The hope is that we can find a way to identify deception.
The search for technology has intensified because of the concern about national security.
Researchers used fMRI to find increased activity in brain areas associated with attention as well as areas that initiate voluntary movement.
Warming around the eyes is a facial change that is thought to accompany deception.
Chapter SeVeN is based on reaction time, which can be measured electronically.
College students who were asked to commit a fake crime by logging on to a university computer and sending another suspect a message were identified by longer reaction times to key words relevant to the crime.
98% of participants were correctly classified as guilty or not guilty when asked to avoid detection of critical knowledge.
This idea will be further tested on populations other than college students.
This technique uses brain waves in search of event-related potentials, a well-known phenomenon in brain research.
The examiner looks for the P300 brain wave, which appears about 300 milliseconds after a stimulation that holds some significance for the person.
The P300 wave is subject to some of the same polygraphs that have defeated traditional polygraphs as soon as a new technology was developed.
Emotions are important in describ ing our own emotions and the emotional reactions we see in others.
The lie detector is a result of the focus on the components.
We must consider other components of emotions to develop a more complete picture.
Emotional stimulation can be a result of anxiety, anger, or fear.
The failure to recognize changes in emotion.
His sentence is reduced by how researchers elicit emotional reactions in research.
We are likely to be in court when a person is happy.
All questions will be answered with one word answers.
Which is the most characteristic of a person who speaks during an examination.
He will ask difficult questions in order to collect himself and lie more effectively.
Your grandpa had a brain injury.
A bulletin board with a face on it.
The face plays a key role in commu nicating emotion.
There is evidence for the occurrence of facial expressions of emotion.
One emotion that is observed in babies is disgust.
It is possible that this expression evolved from sensory experiences that kept animals from eating spoiled food.
Disgust came under some voluntary control, and now facial expressions of disgust are responses to circumstances that have less to do with the taste of foods and a lot to do with reactions to moral offenses, foul language, or poor hygiene.
They found that people from Western and Eastern literate cultures associate similar emo tions with certain facial expressions.
Even people from an isolated preliterate culture in New Guinea were able to identify photographs of various emotions.
The meanings of facial expressions could not be learned through the media.
The study design was reversed and it was found that the people of New Guinea posed facial expressions that were understandable to Western observers.
It is easier for people to recognize emotions in people from their own culture than it is in people from other countries.
The rest of the body is involved in communicating emo tions, but much of the research has focused on the face.
static photographs have been used in research rather than dynamic portrayals of emotions.
In an intriguing study, researchers used videotaped expressions of emotions that were described in the literature of Hindu people of India some 2,000 years ago.
The hands were involved in these portrayals.
College students from the United States and India were able to identify the emotions above chance.
The evidence shows that there are universal emotions that are common across the globe.
No one has found people who smile when disgusted or overjoyed.
The findings support the idea that humans have wired templates for expressing different emotions.
It makes sense that there should be similarities.
Our brains, our bodies, our hormones, and our sense organs are all part of the same species.
The negative emotions have distinctive facial signals.
The facial expressions of positive emotions are more obscured.
It is likely that an emotion is positive without knowing it.
Anger, disgust, fear, hap pines, sadness, and surprise are all emotions.
The highest agreement is for facial expressions of happiness.
Some models of emotion suggest that there are more than six primary emotions, and there is disagreement about the universality of other emotions such as contempt, guilt, interest, and shame.
Researchers reported a high degree of reliability in identifying the emotion of pride, which participants distinguished from related emo tions such as happiness.
The expression of pride consists of a small smile, head tilted slightly back, and arms raised above the head.
When the expression was restricted to the head and shoulders, the recognition was reduced and it was not greater than chance.
The researchers discovered that children could recognize pride by the age of 4.
The brow and forehead, eyes, eyelids, and the lower face are some of the muscles that make up each emotion.
The raised cheeks, wrinkled nose, lower lip, upper lip, and lower eyelid are disgust.
Wrinkles in the middle of the forehead, eyebrows raised and drawn together, eyes open and tense, mouth open, lips drawn back tightly are all signs of fear.
Uplifted inner corner of the eyebrows; lowered upper eyelid; raised corners of the upper eyelid; downturned lips.
The eyes are open wide, the forehead is wrinkled, and the mouth is open.
Emotions shade into one another, making it difficult to agree on a specific emotion label.
The related fa cial expressions are related to each of the basic emotions and can be seen as variations within a family.
