wind Velocity Causes an Airplane to Drift Strategy Solution Discussion Relative Velocities and Classical Relativity Example 3.8 Calculating Relative Velocity: An Airline Passenger Drops a Coin Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Making Connections: Relativity and Einstein Motion in 2D Glossary Section Summary 3.1 Kinematics in Two Dimensions: An Introduction 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods 3.4 Projectile Motion 3.5 Addition of Velocities Conceptual Questions 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods 3.4 Projectile Motion 3.5 Addition of Velocities Problems & Exercises 3.2 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Graphical Methods 3.3 Vector Addition and Subtraction: Analytical Methods 3.4 Projectile Motion 3.5 Addition of Velocities

- Chapter 4 Dynamics: Force and Newton's Laws of Motion Chapter Outline Introduction to Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Making Connections: Past and Present Philosophy 4.1 Development of Force Concept Take-Home Experiment: Force Standards 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia Newton's First Law of Motion Mass Check Your Understanding Solution 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System Newton's Second Law of Motion Units of Force Weight and the Gravitational Force Weight Common Misconceptions: Mass vs. Weight Take-Home Experiment: Mass and Weight Example 4.1 What Acceleration Can a Person Produce when Pushing a Lawn Mower? Strategy Solution Discussion Example 4.2 What Rocket Thrust Accelerates This Sled? Strategy Solution Discussion 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces Newton's Third Law of Motion Example 4.3 Getting Up To Speed: Choosing the Correct System Strategy Solution Discussion Example 4.4 Force on the Cart--Choosing a New System Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Gravity Force Lab 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces Normal Force Common Misconception: Normal Force (N) vs. Newton (N) Example 4.5 Weight on an Incline, a Two-Dimensional Problem Strategy Solution Discussion Resolving Weight into Components Take-Home Experiment: Force Parallel Tension Example 4.6 What Is the Tension in a Tightrope? Strategy Solution Discussion Extended Topic: Real Forces and Inertial Frames Forces in 1 Dimension 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies Problem-Solving Strategy for Newton's Laws of Motion Applying Newton's Second Law 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion Example 4.7 Drag Force on a Barge Strategy Solution Discussion Example 4.8 Different Tensions at Different Angles Strategy Solution Discussion Example 4.9 What Does the Bathroom Scale Read in an Elevator? Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Integrating Concepts: Newton's Laws of Motion and Kinematics Example 4.10 What Force Must a Soccer Player Exert to Reach Top Speed? Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces--An Introduction Concept Connections: The Four Basic Forces Concept Connections: Unifying Forces Action at a Distance: Concept of a Field Concept Connections: Force Fields Glossary Section Summary 4.1 Development of Force Concept 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces--An Introduction Conceptual Questions 4.1 Development of Force Concept 4.2 Newton's First Law of Motion: Inertia 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces--An Introduction Problems & Exercises 4.3 Newton's Second Law of Motion: Concept of a System 4.4 Newton's Third Law of Motion: Symmetry in Forces 4.5 Normal, Tension, and Other Examples of Forces 4.6 Problem-Solving Strategies 4.7 Further Applications of Newton's Laws of Motion 4.8 Extended Topic: The Four Basic Forces--An Introduction

- Chapter 5 Further Applications of Newton's Laws: Friction, Drag, and Elasticity Chapter Outline Introduction: Further Applications of Newton's Laws 5.1 Friction Friction Kinetic Friction Magnitude of Static Friction Magnitude of Kinetic Friction Take-Home Experiment Example 5.1 Skiing Exercise Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment Making Connections: Submicroscopic Explanations of Friction Forces and Motion 5.2 Drag Forces Drag Force Take-Home Experiment Example 5.2 A Terminal Velocity Strategy Solution Discussion Stokes' Law Galileo's Experiment 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain Hooke's Law Stretch Yourself a Little Changes in Length--Tension and Compression: Elastic Modulus Example 5.3 The Stretch of a Long Cable Strategy Solution Discussion Example 5.4 Calculating Deformation: How Much Does Your Leg Shorten When You Stand on It? Strategy Solution Discussion Stress Strain Sideways Stress: Shear Modulus Shear Deformation Example 5.5 Calculating Force Required to Deform: That Nail Does Not Bend Much Under a Load Strategy Solution Discussion Changes in Volume: Bulk Modulus Example 5.6 Calculating Change in Volume with Deformation: How Much Is Water Compressed at Great Ocean Depths? Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Masses & Springs Glossary Section Summary 5.1 Friction 5.2 Drag Forces 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain Conceptual Questions 5.1 Friction 5.2 Drag Forces 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain Problems & Exercises 5.1 Friction 5.2 Drag Forces 5.3 Elasticity: Stress and Strain

- Chapter 6 Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation Chapter Outline Introduction to Uniform Circular Motion and Gravitation 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity Rotation Angle Angular Velocity Example 6.1 How Fast Does a Car Tire Spin? Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment Ladybug Revolution 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration Example 6.2 How Does the Centripetal Acceleration of a Car Around a Curve Compare with That Due to Gravity? Strategy Solution Discussion Example 6.3 How Big Is the Centripetal Acceleration in an Ultracentrifuge? Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Ladybug Motion 2D 6.3 Centripetal Force Example 6.4 What Coefficient of Friction Do Car Tires Need on a Flat Curve? Strategy and Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Example 6.5 What Is the Ideal Speed to Take a Steeply Banked Tight Curve? Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment PhET Explorations Gravity and Orbits 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation Misconception Alert Take-Home Experiment Making Connections Example 6.6 Earth's Gravitational Force Is the Centripetal Force Making the Moon Move in a Curved Path Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Tides "Weightlessness" and Microgravity The Cavendish Experiment: Then and Now 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion Example 6.7 Find the Time for One Orbit of an Earth Satellite Strategy Solution Discussion Derivation of Kepler's Third Law for Circular Orbits Making Connections The Case for Simplicity Glossary Section Summary 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration 6.3 Centripetal Force 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity Conceptual Questions 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration 6.3 Centripetal Force 6.4 Fictitious Forces and Non-inertial Frames: The Coriolis Force 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity Problems & Exercises 6.1 Rotation Angle and Angular Velocity 6.2 Centripetal Acceleration 6.3 Centripetal Force 6.5 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation 6.6 Satellites and Kepler's Laws: An Argument for Simplicity

- Chapter 7 Work, Energy, and Energy Resources Chapter Outline Introduction to Work, Energy, and Energy Resources 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition What It Means to Do Work What is Work? Calculating Work Example 7.1 Calculating the Work You Do to Push a Lawn Mower Across a Large Lawn Strategy Solution Discussion 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem Work Transfers Energy Net Work and the Work-Energy Theorem The Work-Energy Theorem Example 7.2 Calculating the Kinetic Energy of a Package Strategy Solution Discussion Example 7.3 Determining the Work to Accelerate a Package Strategy and Concept for (a) Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Strategy and Concept for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Example 7.4 Determining Speed from Work and Energy Strategy Solution Discussion Example 7.5 Work and Energy Can Reveal Distance, Too Strategy Solution Discussion 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy Work Done Against Gravity Converting Between Potential Energy and Kinetic Energy Using Potential Energy to Simplify Calculations Example 7.6 The Force to Stop Falling Strategy Solution Discussion Example 7.7 Finding the Speed of a Roller Coaster from its Height Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion and Implications Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Converting Potential to Kinetic Energy 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy Potential Energy and Conservative Forces Potential Energy and Conservative Forces Potential Energy of a Spring Conservation of Mechanical Energy Example 7.8 Using Conservation of Mechanical Energy to Calculate the Speed of a Toy Car Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion PhET Explorations Energy Skate Park 7.5 Nonconservative Forces Nonconservative Forces and Friction How Nonconservative Forces Affect Mechanical Energy How the Work-Energy Theorem Applies Applying Energy Conservation with Nonconservative Forces Example 7.9 Calculating Distance Traveled: How Far a Baseball Player Slides Strategy Solution Discussion Example 7.10 Calculating Distance Traveled: Sliding Up an Incline Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Determining Friction from the Stopping Distance The Ramp 7.6 Conservation of Energy Law of Conservation of Energy Other Forms of Energy than Mechanical Energy Making Connections: Usefulness of the Energy Conservation Principle Some of the Many Forms of Energy Problem-Solving Strategies for Energy Transformation of Energy Efficiency PhET Explorations Masses and Springs 7.7 Power What is Power? Power Calculating Power from Energy Example 7.11 Calculating the Power to Climb Stairs Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Measure Your Power Rating Examples of Power Power and Energy Consumption Example 7.12 Calculating Energy Costs Strategy Solution Discussion 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans Energy Conversion in Humans Power Consumed at Rest Power of Doing Useful Work Example 7.13 Calculating Weight Loss from Exercising Solution Discussion 7.9 World Energy Use Renewable and Nonrenewable Energy Sources The World's Growing Energy Needs Energy and Economic Well-being Conserving Energy Glossary Section Summary 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy 7.5 Nonconservative Forces 7.6 Conservation of Energy 7.7 Power 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans 7.9 World Energy Use Conceptual Questions 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy 7.6 Conservation of Energy 7.7 Power 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans 7.9 World Energy Use Problems & Exercises 7.1 Work: The Scientific Definition 7.2 Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 7.3 Gravitational Potential Energy 7.4 Conservative Forces and Potential Energy 7.5 Nonconservative Forces 7.6 Conservation of Energy 7.7 Power 7.8 Work, Energy, and Power in Humans 7.9 World Energy Use

