Nine black boys and young men were convicted of raping two white women in Alabama in 1931 and sentenced to between thirteen and twenty years in prison.
White spectators cheered as eight of the "Scottsboro Boys" were sentenced to death.
Protests took place throughout the world due to the injustice of the Scottsboro case.
Two white women were selling sex to white and black teens on the train.
One of the women began appearing at rallies on behalf of the defendants after she recanted.
The Scottsboro case produced more trials, appeals, reversals, and re trials than any other case in legal history.
Two important rulings were prompted by it.
In 1933, one of the defendants in the case was with his attorney, Samuel Leibowitz.
The New Deal convictions and new trials were ordered because the judge did not ensure that the accused were provided adequate defense attorneys.
The lives of the four young Scottsboro defendants were ruined when Alabama dropped the charges against them.
The last person to leave prison was in 1950.
The Great Depression was bad for Native Americans.
Some were encouraged by the appointment of John Collier as commissioner of the BIA.
The United States Indian Commissioner is seated next to the Chief.
All Indians gained access to New Deal relief programs because Native Americans were employed by the BIA.
The Indian Reorgani zation Act was the primary objective of Collier.
The proposed law would have given Native American tribes the right to start businesses, establish self- governing constitutions, and receive federal funds for training and economic development.
The "Indian New Deal" brought only partial improvements to the act that Con gress passed.
Several tribes revised their constitutions to give women the right to vote and hold office.
The Great Depression might have deepened the despair of the writers, artists, and intellectuals during the 1920s known as the Lost Generation.
They felt a renewed sense of militancy.
Few Americans were members of the Communist party.
Many writers abandoned communism at the end of the decade after learning that the Soviet leader was worse than the Russian czars.
Among the writers who addressed themes of social significance during the 1930s, two deserve notice: John Steinbeck and Richard Wright.
The Joad family's struggle for survival was a vivid tale created by this firsthand experience.
Ma Joad says, "Rich as come up an' they die, their kids ain't no good, they die out."
We are the people that live.
The theme of the Depression was solidarity.
Rich ard Wright was one of the most talented novelists of the 1930s.
The sharecropper who deserted his family in the New Deal ended his formal education in the ninth grade as the valedictorian of his class.
He devoured books he borrowed from a white friend's library card while saving to go north.
His time as a Communist in Chicago gave him an intellectual framework for his novels about the quest for social justice.
It's the story of Bigger Thomas, a black pool shark and thief imprisoned in a Chicago ghetto by virtue of his birth.
Sometimes I wonder why I gave birth to you.
Something terrible happens.
An accidental murder and its cover up lead to more heinous crimes, all of which, Wright suggests, resulted from the racism in American society.
Bigger says he can't get used to it.
While many writers and artists dealt with the suffering and social tensions of the Great Depression, the more popular cultural outlets, such as radio programs and movies, provided a wel come escape.
The number of families that owned a radio tripled by the end of the decade.
The introduction of sound changed movies.
talkies made movies the most popular form of entertainment during the 1930s, and the introduction of double features in 1931 and the construction of outdoor drive-in theaters in 1933 boosted interest and attendance.
70 million people pay a quarter to see at least one movie a week.
Hard times are rarely dealt with in the movies.
People want to be entered and uplifted.
The exhaustion of the theater-goers in this painting is contrasted with the glamor of actress Claudette Colbert's Cleopatra.
The growing popularity of movies offered an escape from the daily challenges of the Great Depression, but it was fleeting at best.
He wants to distract people from the ravages of the Depression.
The escapist realm of adven ture, spectacle, and fantasy is depicted in most feature films.
The best way to escape the Depression was to watch the Marx Brothers.
In large numbers, Americans voted for Franklin Roosevelt.
Roosevelt's policies were hated by other New Deal critics.
Roosevelt wasn't doing enough to help the common people.
The most potent of the president's "populist" opponents was the flamboyant Democratic senator from Louisiana.