There is a questioning surprise, a dumbfounded surprise, and a dazed surprise.
60 facial expressions convey the intensity of anger, ranging from minor annoyance to uncontrollable rage.
Robert Plutchik has developed a visual vocabulary that allows him to talk about and compare emotions.
The eight basic emotions are joy, trust, fear, surprise, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation.
These primary emotions are building blocks that can be combined to create something using his or her face, just as primary colors are combined to form different colors.
The result is a three-dimensional structure consisting of eight groupings of primary take turns, going through eight emotions in tiers representing degrees of intensity and purity.
If you are so angry that you are throwing things against the wall and screaming, you are in a rage, which is at the top of the anger section.
The emotions at the top level are pure and can be combined to create other feelings.
Combining fear and surprise yields awe, while contempt is a blend of anger and disgust.
A person may feel pulled in two directions at the same time if they experience fear and anger at the same time.
The emphasis was placed on Darwin's facial expressions.
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, facial expression affects emotional expression and behavior.
Darwin's views were based on speculation and conjecture.
If you agree to be a part of the experiment on motor activity, what will you do?
You have a pencil between your teeth.
A few minutes ago, you had to cross out some letters.
The humor in a series of car toons is being judged.
The task doesn't seem related to motor ability; humor is more emotional.
Think about the question, analyze the situation, and write down some answers.
College students were told that they were going to participate in a study of psychomo tor ability using parts of their body that they would normally not use for such tasks.
The students had pencils in their mouths and were working on writing tasks.
One group held their pencils with their lips, which prevented them from smiling.
The group held the pencils in their teeth.
If the facial feedback hypothesis is correct, students who held pencils in their teeth and could smile should have rated the cartoons funnier than those who held pencils in their lips.
The cartoons were funnier when participants held the pencils with their teeth than when they held the pencils with their lips.
This finding was confirmed by a second study.
Participants who held their faces in an expression of happiness while they read a story rated the story more positively than those who had angry faces.
The intensity of the emotion was influenced by the level of arousal and how long participants had been exercising.
Further credence to the findings can be found in the recent extension and replication of this research.
People who were asked to hold a pencil in their mouths to facilitate smiling reported more positive affect, and they also exhibited greater physiological arousal compared to those who held a pencil in ways that inhib ited smiling.
There are two different versions of this theory.
One says that manipulating facial muscles brings forth emotional experiences in all of its aspects, while the other says that feedback from the facial muscles affects the emotion's intensity.
Culture can influence the expression of certain emotions, even if they are universal.
The cultural norms tell us which emotions to display.
The Culturally specific rules for which to smile when the boss tells a joke only apply to the brave or independently wealthy.
These requirements or expectations can lead us to exhibit emotions that we don't actually feel, or that we don't feel at all.
A film about surgery was shown to male college students in Tokyo, Japan, and Berkeley, California.
A scientist dressed in a lab coat entered the room and sat down while the participants watched the film.
Students from both countries showed similar distressed expressions when they were alone.
They had similar feelings and responses.
The American students openly displayed their feelings when talking to the researcher, while the Japa nese students remained composed.
The Japanese are more sensitive to status differences than Americans, and their display rules discourage them from displaying negative emotions in the presence of higher status.
They did not show their emotions when the scientist was present, but they did show them when they were alone.
emo tional expression is influenced by differences in feelings of individualism or collectivism.
European American females self-reported feelings of individualism or collectivism and were videotaped viewing a video that provoked positive and nega tive emotions, first alone and then with the experimenter present.
There was no difference in the participant's expressed emotions when viewing the video alone.
The individualists did not change their expressions when the experimenter was present, but the collectivist participants did.
There are many examples of display rules.
The Utku Eskimos strongly condemn the feeling of anger, while certain Arab groups view a man's failure to respond with anger as disrespectful.
The perception of emotions in others is influenced by the display of rules.
When viewing faces of Americans or Japanese, Japanese people perceive less intense emotions.
Smiling is a social act and we rarely smile when we are alone.
It is a prominent social signal that we can see a smile 300 feet away.
It is possible for smiles to reflect enjoyment from amusement, pleasure, praise, or re lief.
A "mask ing smile" hides negative emotion, a "miserable smile" acknowledges a willingness to tolerate unpleasant circumstances, and a "false smile" is made to convince another that enjoyment is occurring.
The universal facial expression of happiness can be deceiving.
Think of a time you smiled when you weren't enjoying it.
Write down your answer before you read it.