- Chapter 8 Linear Momentum and Collisions Chapter Outline Introduction to Linear Momentum and Collisions 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force Linear Momentum Linear Momentum Example 8.1 Calculating Momentum: A Football Player and a Football Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Momentum and Newton's Second Law Newton's Second Law of Motion in Terms of Momentum Making Connections: Force and Momentum Example 8.2 Calculating Force: Venus Williams' Racquet Strategy Solution Discussion 8.2 Impulse Impulse: Change in Momentum Example 8.3 Calculating Magnitudes of Impulses: Two Billiard Balls Striking a Rigid Wall Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Hand Movement and Impulse Making Connections: Constant Force and Constant Acceleration 8.3 Conservation of Momentum Conservation of Momentum Principle Isolated System Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Drop of Tennis Ball and a Basketball Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Two Tennis Balls in a Ballistic Trajectory Making Connections: Conservation of Momentum and Collision Subatomic Collisions and Momentum 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension Elastic Collision Internal Kinetic Energy Example 8.4 Calculating Velocities Following an Elastic Collision Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Ice Cubes and Elastic Collision PhET Explorations Collision Lab 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension Inelastic Collision Perfectly Inelastic Collision Example 8.5 Calculating Velocity and Change in Kinetic Energy: Inelastic Collision of a Puck and a Goalie Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Take-Home Experiment--Bouncing of Tennis Ball Example 8.6 Calculating Final Velocity and Energy Release: Two Carts Collide Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions Conservation of Momentum along the Equation -axis Conservation of Momentum along the Equation -axis Example 8.7 Determining the Final Velocity of an Unseen Object from the Scattering of Another Object Strategy Solution Discussion Elastic Collisions of Two Objects with Equal Mass Connections to Nuclear and Particle Physics 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Propulsion of a Balloon Acceleration of a Rocket Factors Affecting a Rocket's Acceleration Example 8.8 Calculating Acceleration: Initial Acceleration of a Moon Launch Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Lunar Lander Glossary Section Summary 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force 8.2 Impulse 8.3 Conservation of Momentum 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion Conceptual Questions 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force 8.2 Impulse 8.3 Conservation of Momentum 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion Problems & Exercises 8.1 Linear Momentum and Force 8.2 Impulse 8.3 Conservation of Momentum 8.4 Elastic Collisions in One Dimension 8.5 Inelastic Collisions in One Dimension 8.6 Collisions of Point Masses in Two Dimensions 8.7 Introduction to Rocket Propulsion

- Chapter 9 Statics and Torque Chapter Outline Introduction to Statics and Torque Statics 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium Torque 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium Torque Example 9.1 She Saw Torques On A Seesaw Strategy Solution (a) Solution (b) Discussion Take-Home Experiment 9.3 Stability Take-Home Experiment 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies Problem-Solving Strategy: Static Equilibrium Situations Example 9.2 What Force Is Needed to Support a Weight Held Near Its CG? Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Take-Home Experiment PhET Explorations Balancing Act 9.5 Simple Machines Example 9.3 What is the Advantage for the Wheelbarrow? Strategy Solution Discussion 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints Example 9.4 Muscles Exert Bigger Forces Than You Might Think Strategy Solution Discussion Example 9.5 Do Not Lift with Your Back Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Glossary Section Summary 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium 9.3 Stability 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies 9.5 Simple Machines 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints Conceptual Questions 9.1 The First Condition for Equilibrium 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium 9.3 Stability 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies 9.5 Simple Machines 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints Problems & Exercises 9.2 The Second Condition for Equilibrium 9.3 Stability 9.4 Applications of Statics, Including Problem-Solving Strategies 9.5 Simple Machines 9.6 Forces and Torques in Muscles and Joints

- Chapter 10 Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum Chapter Outline Introduction to Rotational Motion and Angular Momentum 10.1 Angular Acceleration Example 10.1 Calculating the Angular Acceleration and Deceleration of a Bike Wheel Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Example 10.2 Calculating the Angular Acceleration of a Motorcycle Wheel Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment Check Your Understanding Solution Ladybug Revolution 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion Making Connections Problem-Solving Strategy for Rotational Kinematics Example 10.3 Calculating the Acceleration of a Fishing Reel Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Solution for (c) Solution for (d) Discussion Example 10.4 Calculating the Duration When the Fishing Reel Slows Down and Stops Strategy Solution Discussion Example 10.5 Calculating the Slow Acceleration of Trains and Their Wheels Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Example 10.6 Calculating the Distance Traveled by a Fly on the Edge of a Microwave Oven Plate Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia Making Connections: Rotational Motion Dynamics Rotational Inertia and Moment of Inertia Take-Home Experiment Problem-Solving Strategy for Rotational Dynamics Making Connections Example 10.7 Calculating the Effect of Mass Distribution on a Merry-Go-Round Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited Making Connections Example 10.8 Calculating the Work and Energy for Spinning a Grindstone Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion Problem-Solving Strategy for Rotational Energy Example 10.9 Calculating Helicopter Energies Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion Making Connections How Thick Is the Soup? Or Why Don't All Objects Roll Downhill at the Same Rate? Take-Home Experiment Example 10.10 Calculating the Speed of a Cylinder Rolling Down an Incline Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations My Solar System 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation Making Connections Example 10.11 Calculating Angular Momentum of the Earth Strategy Solution Discussion Example 10.12 Calculating the Torque Putting Angular Momentum Into a Lazy Susan Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Example 10.13 Calculating the Torque in a Kick Strategy Solution to (a) Solution to (b) Discussion Making Connections: Conservation Laws Conservation of Angular Momentum Example 10.14 Calculating the Angular Momentum of a Spinning Skater Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions Example 10.15 Rotation in a Collision Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Strategy for (c) Solution of (c) Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum Check Your Understanding Solution Glossary Section Summary 10.1 Angular Acceleration 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum Conceptual Questions 10.1 Angular Acceleration 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum Problems & Exercises 10.1 Angular Acceleration 10.2 Kinematics of Rotational Motion 10.3 Dynamics of Rotational Motion: Rotational Inertia 10.4 Rotational Kinetic Energy: Work and Energy Revisited 10.5 Angular Momentum and Its Conservation 10.6 Collisions of Extended Bodies in Two Dimensions 10.7 Gyroscopic Effects: Vector Aspects of Angular Momentum

- Chapter 11 Fluid Statics Chapter Outline Introduction to Fluid Statics 11.1 What Is a Fluid? Connections: Submicroscopic Explanation of Solids and Liquids PhET Explorations States of Matter--Basics 11.2 Density Density Take-Home Experiment Sugar and Salt Example 11.1 Calculating the Mass of a Reservoir From Its Volume Strategy Solution Discussion 11.3 Pressure Pressure Example 11.2 Calculating Force Exerted by the Air: What Force Does a Pressure Exert? Strategy Solution Discussion Gas Properties 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid Example 11.3 Calculating the Average Pressure and Force Exerted: What Force Must a Dam Withstand? Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Example 11.4 Calculating Average Density: How Dense Is the Air? Strategy Solution Discussion Example 11.5 Calculating Depth Below the Surface of Water: What Depth of Water Creates the Same Pressure as the Entire Atmosphere? Strategy Solution Discussion 11.5 Pascal's Principle Pascal's Principle Application of Pascal's Principle Relationship Between Forces in a Hydraulic System Example 11.6 Calculating Force of Slave Cylinders: Pascal Puts on the Brakes Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Conservation of Energy 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement Gauge Pressure Absolute Pressure Systolic Pressure Diastolic Pressure Example 11.7 Calculating Height of IV Bag: Blood Pressure and Intravenous Infusions Strategy for (a) Solution Discussion 11.7 Archimedes' Principle Buoyant Force Archimedes' Principle Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation Floating and Sinking Example 11.8 Calculating buoyant force: dependency on shape Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation Density and Archimedes' Principle Specific Gravity Example 11.9 Calculating Average Density: Floating Woman Strategy Solution Discussion More Density Measurements Example 11.10 Calculating Density: Is the Coin Authentic? Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Buoyancy 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids Cohesive Forces Adhesive Forces Surface Tension Surface Tension Making Connections: Surface Tension Example 11.11 Surface Tension: Pressure Inside a Bubble Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation Adhesion and Capillary Action Contact Angle Capillary Action Example 11.12 Calculating Radius of a Capillary Tube: Capillary Action: Tree Sap Strategy Solution Discussion 11.9 Pressures in the Body Pressure in the Body Blood Pressure Increase in Pressure in the Feet of a Person Two Pumps of the Heart Pressure in the Eye Eye Pressure Example 11.13 Calculating Gauge Pressure and Depth: Damage to the Eardrum Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Pressure Associated with the Lungs Other Pressures in the Body Spinal Column and Skull Bladder Pressure Pressures in the Skeletal System Glossary Section Summary 11.1 What Is a Fluid? 11.2 Density 11.3 Pressure 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid 11.5 Pascal's Principle 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement 11.7 Archimedes' Principle 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action 11.9 Pressures in the Body Conceptual Questions 11.1 What Is a Fluid? 11.2 Density 11.3 Pressure 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid 11.5 Pascal's Principle 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement 11.7 Archimedes' Principle 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action Problems & Exercises 11.2 Density 11.3 Pressure 11.4 Variation of Pressure with Depth in a Fluid 11.5 Pascal's Principle 11.6 Gauge Pressure, Absolute Pressure, and Pressure Measurement 11.7 Archimedes' Principle 11.8 Cohesion and Adhesion in Liquids: Surface Tension and Capillary Action 11.9 Pressures in the Body