Long was a demagogue, a theatrical politician who appealed to the raw emotions of the people.
He wore pink suits and pastels, red ties, and two toned shoes.
As Louisiana's governor, Long saw the state as his personal empire.
He provided better public services by reducing state taxes, improving roads and schools, and building charity hospitals.
He used intimidation and bribe to get his way.
Long came to Washington in 1933 as a supporter of Roosevelt and the New Deal, but soon became suspicious of Big Business.
He was jealous of Roosevelt's popularity.
The Share- the- Wealth Society was created by Long to launch his presidential candi dacy.
As the powerful governor of $2,500, Long was a shrewd lawyer and wheeler dealer who reduced working hours.
His plan would have spent more money than his taxes would have raised.
He told a group of Iowa farmers that someone might not understand government finance.
You don't have to.
Shut your eyes and believe it.
Francis E. Townsend was a critic of Roosevelt who championed populist capitalism.
He was shocked by the sight of three elderly women digging through garbage cans for food scraps.
He wanted the federal government to pay $200 a month to every American over the age of sixty who stopped working.
Each month the recipients would have to spend the money.
He claimed that his plan would create jobs for young people by giving older people the means to retire, and that it would help the economy by enabling retirees to buy more products.
The numbers in the plan did not add up.
Long didn't care about the plan's cost.
It received a lot of support from Americans sixty years and older.
The White House was flooded with letters from advocates.
Father Charles E. Coughlin, a Roman Catholic priest in Detroit, Michigan, was an outspoken critic of FDR and the New Deal.
He assailed President Roosevelt as anti- God and claimed that the New Deal was a Communist conspiracy in his weekly broadcasts.
The convention was held in Cleveland, Ohio.
He praised Hitler and the Nazis because they were Communists.
Jewish and non-Jewish groups were galvanized by the threats.
They were able to force radio stations to stop broadcasting.
His radio show ended in the late 1940s.
The threat to Roosevelt's reelection was formed in the mid-twenties by the trio of Coughlin, Long and Townsend.
A 1935 poll showed that Long could get more than 5 million votes as a third party candidate for president.
General Hugh S. Johnson warned corporate executives that they could laugh at Father Coughlin.
Roosevelt decided to "steal the thunder" from his three most visible crit ics by instituting an array of new programs.
He told a reporter in 1935 that he was fighting Communism.
The New Deal's growing opposition came from all directions.
Some of the lawsuits filed against the New Deal made their way to the U.S. Supreme Court.
The National Industrial Recovery Act was killed by a unanimous vote in 1935.
The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 reestablished the earlier crop- reduction pay ment programs but left out the tax on processors.
Conservatives criticized the powers of the new program because it helped boost the farm economy.
The Supreme Court ruled against New Deal programs in seven of nine major cases by the end of the 1936 term.
Roosevelt warned that judicial rea soning could endanger other New Deal programs if he did not prevent it.
The second, more radical phase of the New Deal was launched in January 1935 by President Roosevelt to rescue his legislative program from judicial and political challenges.
In his attempt to undermine Long's appeal, the president called on Congress to pass legislation that included another federal con struction program to employ the jobless, banking reforms, higher taxes on the wealthy, and "social security" programs to protect people during unemment, old age.
The cabinet was told by Roosevelt's closest aide that this is their hour.
The Second New Deal changed the face of American life.
The Emergency Relief Act was the first major initiative.
Over the course of four years, the WPA hired 2 million people, becoming the nation's largest employer.
The Federal Writers' Project, the Federal Art Project, the Federal Music Project, and the Federal Theatre Project were among the new cultural programs created by the WPA.
The National Youth Administration (NYA) was provided part- time employment to students and helped the unemployed.
Lyndon B., a future president, was one of the beneficiaries.
Richard M. Nixon, a Duke University law student, found work through the NYA at 35C/ an hour.
9 million people were helped by the WPA before it expired.
The right to organize unions and bargain directly with management was guaranteed by theWagner Act.
