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13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy -- Part 1
For diesel and gasoline engines, ether is used as a volatile starting fluid.
Patients vomited as they regained consciousness when ether was used as a surgical anesthetic for over a hundred years.
The hybrid oxygen atom makes it easy to administer.
In a typical ether, the bulk of the alkyl groups enlarges the bond angle.
The structure of dimethyl ether is shown in Figure 14-1.
ethers are still strongly polar compounds despite not having the polar hydroxy group of alcohols.
Table 14-1 compares the dipole moments of dimethyl ether, diethyl ether, and tetrahydrofuran with those of alkanes and alcohols.
A strongly polar solvent can be provided by an ether such as THF.
The boiling points of ethers, alcohols, and alkanes are compared.
The boiling points of alcohols are similar to those of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether.
The attractions that result from the large dipole moments of ethers don't seem to have much effect on their boiling points.
The molecule that forms the weak partial bond to the hydrogen atom is called the acceptor.
An early inhaler for ether anesthesia, a hydrogen bond with an alcohol, but it cannot form in 1847. ethers are more volatile than alcohols because of the ether-soaked sponges.
Table 14-2 shows the physical properties of a face mask with valves.
Many organic reactions can be done with ethers.
The alcohols have higher boiling points.
The ethers have similar boiling points to alkanes.
They are not hydrogen bond donors.
ethers can serve as hydrogen bond acceptors if there is no hydrogen bond.
The ability to serve as hydrogen bond acceptors is one of the reasons why 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran is a polar substance.
The nonbonding electron pairs of an ether effectively solvate cations, as shown in it comes from corncobs.
Alcohols and ethers do not solvate anions.
Rather than stances with small, hard anions requiring strong solvation to overcome their ionic petroleum, there are ion sub waste plant sources.
Substances with large, diffuse anions are more likely to be found in ether than smaller, harder anions.
The basic reagent was destroyed by the hydroxy group.
Nonhydroxylic ethers are usually unreactive toward strong bases.
For very strong polar bases, ethers are often used as solvents.
The four ethers shown are commonly used for organic reactions.
Diethyl ether is found in water and miscible with water.
The order of their dissolving ability should be ranked.
The formation and use of many reagents are enhanced by the special properties of ethers.
The cations are solvate.
They don't solvate anions well.
An ether's nonbonding electrons are stable.
It is easy to measure and transfer a 1 M solution like any other airsensitive liquid reagent.
The convenience of hydroboration has been contributed by R #3 THF.
H helps keep it in solution.
Lewis acid catalysts are used in a wide variety of reactions.
Like diborane, BF3 is a toxic gas, but it forms a stable complex with ethers, so it can be stored, measured, and even distilled.
Crown ethers are used to remove metal cations from large polyethers that are radioactive in the center of the ring.
Different crown ethers have different cations.
It is possible to extract radioactive cesium on the relative sizes of the crown ether and the cation and the number of binding sites and strontium around the cation.
Complexation by crown ethers helps polar salts to break down.
When the uncomplexed anions show greatly enhanced reactivity, polar salts can be used.
In Section 6-10B, we talked about using 18-crown-6 to remove the poorly solvated fluoride ion from acetonitrile.
carboxylate salts, cyanides, and permanganates can be dissolved in crown ethers.
The crown ether only complexes the cation, leaving the anion bare.
In the presence of 18-crown-6, the permanganate is dissolved in benzene to make purple benzene, a useful reagent for oxidizing alkenes.
A drawing of the complex can be used to show why the permanganate ion is enhanced.
Common names are used for simple ethers.
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