- Chapter 12 Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications Chapter Outline Introduction to Fluid Dynamics and Its Biological and Medical Applications 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity Example 12.1 Calculating Volume from Flow Rate: The Heart Pumps a Lot of Blood in a Lifetime Strategy Solution Discussion Example 12.2 Calculating Fluid Speed: Speed Increases When a Tube Narrows Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Example 12.3 Calculating Flow Speed and Vessel Diameter: Branching in the Cardiovascular System Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion 12.2 Bernoulli's Equation Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation with a Sheet of Paper Bernoulli's Equation Making Connections: Conservation of Energy Bernoulli's Equation for Static Fluids Bernoulli's Principle--Bernoulli's Equation at Constant Depth Example 12.4 Calculating Pressure: Pressure Drops as a Fluid Speeds Up Strategy Solution Discussion Applications of Bernoulli's Principle Entrainment Wings and Sails Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation with Two Strips of Paper Velocity measurement 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli's Equation Torricelli's Theorem Example 12.5 Calculating Pressure: A Fire Hose Nozzle Strategy Solution Discussion Power in Fluid Flow Making Connections: Power Example 12.6 Calculating Power in a Moving Fluid Strategy Solution Discussion 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's Law Laminar Flow and Viscosity Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment: Go Down to the River Laminar Flow Confined to Tubes--Poiseuille's Law Example 12.7 Using Flow Rate: Plaque Deposits Reduce Blood Flow Strategy Solution Discussion Example 12.8 What Pressure Produces This Flow Rate? Strategy Solution Discussion Flow and Resistance as Causes of Pressure Drops 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence Example 12.9 Is This Flow Laminar or Turbulent? Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Inhalation 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid Example 12.10 Does a Ball Have a Turbulent Wake? Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Don't Lose Your Marbles 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes Diffusion Example 12.11 Calculating Diffusion: How Long Does Glucose Diffusion Take? Strategy Solution Discussion The Rate and Direction of Diffusion Osmosis and Dialysis--Diffusion across Membranes Glossary Section Summary 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity 12.2 Bernoulli's Equation 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's Law 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes Conceptual Questions 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity 12.2 Bernoulli's Equation 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's Law 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence 12.6 Motion of an Object in a Viscous Fluid 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes Problems & Exercises 12.1 Flow Rate and Its Relation to Velocity 12.2 Bernoulli's Equation 12.3 The Most General Applications of Bernoulli's Equation 12.4 Viscosity and Laminar Flow; Poiseuille's Law 12.5 The Onset of Turbulence 12.7 Molecular Transport Phenomena: Diffusion, Osmosis, and Related Processes

- Chapter 13 Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws Chapter Outline Introduction to Temperature, Kinetic Theory, and the Gas Laws 13.1 Temperature Misconception Alert: Human Perception vs. Reality Temperature Scales Example 13.1 Converting between Temperature Scales: Room Temperature Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Example 13.2 Converting between Temperature Scales: the Reaumur Scale Strategy Solution Temperature Ranges in the Universe Making Connections: Absolute Zero Thermal Equilibrium and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics The Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics Check Your Understanding Solution 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids Linear Thermal Expansion--Thermal Expansion in One Dimension Example 13.3 Calculating Linear Thermal Expansion: The Golden Gate Bridge Strategy Solution Discussion Thermal Expansion in Two and Three Dimensions Thermal Expansion in Two Dimensions Thermal Expansion in Three Dimensions Making Connections: Real-World Connections--Filling the Tank Example 13.4 Calculating Thermal Expansion: Gas vs. Gas Tank Strategy Solution Discussion Thermal Stress Example 13.5 Calculating Thermal Stress: Gas Pressure Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law Ideal Gas Law Example 13.6 Calculating Pressure Changes Due to Temperature Changes: Tire Pressure Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Refrigerating a Balloon Example 13.7 Calculating the Number of Molecules in a Cubic Meter of Gas Strategy Solution Discussion Moles and Avogadro's Number Avogadro's Number Check Your Understanding Solution Example 13.8 Calculating Moles per Cubic Meter and Liters per Mole Strategy and Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution The Ideal Gas Law Restated Using Moles Ideal Gas Law (in terms of moles) Example 13.9 Calculating Number of Moles: Gas in a Bike Tire Strategy Solution Discussion The Ideal Gas Law and Energy Problem-Solving Strategy: The Ideal Gas Law Check Your Understanding Solution 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature Making Connections: Things Great and Small--Atomic and Molecular Origin of Pressure in a Gas Example 13.10 Calculating Kinetic Energy and Speed of a Gas Molecule Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Making Connections: Historical Note--Kinetic Theory of Gases Distribution of Molecular Speeds Example 13.11 Calculating Temperature: Escape Velocity of Helium Atoms Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution Gas Properties 13.5 Phase Changes PV Diagrams Phase Diagrams Equilibrium Check Your Understanding Solution Vapor Pressure, Partial Pressure, and Dalton's Law Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations States of Matter--Basics 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Example 13.12 Calculating Density Using Vapor Pressure Strategy Solution Discussion Percent Relative Humidity Example 13.13 Calculating Humidity and Dew Point Strategy and Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations States of Matter Glossary Section Summary 13.1 Temperature 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature 13.5 Phase Changes 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Conceptual Questions 13.1 Temperature 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature 13.5 Phase Changes 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling Problems & Exercises 13.1 Temperature 13.2 Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquids 13.3 The Ideal Gas Law 13.4 Kinetic Theory: Atomic and Molecular Explanation of Pressure and Temperature 13.6 Humidity, Evaporation, and Boiling

- Chapter 14 Heat and Heat Transfer Methods Chapter Outline Introduction to Heat and Heat Transfer Methods 14.1 Heat Mechanical Equivalent of Heat Check Your Understanding Solution 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity Heat Transfer and Temperature Change Example 14.1 Calculating the Required Heat: Heating Water in an Aluminum Pan Strategy Solution Discussion Example 14.2 Calculating the Temperature Increase from the Work Done on a Substance: Truck Brakes Overheat on Downhill Runs Strategy Solution Discussion Example 14.3 Calculating the Final Temperature When Heat Is Transferred Between Two Bodies: Pouring Cold Water in a Hot Pan Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Temperature Change of Land and Water Check Your Understanding Solution 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat Example 14.4 Calculate Final Temperature from Phase Change: Cooling Soda with Ice Cubes Strategy Solution Discussion Real-World Application Problem-Solving Strategies for the Effects of Heat Transfer Check Your Understanding Solution 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods Check Your Understanding Solution 14.5 Conduction Example 14.5 Calculating Heat Transfer Through Conduction: Conduction Rate Through an Ice Box Strategy Solution Discussion Example 14.6 Calculating the Temperature Difference Maintained by a Heat Transfer: Conduction Through an Aluminum Pan Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 14.6 Convection Take-Home Experiment: Convection Rolls in a Heated Pan Example 14.7 Calculating Heat Transfer by Convection: Convection of Air Through the Walls of a House Strategy Solution Discussion Example 14.8 Calculate the Flow of Mass during Convection: Sweat-Heat Transfer away from the Body Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 14.7 Radiation Take-Home Experiment: Temperature in the Sun Example 14.9 Calculate the Net Heat Transfer of a Person: Heat Transfer by Radiation Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution Career Connection: Energy Conservation Consultation Problem-Solving Strategies for the Methods of Heat Transfer Glossary Section Summary 14.1 Heat 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods 14.5 Conduction 14.6 Convection 14.7 Radiation Conceptual Questions 14.1 Heat 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat 14.4 Heat Transfer Methods 14.5 Conduction 14.6 Convection 14.7 Radiation Problems & Exercises 14.2 Temperature Change and Heat Capacity 14.3 Phase Change and Latent Heat 14.5 Conduction 14.6 Convection 14.7 Radiation