People smile with their cheeks not their eyes when they put on a fake smile.
The orbicularis oculi, which wraps around the eye, is not voluntary control, so smiles of faked enjoyment do not affect it.
You understand why you can't smile for a picture.
The cheekbone is pulled up by the zygomatic muscles.
Paul Ekman shows the difference between a fake smile and a genuine smile.
Crow has a genuine smile.
Another example of the operation of display rules is provided by smiling.
You expect a smile from the clerk if you walk into a store in the United States.
In Korea, a smile is not the norm.
Korean business owners in the United States who fail to smile are often seen as hostile.
Imagine spending an hour with people who don't speak the same language.
Even if you don't speak their language, you can still learn a lot about them.
Your quizzical facial expression is a sign that you are experiencing doubt.
Tone of voice and posture can convey different information.
When a person claims to be fine but is crying, they are viewed differently than when they are smiling.
It can be a simple question.
A rising inflection is converted into a question.
The meaning of our words can be overshadowed by non-verbal cues.
In addition to facial expressions, we communicate messages about guard.
The "high five," handshakes, and putting a hand on a person's shoulder are some examples.
Communication that involves objects.
Chapter SeVeN is used to communicate a specific meaning.
There is general agreement on emblems for "I warn you" and "It's cold", although they may not have the same meaning across cultures.
Ask a restaurant server in southern Italy for something not on the menu and the likely response is not a side-to-side head shake but a quick upward head toss.
The "V for victory" sign was used by the prime minister of Great Britain during World War II.
It becomes a gross insult to change the gesture to the palm-back position.
They do not have specific meanings.
You can use illustrations such as waving your arms or pounding a table, but they are not alone.
Illustra tors draw a picture or point it out.
The intensity of emotion is communicated by gestures such as shrugging.
They signal when a speaker is ready to listen and when a listener is ready to speak.
The handshake is the most common way to initiate an interaction.
The former President had a double peace sign.
Communication that involves fiddling with a pen or pencil.
When people become uncomfortable, the rates of Adaptors increase, although they have no specific meaning.
Tone of voice, rate of speech, pauses, sighs, loudness, emphasis, and even silence are just some of the words used in communication that are not expressions of expression.
Silence often accompanies sadness, shame, guilt, fear, and disgust.
Emotions are associated with the tone of voice.
The vocalizations increase in many emotions.
utterances associated with various emotions are usually presented at different intensity levels.
The differences allow us to recognize different emotions from the voice alone.
Fear is the second easiest emotion to recognize, followed by sadness and anger.
According to research, touch can communicate basic emotions such as anger, fear, disgust, and even complex emotions such as love, sympathy, and gratitude.
In the experiment, participants were grouped in pairs and sat opposite each other at a table with a black curtain blocking their view of each other.
A member of the pair was told to touch the other participant's arm in a way that expressed a series of emo tions.
The participants who were touched on the arm reliably detected some of the specific emotions that are comparable to emotion recognition via facial expressions.
One scene shows a man telling two different versions of his life.
The viewers are asked to decide which version is the truth and which version is a lie.
Women are more accurate than men in decoding emotion from the face, body, and voice.
The stereotype that women exhibit a greater degree of positive and negative emotions than men is supported by objective observations.
In one study, men and women were asked to describe their feelings to another person in 20 different scenarios.
For the degree to which emotion terms were used in describing self and others, the responses were scored.
Women displayed more emotional awareness than men.
The results were not due to differences in verbal ability between men and women.
Women report feeling powerless emotions such as sadness, whereas men report feeling powerful emotions such as anger.
One possible explanation is that women are expected to be nurturing and are often the primary caregivers in the family and workplace.
Men's typical roles are less likely to emphasize emotional responsiveness because they require sensitivity to others' needs.
A greater variety of emotions are displayed to and discussed with infant and preschool girls than boys.
There are possible differences between men and women when it comes to judging emotions from facial expressions.
Volunteers looked at the faces of a man and a woman to see if they were happy or sad.
Men and women were very good at judging facial expressions of happiness.
When they looked at sad faces, the results were different.
When judging sadness on women's faces, women correctly identified a sad face 90 percent of the time, while men correctly identified sadness on men's faces only 70 percent of the time.
It makes sense that men would need to be especially careful about their faces if they were to be attacked.
The model of how emotions can be with the culture has been offered by Robert.
Women's roles and occupations tend to require account for some cross-cultural differences in the expression of greater sensitivity to emotional expressions in others.