- Chapter 15 Thermodynamics Chapter Outline Introduction to Thermodynamics 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics Making Connections: Law of Thermodynamics and Law of Conservation of Energy Heat Q and Work W Internal Energy U Making Connections: Macroscopic and Microscopic Example 15.1 Calculating Change in Internal Energy: The Same Change in Equation is Produced by Two Different Processes Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion on (a) Solution for (b) Discussion on (b) Human Metabolism and the First Law of Thermodynamics 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes PV Diagrams and their Relationship to Work Done on or by a Gas Example 15.2 Total Work Done in a Cyclical Process Equals the Area Inside the Closed Loop on a PV Diagram Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Reversible Processes States of Matter 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency The Second Law of Thermodynamics (first expression) Heat Engines The Second Law of Thermodynamics (second expression) Example 15.3 Daily Work Done by a Coal-Fired Power Station, Its Efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Strategy for (c) Solution for (c) Discussion 15.4 Carnot's Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated Carnot Engine Example 15.4 Maximum Theoretical Efficiency for a Nuclear Reactor Strategy Solution Discussion 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators Heat Pumps Example 15.5 The Best COP hp of a Heat Pump for Home Use Strategy Solution Discussion Air Conditioners and Refrigerators Problem-Solving Strategies for Thermodynamics 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy Making Connections: Entropy, Energy, and Work Example 15.6 Entropy Increases in an Irreversible (Real) Process Strategy Solution Discussion Entropy and the Unavailability of Energy to Do Work Example 15.7 Less Work is Produced by a Given Heat Transfer When Entropy Change is Greater Strategy Solution (a) Solution (b) Discussion Heat Death of the Universe: An Overdose of Entropy Order to Disorder Example 15.8 Entropy Associated with Disorder Strategy Solution Discussion Life, Evolution, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Reversible Reactions 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation Coin Tosses Disorder in a Gas Example 15.9 Entropy Increases in a Coin Toss Strategy Solution Discussion Problem-Solving Strategies for Entropy Glossary Section Summary 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency 15.4 Carnot's Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation Conceptual Questions 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency 15.4 Carnot's Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation Problems & Exercises 15.1 The First Law of Thermodynamics 15.2 The First Law of Thermodynamics and Some Simple Processes 15.3 Introduction to the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Heat Engines and Their Efficiency 15.4 Carnot's Perfect Heat Engine: The Second Law of Thermodynamics Restated 15.5 Applications of Thermodynamics: Heat Pumps and Refrigerators 15.6 Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder and the Unavailability of Energy 15.7 Statistical Interpretation of Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics: The Underlying Explanation

- Chapter 16 Oscillatory Motion and Waves Chapter Outline Introduction to Oscillatory Motion and Waves 16.1 Hooke's Law: Stress and Strain Revisited Example 16.1 How Stiff Are Car Springs? Strategy Solution Discussion Energy in Hooke's Law of Deformation Example 16.2 Calculating Stored Energy: A Tranquilizer Gun Spring Strategy for a Solution for a Strategy for b Solution for b Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations Example 16.3 Determine the Frequency of Two Oscillations: Medical Ultrasound and the Period of Middle C Strategy Solution a Discussion a Solution b Discussion b Check Your Understanding Solution 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion Take-Home Experiment: SHM and the Marble Period of Simple Harmonic Oscillator Take-Home Experiment: Mass and Ruler Oscillations Example 16.4 Calculate the Frequency and Period of Oscillations: Bad Shock Absorbers in a Car Strategy Solution Discussion The Link between Simple Harmonic Motion and Waves Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Masses and Springs 16.4 The Simple Pendulum Example 16.5 Measuring Acceleration due to Gravity: The Period of a Pendulum Strategy Solution Discussion Making Career Connections Take Home Experiment: Determining Equation Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Pendulum Lab 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator Example 16.6 Determine the Maximum Speed of an Oscillating System: A Bumpy Road Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion Check Your Understanding Solution 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion Example 16.7 Damping an Oscillatory Motion: Friction on an Object Connected to a Spring Strategy Solution a Discussion a Solution b Discussion b Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance Check Your Understanding Solution 16.9 Waves Misconception Alert Take-Home Experiment: Waves in a Bowl Example 16.8 Calculate the Velocity of Wave Propagation: Gull in the Ocean Strategy Solution Discussion Transverse and Longitudinal Waves Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Wave on a String 16.10 Superposition and Interference Standing Waves Beats Making Career Connections Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution Wave Interference 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity Example 16.9 Calculating intensity and power: How much energy is in a ray of sunlight? Strategy a Solution a Discussion a Strategy b Solution b Discussion b Example 16.10 Determine the combined intensity of two waves: Perfect constructive interference Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution Glossary Section Summary 16.1 Hooke's Law: Stress and Strain Revisited 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion 16.4 The Simple Pendulum 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 16.9 Waves 16.10 Superposition and Interference 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity Conceptual Questions 16.1 Hooke's Law: Stress and Strain Revisited 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion 16.4 The Simple Pendulum 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 16.9 Waves 16.10 Superposition and Interference 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity Problems & Exercises 16.1 Hooke's Law: Stress and Strain Revisited 16.2 Period and Frequency in Oscillations 16.3 Simple Harmonic Motion: A Special Periodic Motion 16.4 The Simple Pendulum 16.5 Energy and the Simple Harmonic Oscillator 16.6 Uniform Circular Motion and Simple Harmonic Motion 16.7 Damped Harmonic Motion 16.8 Forced Oscillations and Resonance 16.9 Waves 16.10 Superposition and Interference 16.11 Energy in Waves: Intensity

- Chapter 17 Physics of Hearing Chapter Outline Introduction to the Physics of Hearing 17.1 Sound PhET Explorations Wave Interference 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength Example 17.1 Calculating Wavelengths: What Are the Wavelengths of Audible Sounds? Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Voice as a Sound Wave Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level Example 17.2 Calculating Sound Intensity Levels: Sound Waves Strategy Solution Discussion Example 17.3 Change Intensity Levels of a Sound: What Happens to the Decibel Level? Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Investigation: Feeling Sound Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms The Doppler Effect Example 17.4 Calculate Doppler Shift: A Train Horn Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion on (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Sonic Booms to Bow Wakes Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns Interference Example 17.5 Find the Length of a Tube with a 128 Hz Fundamental Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion on (a) Solution for (b) Discussion on (b) Real-World Applications: Resonance in Everyday Systems Check Your Understanding Solution Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Sound 17.6 Hearing Example 17.6 Measuring Loudness: Loudness Versus Intensity Level and Frequency Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Strategy for (c) Solution for (c) Discussion The Hearing Mechanism Check Your Understanding Solution 17.7 Ultrasound Characteristics of Ultrasound Ultrasound in Medical Therapy Ultrasound in Medical Diagnostics Example 17.7 Calculate Acoustic Impedance and Intensity Reflection Coefficient: Ultrasound and Fat Tissue Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion Uses for Doppler-Shifted Radar Example 17.8 Calculate Velocity of Blood: Doppler-Shifted Ultrasound Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion Industrial and Other Applications of Ultrasound Check Your Understanding Solution Glossary Section Summary 17.1 Sound 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns 17.6 Hearing 17.7 Ultrasound Conceptual Questions 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns 17.6 Hearing 17.7 Ultrasound Problems & Exercises 17.2 Speed of Sound, Frequency, and Wavelength 17.3 Sound Intensity and Sound Level 17.4 Doppler Effect and Sonic Booms 17.5 Sound Interference and Resonance: Standing Waves in Air Columns 17.6 Hearing 17.7 Ultrasound

- Chapter 18 Electric Charge and Electric Field Chapter Outline Introduction to Electric Charge and Electric Field 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge Charge Carried by Electrons and Protons Things Great and Small: The Submicroscopic Origin of Charge Separation of Charge in Atoms Law of Conservation of Charge Making Connections: Conservation Laws PhET Explorations Balloons and Static Electricity 18.2 Conductors and Insulators Charging by Contact Charging by Induction Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations John Travoltage 18.3 Coulomb's Law Coulomb's Law Example 18.1 How Strong is the Coulomb Force Relative to the Gravitational Force? Strategy Solution Discussion 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited Concept of a Field Example 18.2 Calculating the Electric Field of a Point Charge Strategy Solution Discussion Example 18.3 Calculating the Force Exerted on a Point Charge by an Electric Field Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Electric Field of Dreams 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges Example 18.4 Adding Electric Fields Strategy Solution Discussion Charges and Fields 18.6 Electric Forces in Biology Polarity of Water Molecules 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium Misconception Alert: Electric Field inside a Conductor Properties of a Conductor in Electrostatic Equilibrium Earth's Electric Field Electric Fields on Uneven Surfaces Applications of Conductors 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics The Van de Graaff Generator Take-Home Experiment: Electrostatics and Humidity Xerography Laser Printers Ink Jet Printers and Electrostatic Painting Smoke Precipitators and Electrostatic Air Cleaning Problem-Solving Strategies for Electrostatics Integrated Concepts Example 18.5 Acceleration of a Charged Drop of Gasoline Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion for (c) Unreasonable Results Problem-Solving Strategy Glossary Section Summary 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge 18.2 Conductors and Insulators 18.3 Coulomb's Law 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges 18.6 Electric Forces in Biology 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics Conceptual Questions 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge 18.2 Conductors and Insulators 18.3 Coulomb's Law 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges 18.6 Electric Forces in Biology 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium Problems & Exercises 18.1 Static Electricity and Charge: Conservation of Charge 18.2 Conductors and Insulators 18.3 Coulomb's Law 18.4 Electric Field: Concept of a Field Revisited 18.5 Electric Field Lines: Multiple Charges 18.7 Conductors and Electric Fields in Static Equilibrium 18.8 Applications of Electrostatics

- Chapter 19 Electric Potential and Electric Field Chapter Outline Introduction to Electric Potential and Electric Energy 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference Potential Energy Electric Potential Potential Difference Potential Difference and Electrical Potential Energy Example 19.1 Calculating Energy Strategy Solution Discussion Example 19.2 How Many Electrons Move through a Headlight Each Second? Strategy Solution Discussion The Electron Volt Electron Volt Connections: Energy Units Conservation of Energy Example 19.3 Electrical Potential Energy Converted to Kinetic Energy Strategy Solution Discussion 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field Voltage between Points A and B Example 19.4 What Is the Highest Voltage Possible between Two Plates? Strategy Solution Discussion Example 19.5 Field and Force inside an Electron Gun Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Relationship between Voltage and Electric Field 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge Electric Potential Equation of a Point Charge Example 19.6 What Voltage Is Produced by a Small Charge on a Metal Sphere? Strategy Solution Discussion Example 19.7 What Is the Excess Charge on a Van de Graaff Generator Strategy Solution Discussion 19.4 Equipotential Lines Grounding PhET Explorations Charges and Fields 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics Capacitor The Amount of Charge Equation a Capacitor Can Store Capacitance Parallel Plate Capacitor Capacitance of a Parallel Plate Capacitor Example 19.8 Capacitance and Charge Stored in a Parallel Plate Capacitor Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Dielectric Take-Home Experiment: Building a Capacitor Dielectric Strength Things Great and Small Capacitor Lab 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel Capacitance in Series Total Capacitance in Series, Equation Example 19.9 What Is the Series Capacitance? Strategy Solution Discussion Capacitors in Parallel Total Capacitance in Parallel, Equation Example 19.10 A Mixture of Series and Parallel Capacitance Strategy Solution Discussion 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors Energy Stored in Capacitors Example 19.11 Capacitance in a Heart Defibrillator Strategy Solution Discussion Glossary Section Summary 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge 19.4 Equipotential Lines 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors Conceptual Questions 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge 19.4 Equipotential Lines 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors Problems & Exercises 19.1 Electric Potential Energy: Potential Difference 19.2 Electric Potential in a Uniform Electric Field 19.3 Electrical Potential Due to a Point Charge 19.4 Equipotential Lines 19.5 Capacitors and Dielectrics 19.6 Capacitors in Series and Parallel 19.7 Energy Stored in Capacitors

- Chapter 20 Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law Chapter Outline Introduction to Electric Current, Resistance, and Ohm's Law 20.1 Current Electric Current Example 20.1 Calculating Currents: Current in a Truck Battery and a Handheld Calculator Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Electric Current Illustration Example 20.2 Calculating the Number of Electrons that Move through a Calculator Strategy Solution Discussion Drift Velocity Conduction of Electricity and Heat Making Connections: Take-Home Investigation--Filament Observations Example 20.3 Calculating Drift Velocity in a Common Wire Strategy Solution Discussion 20.2 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits Ohm's Law Resistance and Simple Circuits Example 20.4 Calculating Resistance: An Automobile Headlight Strategy Solution Discussion Making Connections: Conservation of Energy PhET Explorations Ohm's Law 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity Material and Shape Dependence of Resistance Example 20.5 Calculating Resistor Diameter: A Headlight Filament Strategy Solution Discussion Temperature Variation of Resistance Example 20.6 Calculating Resistance: Hot-Filament Resistance Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Resistance in a Wire 20.4 Electric Power and Energy Power in Electric Circuits Example 20.7 Calculating Power Dissipation and Current: Hot and Cold Power Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Strategy and Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) The Cost of Electricity Making Connections: Energy, Power, and Time Example 20.8 Calculating the Cost Effectiveness of Compact Fluorescent Lights (CFL) Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Electrical Energy Use Inventory 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current Alternating Current Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--AC/DC Lights Example 20.9 Peak Voltage and Power for AC Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Why Use AC for Power Distribution? Example 20.10 Power Losses Are Less for High-Voltage Transmission Strategy Solution Solution Solution Discussion Generator 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body Thermal Hazards Shock Hazards 20.7 Nerve Conduction-Electrocardiograms Nerve Conduction Electrocardiograms PhET Explorations Neuron Glossary Section Summary 20.1 Current 20.2 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 20.4 Electric Power and Energy 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body 20.7 Nerve Conduction-Electrocardiograms Conceptual Questions 20.1 Current 20.2 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 20.4 Electric Power and Energy 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body 20.7 Nerve Conduction-Electrocardiograms Problems & Exercises 20.1 Current 20.2 Ohm's Law: Resistance and Simple Circuits 20.3 Resistance and Resistivity 20.4 Electric Power and Energy 20.5 Alternating Current versus Direct Current 20.6 Electric Hazards and the Human Body 20.7 Nerve Conduction-Electrocardiograms

- Chapter 21 Circuits and DC Instruments Chapter Outline Introduction to Circuits and DC Instruments 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel Resistors in Series Connections: Conservation Laws Example 21.1 Calculating Resistance, Current, Voltage Drop, and Power Dissipation: Analysis of a Series Circuit Strategy and Solution for (a) Strategy and Solution for (b) Strategy and Solution for (c) Discussion for (c) Strategy and Solution for (d) Discussion for (d) Strategy and Solution for (e) Discussion for (e) Major Features of Resistors in Series Resistors in Parallel Example 21.2 Calculating Resistance, Current, Power Dissipation, and Power Output: Analysis of a Parallel Circuit Strategy and Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Strategy and Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Strategy and Solution for (c) Discussion for (c) Strategy and Solution for (d) Discussion for (d) Strategy and Solution for (e) Discussion for (e) Overall Discussion Major Features of Resistors in Parallel Combinations of Series and Parallel Example 21.3 Calculating Resistance, Equation Drop, Current, and Power Dissipation: Combining Series and Parallel Circuits Strategy and Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Strategy and Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Strategy and Solution for (c) Discussion for (c) Strategy and Solution for (d) Discussion for (d) Practical Implications Check Your Understanding Solution Problem-Solving Strategies for Series and Parallel Resistors 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage Electromotive Force Internal Resistance Things Great and Small: The Submicroscopic Origin of Battery Potential Terminal Voltage Example 21.4 Calculating Terminal Voltage, Power Dissipation, Current, and Resistance: Terminal Voltage and Load Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion for (c) Solution for (d) Discussion for (d) Multiple Voltage Sources Take-Home Experiment: Flashlight Batteries Animals as Electrical Detectors Solar Cell Arrays Take-Home Experiment: Virtual Solar Cells 21.3 Kirchhoff's Rules Kirchhoff's Rules Kirchhoff's First Rule Making Connections: Conservation Laws Kirchhoff's Second Rule Applying Kirchhoff's Rules Example 21.5 Calculating Current: Using Kirchhoff's Rules Strategy Solution Discussion Problem-Solving Strategies for Kirchhoff's Rules Check Your Understanding Solution 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters Analog Meters: Galvanometers Galvanometer as Voltmeter Galvanometer as Ammeter Taking Measurements Alters the Circuit Connections: Limits to Knowledge Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Circuit Construction Kit (DC Only), Virtual Lab 21.5 Null Measurements The Potentiometer Resistance Measurements and the Wheatstone Bridge Check Your Understanding Solution 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors RC Circuits Discharging a Capacitor Example 21.6 Integrated Concept Problem: Calculating Capacitor Size--Strobe Lights Strategy Solution Discussion RC Circuits for Timing Example 21.7 Calculating Time: RC Circuit in a Heart Defibrillator Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution PhET Explorations Circuit Construction Kit (DC only) Glossary Section Summary 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage 21.3 Kirchhoff's Rules 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters 21.5 Null Measurements 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors Conceptual Questions 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage 21.3 Kirchhoff's Rules 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters 21.5 Null Measurements 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors Problems & Exercises 21.1 Resistors in Series and Parallel 21.2 Electromotive Force: Terminal Voltage 21.3 Kirchhoff's Rules 21.4 DC Voltmeters and Ammeters 21.5 Null Measurements 21.6 DC Circuits Containing Resistors and Capacitors