Men don't use the face to express emotion.
All over the world, emotional facial expressions are the same.
You have a pencil in your mouth.
You have a pencil in your mouth.
You are watching the movies.
You are watching the movies.
After leaving the theater, you find yourself laughing and happy.
Natural events such as thunder can elicit emotional responses.
These are some of the topics we are studying.
The words we use to describe our experiences are important.
The number of terms used to describe emotion varies from culture to culture.
English has a larger word pool than other languages.
More than 2,000 English words describe emotions, compared with 1,500 in Dutch, 230 in Malay, and 7 in the Chewong, a soci ety of hunter-gatherers living in the rain forest of Malaysia.
There are differences in the words used to describe emotions.
People in different cultures were asked to give free associations to the words under investigation.
Other languages have emotion words with no equivalents in English.
In English, apprehension, dread, horror, and terror are degrees of fear that a person feels.
English language distinction between shame and embarrassment is not made in Japanese.
If the same situation happened to another person, the response would not mean that the emotion is not represented by a single term, only that it could be quite different depending on culture.
In community-oriented cultures like Japan, emotions focus on the feelings of the people rather than the needs of the individual.
Language differences suggest that emotional experiences may be affected by how we think about events.
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed a theory that focused on the evaluation of context as a factor in determining emotion.
If you remember from a previous section, early researchers believed that the emotional state we are in is caused by the physiologi cal state.
The scary movie will cause you to experience fear.
The labels we use to describe our emotions are dependent on our immediate environment and what we are thinking about.
You walk through the zoo and come across a large bear and her pups in the next enclosure.
You might have been busy talking to your friends, but you didn't expect to see this bear.
You laugh at your own surprise when you see a large animal.
If you had been walking through a forest and ran across a mama and her pups, this scenario would be the same.
You would be startled, but you wouldn't laugh at it.
This time you would be afraid.
It's silly to be afraid of a bear in a zoo, but it's necessary to be afraid of a bear in the wild.
The idea that the context of our situ ation is important to the emotion that we feel has been supported by lab experiments.
Chapter SeVeN was used to create changes similar to a genuine emotional reaction.
In order to hide the drug's effects, participants in the mental groups were told that they were getting a supplement called Suproxin.
Each participant was put in a room with a person who was either very angry or euphoric.
The control participants were not told what would happen.
The participants in the experimental group attributed their arousal to the presence of an emotional reaction.
The people who had interacted with the happy confederate said they were happy, while the people who had interacted with the angry confederate said they were angry.
The context in which an emotion is experienced plays a role in deciding which emotion is felt.
In the 1960s, several psychologists developed theories to suggest that emotions arise from the way we interpret or appraise our environment.
According to the appraisal theories, differences in emotion result from differences in how perceivers interpret their environment.
People will experience different emotions if they interpret their environment differently.
A person's interpretation of an event does not produce shame.
People see the situation differently.
The differences between appraisal theories and Singer's efforts are that they attempt to define the kinds of interpretation that contribute to different emotions.
Similar emotions appear in most cultures because events that occur are similar to appraisals of those events.
Observers distinguish between the expression and the knowledge of which emotions are likely to occur in a given situation.
Different cultures emphasize or de- emphasize certain emotions.
Two people from different cultures have failed in school.
It is not desirable to blame failure on lack of effort in one culture.
It is not desirable to blame failure on lack of abil ity in the other culture.
To suggest that failure is due to lack of effort can lead to shame or anger.
Lack of effort might be a socially acceptable excuse for failure in the second case.
The appraisal of events and the emo tions experienced are shaped by cultural values.
Others have argued that emotion does not need prior cogni tion; the two are basically separate.
We don't need cognitive appraisal in order to experience some emotional reactions because emotions precede a cognitive response in evolution.
The rapid fear response is one of the best examples of emotion without thinking.
Babies smile and show joy when confronted with familiar faces, such as the faces of people they know.
At about 3 months, there is a feeling of sadness due to the withdrawal of positive stimuli.
Early on, children learn that emotional expression is more than making faces and sounds; it requires timing, an understanding of context, and knowledge of the audience receiving the communication.
Most toddlers begin to work this out by the age of 2.
A child who is hurt while playing and starts to cry may stop and look for someone to hear their cries.
The child is determined to find an audience for his emotional expression, so he walks closer to the house and starts to cry.
Children under 1 year of age have similar emotional expressions to those seen in adults.