- Chapter 22 Magnetism Chapter Outline Introduction to Magnetism 22.1 Magnets Universal Characteristics of Magnets and Magnetic Poles Misconception Alert: Earth's Magnetic Poles Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Refrigerator Magnets 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets Ferromagnets Electromagnets Current: The Source of All Magnetism Electric Currents and Magnetism PhET Explorations Magnets and Electromagnets 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines Making Connections: Concept of a Field 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field Right Hand Rule 1 Making Connections: Charges and Magnets Example 22.1 Calculating Magnetic Force: Earth's Magnetic Field on a Charged Glass Rod Strategy Solution Discussion 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications Example 22.2 Calculating the Curvature of the Path of an Electron Moving in a Magnetic Field: A Magnet on a TV Screen Strategy Solution Discussion 22.6 The Hall Effect Example 22.3 Calculating the Hall emf: Hall Effect for Blood Flow Strategy Solution Discussion 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor Example 22.4 Calculating Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Wire: A Strong Magnetic Field Strategy Solution Discussion 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters Example 22.5 Calculating Torque on a Current-Carrying Loop in a Strong Magnetic Field Strategy Solution Discussion 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere's Law Magnetic Field Created by a Long Straight Current-Carrying Wire: Right Hand Rule 2 Example 22.6 Calculating Current that Produces a Magnetic Field Strategy Solution Discussion Ampere's Law and Others Making Connections: Relativity Magnetic Field Produced by a Current-Carrying Circular Loop Magnetic Field Produced by a Current-Carrying Solenoid Example 22.7 Calculating Field Strength inside a Solenoid Strategy Solution Discussion Generator 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors The Ampere 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism Mass Spectrometry Cathode Ray Tubes--CRTs--and the Like Magnetic Resonance Imaging Other Medical Uses of Magnetic Fields PhET Explorations Magnet and Compass Glossary Section Summary 22.1 Magnets 22.2 Ferromagnets and Electromagnets 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications 22.6 The Hall Effect 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere's Law 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism Conceptual Questions 22.1 Magnets 22.3 Magnetic Fields and Magnetic Field Lines 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications 22.6 The Hall Effect 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters 22.9 Magnetic Fields Produced by Currents: Ampere's Law 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism Problems & Exercises 22.4 Magnetic Field Strength: Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field 22.5 Force on a Moving Charge in a Magnetic Field: Examples and Applications 22.6 The Hall Effect 22.7 Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductor 22.8 Torque on a Current Loop: Motors and Meters 22.10 Magnetic Force between Two Parallel Conductors 22.11 More Applications of Magnetism

- Chapter 23 Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits, and Electrical Technologies Chapter Outline Introduction to Electromagnetic Induction, AC Circuits and Electrical Technologies 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux 23.2 Faraday's Law of Induction: Lenz's Law Faraday's and Lenz's Law Problem-Solving Strategy for Lenz's Law Applications of Electromagnetic Induction Making Connections: Conservation of Energy Example 23.1 Calculating Emf: How Great Is the Induced Emf? Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Faraday's Electromagnetic Lab 23.3 Motional Emf Making Connections: Unification of Forces Example 23.2 Calculating the Large Motional Emf of an Object in Orbit Strategy Solution Discussion 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping Applications of Magnetic Damping 23.5 Electric Generators Example 23.3 Calculating the Emf Induced in a Generator Coil Strategy Solution Discussion Example 23.4 Calculating the Maximum Emf of a Generator Strategy Solution Discussion 23.6 Back Emf 23.7 Transformers Example 23.5 Calculating Characteristics of a Step-Up Transformer Strategy and Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Strategy and Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Example 23.6 Calculating Characteristics of a Step-Down Transformer Strategy and Solution for (a) Strategy and Solution for (b) Discussion PhET Explorations Generator 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices 23.9 Inductance Inductors Example 23.7 Calculating the Self-inductance of a Moderate Size Solenoid Strategy Solution Discussion Energy Stored in an Inductor Example 23.8 Calculating the Energy Stored in the Field of a Solenoid Strategy Solution Discussion 23.10 RL Circuits Example 23.9 Calculating Characteristic Time and Current in an RL Circuit Strategy for (a) Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Strategy for (b) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive Inductors and Inductive Reactance AC Voltage in an Inductor Example 23.10 Calculating Inductive Reactance and then Current Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Capacitors and Capacitive Reactance AC Voltage in a Capacitor Example 23.11 Calculating Capacitive Reactance and then Current Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Resistors in an AC Circuit AC Voltage in a Resistor 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits Impedance Example 23.12 Calculating Impedance and Current Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (a) Resonance in RLC Series AC Circuits Example 23.13 Calculating Resonant Frequency and Current Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Power in RLC Series AC Circuits Example 23.14 Calculating the Power Factor and Power Strategy and Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Strategy and Solution for (b) Strategy and Solution for (c) Discussion PhET Explorations Circuit Construction Kit (AC+DC), Virtual Lab Glossary Section Summary 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux 23.2 Faraday's Law of Induction: Lenz's Law 23.3 Motional Emf 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping 23.5 Electric Generators 23.6 Back Emf 23.7 Transformers 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices 23.9 Inductance 23.10 RL Circuits 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits Conceptual Questions 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux 23.2 Faraday's Law of Induction: Lenz's Law 23.3 Motional Emf 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping 23.5 Electric Generators 23.6 Back Emf 23.7 Transformers 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices 23.9 Inductance 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits Problems & Exercises 23.1 Induced Emf and Magnetic Flux 23.2 Faraday's Law of Induction: Lenz's Law 23.3 Motional Emf 23.4 Eddy Currents and Magnetic Damping 23.5 Electric Generators 23.6 Back Emf 23.7 Transformers 23.8 Electrical Safety: Systems and Devices 23.9 Inductance 23.10 RL Circuits 23.11 Reactance, Inductive and Capacitive 23.12 RLC Series AC Circuits

- Chapter 24 Electromagnetic Waves Chapter Outline Introduction to Electromagnetic Waves Misconception Alert: Sound Waves vs. Radio Waves Discovering a New Phenomenon 24.1 Maxwell's Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed Maxwell's Equations Making Connections: Unification of Forces Hertz's Observations 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves Electric and Magnetic Waves: Moving Together Receiving Electromagnetic Waves Relating Equation -Field and Equation -Field Strengths Example 24.1 Calculating Equation -Field Strength in an Electromagnetic Wave Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Antennas PhET Explorations Radio Waves and Electromagnetic Fields 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Connections: Waves Electromagnetic Spectrum: Rules of Thumb Transmission, Reflection, and Absorption Radio and TV Waves FM Radio Waves Example 24.2 Calculating Wavelengths of Radio Waves Strategy Solution Discussion Radio Wave Interference Microwaves Heating with Microwaves Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Microwave Ovens Infrared Radiation Visible Light Example 24.3 Integrated Concept Problem: Correcting Vision with Lasers Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Colors That Match Ultraviolet Radiation Human Exposure to UV Radiation UV Light and the Ozone Layer Benefits of UV Light Things Great and Small: A Submicroscopic View of X-Ray Production X-Rays Gamma Rays Detecting Electromagnetic Waves from Space Color Vision 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves Connections: Waves and Particles Example 24.4 Calculate Microwave Intensities and Fields Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion Glossary Section Summary 24.1 Maxwell's Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves Conceptual Questions 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Problems & Exercises 24.1 Maxwell's Equations: Electromagnetic Waves Predicted and Observed 24.2 Production of Electromagnetic Waves 24.3 The Electromagnetic Spectrum 24.4 Energy in Electromagnetic Waves

- Chapter 25 Geometric Optics Chapter Outline Introduction to Geometric Optics 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light Ray Geometric Optics 25.2 The Law of Reflection The Law of Reflection Take-Home Experiment: Law of Reflection 25.3 The Law of Refraction Refraction Speed of Light The Speed of Light Value of the Speed of Light Index of Refraction Example 25.1 Speed of Light in Matter Strategy Solution Discussion Law of Refraction The Law of Refraction Take-Home Experiment: A Broken Pencil Example 25.2 Determine the Index of Refraction from Refraction Data Strategy Solution Discussion Example 25.3 A Larger Change in Direction Strategy Solution Discussion 25.4 Total Internal Reflection Critical Angle Example 25.4 How Big is the Critical Angle Here? Strategy Solution Discussion Fiber Optics: Endoscopes to Telephones Cladding Corner Reflectors and Diamonds The Sparkle of Diamonds PhET Explorations Bending Light 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms Dispersion Making Connections: Dispersion Rainbows PhET Explorations Geometric Optics 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses Converging or Convex Lens Focal Point F Focal Length Equation Power Equation Example 25.5 What is the Power of a Common Magnifying Glass? Strategy Solution Discussion Diverging Lens Ray Tracing and Thin Lenses Thin Lens Take-Home Experiment: A Visit to the Optician Rules for Ray Tracing Image Formation by Thin Lenses Real Image Image Distance Thin Lens Equations and Magnification Example 25.6 Finding the Image of a Light Bulb Filament by Ray Tracing and by the Thin Lens Equations Strategy and Concept Solutions (Ray tracing) Discussion Virtual Image Example 25.7 Image Produced by a Magnifying Glass Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion Example 25.8 Image Produced by a Concave Lens Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Concentrating Sunlight Problem-Solving Strategies for Lenses Misconception Alert 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors Example 25.9 A Concave Reflector Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion Example 25.10 Solar Electric Generating System Strategy Solution to (a) Solution to (b) Solution to (c) Discussion for (c) Example 25.11 Image in a Convex Mirror Strategy Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Concave Mirrors Close to Home Problem-Solving Strategy for Mirrors Glossary Section Summary 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light 25.2 The Law of Reflection 25.3 The Law of Refraction 25.4 Total Internal Reflection 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors Conceptual Questions 25.2 The Law of Reflection 25.3 The Law of Refraction 25.4 Total Internal Reflection 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors Problems & Exercises 25.1 The Ray Aspect of Light 25.2 The Law of Reflection 25.3 The Law of Refraction 25.4 Total Internal Reflection 25.5 Dispersion: The Rainbow and Prisms 25.6 Image Formation by Lenses 25.7 Image Formation by Mirrors

- Chapter 26 Vision and Optical Instruments Chapter Outline Introduction to Vision and Optical Instruments 26.1 Physics of the Eye Take-Home Experiment: The Pupil Example 26.1 Size of Image on Retina Strategy Solution Discussion Example 26.2 Power Range of the Eye Strategy Solution Discussion 26.2 Vision Correction Example 26.3 Correcting Nearsightedness Strategy Solution Discussion Example 26.4 Correcting Farsightedness Strategy Solution Discussion 26.3 Color and Color Vision Simple Theory of Color Vision Take-Home Experiment: Rods and Cones Take-Home Experiment: Exploring Color Addition Color Constancy and a Modified Theory of Color Vision PhET Explorations Color Vision 26.4 Microscopes Overall Magnification Example 26.5 Microscope Magnification Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion Take-Home Experiment: Make a Lens 26.5 Telescopes 26.6 Aberrations Glossary Section Summary 26.1 Physics of the Eye 26.2 Vision Correction 26.3 Color and Color Vision 26.4 Microscopes 26.5 Telescopes 26.6 Aberrations Conceptual Questions 26.1 Physics of the Eye 26.2 Vision Correction 26.3 Color and Color Vision 26.4 Microscopes 26.5 Telescopes 26.6 Aberrations Problems & Exercises 26.1 Physics of the Eye 26.2 Vision Correction 26.4 Microscopes 26.5 Telescopes 26.6 Aberrations

- Chapter 27 Wave Optics Chapter Outline Introduction to Wave Optics 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference Making Connections: Waves 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction 27.3 Young's Double Slit Experiment Take-Home Experiment: Using Fingers as Slits Example 27.1 Finding a Wavelength from an Interference Pattern Strategy Solution Discussion Example 27.2 Calculating Highest Order Possible Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction Take-Home Experiment: Rainbows on a CD Example 27.3 Calculating Typical Diffraction Grating Effects Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction Example 27.4 Calculating Single Slit Diffraction Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion Take-Home Experiment: Resolution of the Eye Connections: Limits to Knowledge Example 27.5 Calculating Diffraction Limits of the Hubble Space Telescope Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion 27.7 Thin Film Interference Example 27.6 Calculating Non-reflective Lens Coating Using Thin Film Interference Strategy Solution Discussion Example 27.7 Soap Bubbles: More Than One Thickness can be Constructive Strategy and Concept Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Making Connections: Take-Home Experiment--Thin Film Interference Problem-Solving Strategies for Wave Optics 27.8 Polarization Example 27.8 Calculating Intensity Reduction by a Polarizing Filter Strategy Solution Discussion Polarization by Reflection Things Great and Small: Atomic Explanation of Polarizing Filters Example 27.9 Calculating Polarization by Reflection Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Polarization by Scattering Take-Home Experiment: Polarization Liquid Crystals and Other Polarization Effects in Materials 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light Making Connections: Waves Glossary Section Summary 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction 27.3 Young's Double Slit Experiment 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion 27.7 Thin Film Interference 27.8 Polarization 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light Conceptual Questions 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference 27.2 Huygens's Principle: Diffraction 27.3 Young's Double Slit Experiment 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion 27.7 Thin Film Interference 27.8 Polarization 27.9 *Extended Topic* Microscopy Enhanced by the Wave Characteristics of Light Problems & Exercises 27.1 The Wave Aspect of Light: Interference 27.3 Young's Double Slit Experiment 27.4 Multiple Slit Diffraction 27.5 Single Slit Diffraction 27.6 Limits of Resolution: The Rayleigh Criterion 27.7 Thin Film Interference 27.8 Polarization

- Chapter 28 Special Relativity Chapter Outline Introduction to Special Relativity 28.1 Einstein's Postulates Einstein's First Postulate Inertial Reference Frame First Postulate of Special Relativity Einstein's Second Postulate Michelson-Morley Experiment Second Postulate of Special Relativity Misconception Alert: Constancy of the Speed of Light Check Your Understanding Solution 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation Simultaneity Time Dilation Time dilation Proper Time Example 28.1 Calculating Equation for a Relativistic Event: How Long Does a Speedy Muon Live? Strategy Solution Discussion Real-World Connections The Twin Paradox Check Your Understanding Solution 28.3 Length Contraction Proper Length Proper Length Length Contraction Length Contraction Example 28.2 Calculating Length Contraction: The Distance between Stars Contracts when You Travel at High Velocity Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities Classical Velocity Addition Classical Velocity Addition Relativistic Velocity Addition Relativistic Velocity Addition Example 28.3 Showing that the Speed of Light towards an Observer is Constant (in a Vacuum): The Speed of Light is the Speed of Light Strategy Solution Discussion Example 28.4 Comparing the Speed of Light towards and away from an Observer: Relativistic Package Delivery Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Doppler Shift Relativistic Doppler Effects Career Connection: Astronomer Example 28.5 Calculating a Doppler Shift: Radio Waves from a Receding Galaxy Strategy Solution Discussion Check Your Understanding Solution 28.5 Relativistic Momentum Relativistic Momentum Misconception Alert: Relativistic Mass and Momentum Check Your Understanding Solution 28.6 Relativistic Energy Total Energy and Rest Energy Total Energy Rest Energy Example 28.6 Calculating Rest Energy: Rest Energy is Very Large Strategy Solution Discussion Stored Energy and Potential Energy Example 28.7 Calculating Rest Mass: A Small Mass Increase due to Energy Input Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Kinetic Energy and the Ultimate Speed Limit Relativistic Kinetic Energy The Speed of Light Example 28.8 Comparing Kinetic Energy: Relativistic Energy Versus Classical Kinetic Energy Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Relativistic Energy and Momentum Problem-Solving Strategies for Relativity Check Your Understanding Solution Glossary Section Summary 28.1 Einstein's Postulates 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation 28.3 Length Contraction 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities 28.5 Relativistic Momentum 28.6 Relativistic Energy Conceptual Questions 28.1 Einstein's Postulates 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation 28.3 Length Contraction 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities 28.5 Relativistic Momentum 28.6 Relativistic Energy Problems & Exercises 28.2 Simultaneity And Time Dilation 28.3 Length Contraction 28.4 Relativistic Addition of Velocities 28.5 Relativistic Momentum 28.6 Relativistic Energy

- Chapter 29 Introduction to Quantum Physics Chapter Outline Introduction to Quantum Physics Making Connections: Realms of Physics 29.1 Quantization of Energy Planck's Contribution Atomic Spectra PhET Explorations Models of the Hydrogen Atom 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect Example 29.1 Calculating Photon Energy and the Photoelectric Effect: A Violet Light Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion PhET Explorations Photoelectric Effect 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Ionizing Radiation Connections: Conservation of Energy Example 29.2 X-ray Photon Energy and X-ray Tube Voltage Strategy Solution Discussion Example 29.3 Photon Energy and Effects for UV Strategy Solution Discussion Visible Light Example 29.4 How Many Photons per Second Does a Typical Light Bulb Produce? Strategy Solution Discussion Lower-Energy Photons Misconception Alert: High-Voltage Power Lines PhET Explorations Color Vision 29.4 Photon Momentum Measuring Photon Momentum Connections: Conservation of Momentum Example 29.5 Electron and Photon Momentum Compared Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Solution for (c) Discussion Relativistic Photon Momentum Photon Detectors Example 29.6 Photon Energy and Momentum Strategy Solution Discussion Problem-Solving Suggestion 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality Quantum Wave Interference 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter De Broglie Wavelength Connections: Waves Example 29.7 Electron Wavelength versus Velocity and Energy Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Electron Microscopes Making Connections: A Submicroscopic Diffraction Grating 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Probability Distribution Heisenberg Uncertainty Example 29.8 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle in Position and Momentum for an Atom Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Heisenberg Uncertainty for Energy and Time Example 29.9 Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle for Energy and Time for an Atom Strategy Solution Discussion 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed Integrated Concepts Problem-Solving Strategy Example 29.10 Recoil of a Dust Particle after Absorbing a Photon Strategy Step 1 Strategy Step 2 Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion Glossary Section Summary 29.1 Quantization of Energy 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum 29.4 Photon Momentum 29.5 The Particle-Wave Duality 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed Conceptual Questions 29.1 Quantization of Energy 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum 29.4 Photon Momentum 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed Problems & Exercises 29.1 Quantization of Energy 29.2 The Photoelectric Effect 29.3 Photon Energies and the Electromagnetic Spectrum 29.4 Photon Momentum 29.6 The Wave Nature of Matter 29.7 Probability: The Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle 29.8 The Particle-Wave Duality Reviewed

- Chapter 30 Atomic Physics Chapter Outline Introduction to Atomic Physics 30.1 Discovery of the Atom Patterns and Systematics 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei Charges and Electromagnetic Forces The Electron The Nucleus PhET Explorations Rutherford Scattering 30.3 Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom Mysteries of Atomic Spectra Example 30.1 Calculating Wave Interference of a Hydrogen Line Strategy and Concept Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) Bohr's Solution for Hydrogen Triumphs and Limits of the Bohr Theory PhET Explorations Models of the Hydrogen Atom 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications Example 30.2 Characteristic X-Ray Energy Strategy Solution Discussion Medical and Other Diagnostic Uses of X-rays X-Ray Diffraction and Crystallography 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations Fluorescence and Phosphorescence Nano-Crystals Lasers 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization Waves and Quantization Quantum Wave Interference 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules Example 30.3 What Are the Allowed Directions? Strategy Solution Discussion Intrinsic Spin Angular Momentum Is Quantized in Magnitude and Direction Intrinsic Spin PhET Explorations Stern-Gerlach Experiment 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle Multiple-Electron Atoms Pauli Exclusion Principle Shells and Subshells Example 30.4 How Many Electrons Can Be in This Shell? Strategy Solution Discussion Example 30.5 Subshells and Totals for Equation Strategy Solution Discussion Shell Filling and the Periodic Table PhET Explorations Stern-Gerlach Experiment Glossary Section Summary 30.1 Discovery of the Atom 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei 30.3 Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle Conceptual Questions 30.1 Discovery of the Atom 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei 30.3 Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations 30.6 The Wave Nature of Matter Causes Quantization 30.7 Patterns in Spectra Reveal More Quantization 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle Problems & Exercises 30.1 Discovery of the Atom 30.2 Discovery of the Parts of the Atom: Electrons and Nuclei 30.3 Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom 30.4 X Rays: Atomic Origins and Applications 30.5 Applications of Atomic Excitations and De-Excitations 30.8 Quantum Numbers and Rules 30.9 The Pauli Exclusion Principle

- Chapter 31 Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics Chapter Outline Introduction to Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity Discovery of Nuclear Radioactivity Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Ionization and Range Collisions PhET Explorations Beta Decay 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors Human Application PhET Explorations Radioactive Dating Game 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus Example 31.1 How Small and Dense Is a Nucleus? Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion Nuclear Forces and Stability 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws Alpha Decay Example 31.2 Alpha Decay Energy Found from Nuclear Masses Strategy Solution Discussion Beta Decay Example 31.3 Equation Decay Energy from Masses Strategy and Concept Solution Discussion and Implications Gamma Decay 31.5 Half-Life and Activity Half-Life Example 31.4 How Old Is the Shroud of Turin? Strategy Solution Discussion Activity, the Rate of Decay Example 31.5 How Great Is the Equation Activity in Living Tissue? Strategy Solution Discussion Human and Medical Applications Example 31.6 What Mass of Equation Escaped Chernobyl? Strategy Solution Discussion Alpha Decay 31.6 Binding Energy Things Great and Small Example 31.7 What Is Equation for an Alpha Particle? Strategy Solution Discussion Problem-Solving Strategies For Reaction And Binding Energies and Activity Calculations in Nuclear Physics PhET Explorations Nuclear Fission 31.7 Tunneling Quantum Tunneling and Wave Packets Glossary Section Summary 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws 31.5 Half-Life and Activity 31.6 Binding Energy 31.7 Tunneling Conceptual Questions 31.1 Nuclear Radioactivity 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws 31.5 Half-Life and Activity 31.6 Binding Energy 31.7 Tunneling Problems & Exercises 31.2 Radiation Detection and Detectors 31.3 Substructure of the Nucleus 31.4 Nuclear Decay and Conservation Laws 31.5 Half-Life and Activity 31.6 Binding Energy 31.7 Tunneling

- Chapter 32 Medical Applications of Nuclear Physics Chapter Outline Introduction to Applications of Nuclear Physics 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics Medical Application Simplified MRI 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation Misconception Alert: Activity vs. Dose Radiation Protection Problem-Solving Strategy Example 32.1 Dose from Inhaled Plutonium Strategy Solution Discussion Risk versus Benefit Alpha Decay 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation Medical Application 32.4 Food Irradiation 32.5 Fusion Example 32.2 Calculating Energy and Power from Fusion Strategy Solution for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion 32.6 Fission Example 32.3 Calculating Energy Released by Fission Strategy Solution Discussion Example 32.4 Calculating Energy from a Kilogram of Fissionable Fuel Strategy Solution Discussion PhET Explorations Nuclear Fission 32.7 Nuclear Weapons Glossary Section Summary 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation 32.4 Food Irradiation 32.5 Fusion 32.6 Fission 32.7 Nuclear Weapons Conceptual Questions 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation 32.4 Food Irradiation 32.5 Fusion 32.6 Fission 32.7 Nuclear Weapons Problems & Exercises 32.1 Medical Imaging and Diagnostics 32.2 Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation 32.3 Therapeutic Uses of Ionizing Radiation 32.5 Fusion 32.6 Fission 32.7 Nuclear Weapons

- Chapter 33 Particle Physics Chapter Outline Introduction to Particle Physics 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited Example 33.1 Calculating the Mass of a Pion Strategy Solution Discussion 33.2 The Four Basic Forces 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy Early Accelerators Modern Behemoths and Colliding Beams Example 33.2 Calculating the Voltage Needed by the Accelerator Between Accelerating Tubes Strategy Solution Discussion 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws Matter and Antimatter Hadrons and Leptons Mesons and Baryons Forces, Reactions, and Reaction Rates Example 33.3 Calculating Quantum Numbers in Two Decays Strategy Solution for (a) Discussion for (a) Solution for (b) Discussion for (b) 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is? Conception of Quarks How Does it Work? All Combinations are Possible Patterns and Puzzles: Atoms, Nuclei, and Quarks Example 33.4 Quantum Numbers From Quark Composition Strategy Solution Discussion Now, Let Us Talk About Direct Evidence Quarks Have Their Ups and Downs What's Color got to do with it?--A Whiter Shade of Pale The Three Families 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces Making Connections: Unification of Forces Glossary Section Summary 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited 33.2 The Four Basic Forces 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is? 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces Conceptual Questions 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is? 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces Problems & Exercises 33.1 The Yukawa Particle and the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Revisited 33.2 The Four Basic Forces 33.3 Accelerators Create Matter from Energy 33.4 Particles, Patterns, and Conservation Laws 33.5 Quarks: Is That All There Is? 33.6 GUTs: The Unification of Forces

- Chapter 34 Frontiers of Physics Chapter Outline Introduction to Frontiers of Physics 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics Making Connections: Cosmology and Particle Physics 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity General Relativity Quantum Gravity 34.3 Superstrings 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure Evidence Theoretical Yearnings for Closure What Is the Dark Matter We See Indirectly? 34.5 Complexity and Chaos 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask On the Largest Scale On the Intermediate Scale On the Smallest Scale Glossary Section Summary 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity 34.3 Superstrings 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure 34.5 Complexity and Chaos 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask Conceptual Questions 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure 34.5 Complexity and Chaos 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors 34.7 Some Questions We Know to Ask Problems & Exercises 34.1 Cosmology and Particle Physics 34.2 General Relativity and Quantum Gravity 34.3 Superstrings 34.4 Dark Matter and Closure 34.6 High-temperature Superconductors

- Appendix A Atomic Masses

- Appendix B Selected Radioactive Isotopes

- Appendix C Useful Information

- Appendix D Glossary of Key Symbols and Notation

- Index

- CollegePhysics.pdf Blank Page

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