The National Labor Relations Board was created to ensure that management bargained in good faith with the unions.
Older Americans and people with disabilities were hardest hit by the Great Depression.
He said that Social Security was the "cornerstone" of the New Deal.
The concept of government assistance to the elderly has been around for a long time.
The Progressives proposed a federal system of social security for the aged, poor, disabled, and unemployed, and other nations had already enacted such programs.
The idea was revived in the New Deal of 1933-1939.
Perkins was the first woman cabinet minister in history.
The first payments were made to recipients after January 1937, when work ers and employers contributed payrol taxes to establish the fund.
The collected taxes funded pen sion payments to retirees and the rest went into a trust fund.
Roosevelt said that Social Security wouldn't guarantee a comfortable retirement.
It would protect the elderly and supplement other sources of income.
The government used a poster to educate the public about the new Social Security Act.
The payroll tax paid by employers is used to finance the federal and state unemployment insurance programs.
The national government was committed to a broad range of social welfare activities based on the assumption that "unemployables"-- people who were unable to work-- would remain a state responsibility.
Aid for the blind, old- age assistance, and aid for dependent children were provided by the Social Security Act.
The U.S. Social Security system is conservative when compared to similar programs in Europe.
It is the only government- managed retirement program in the world that is funded by taxes on the earnings of workers.
The reason for the exclusion was that they couldn't collect Social Security taxes from people who paid their wages in cash.
The exclusion was made at the insistence of powerful southern Democrats in Congress who were afraid of the federal government gaining influence in the South through such "welfare" programs.
Roosevelt regretted the Social Security Act's limitations, but he saw them as necessary compromises to get congressional approval and survive court challenges.
The taxes were never a problem of economics.
They are politics all the way through.
We put the payroll contributions there to give the contributors a moral, legal, and political right to collect their pensions.
No politician can ever scrap my Social Security program because of those taxes.
They had paid for it and deserved it.
Conservatives said the Social Security Act was an expansion of government power.
Herbert Hoover refused to apply for a Social Security card because of his opposition to the "radical" program.
He got a Social Security number.
The Revenue Act of 1935 was one of the major bills in the second phase of the New Deal.
The tax rates were raised because of stories that wealthy Americans were not paying taxes.
J. P. Morgan told a Senate committee that he had created fake sales of stock to his wife so that he wouldn't have to pay taxes.
Wealthy Americans were angry over Roosevelt's tax and spending policies.
The labor union movement was rejuvenated by the New Deal.
John L. Lewis, head of the United Mine Workers, was one of the first to exploit the pro- union spirit of the NIRA.
Within a year, the UMW had 500,000 members.
The clothing industry workers were organized into an industrial union.
The smaller craft unions were against them because they only had skilled male workers.
The Committee for Industrial Organization (CIO) was formed in 1935 by industrial unions to represent their interests.
The Congress of Industrial Organizations was formed after the CIO unions were kicked out of the American Federation of Labor.
Both groups increased their efforts because of the rivalry.
The Congress of Industrial Organizations focused on organizing industries.
In order to fight the unions, companies used various forms of intimidation.
In 1937, automobile workers tried a new tactic called the " sit- down strike," in which they refused to leave a workplace until their rights were granted.
The Walter Reuther-led group of employees locked themselves in the plant and stopped production.
One worker yelled "she's ours" during the sit- down strike.
The effigies of pigeons stool were hung from the windows of the factory during the 1937 strike.
The company relented after more than a month and signed a contract with the UAW.
The successful takeover of automobile plants inspired workers and led many to join unions.
The UAW's membership increased from 30,000 to 500,000 after the strike.
Roosevelt accepted the Democratic party's nomination for a second term as president on June 27, 1936.
The Republicans chose a man who had supported many New Deal programs.
"We can't go back to the days before the depression," he said.
Charles E.'s followers were hoped by the Republicans.
The New Deal drew enough Democratic votes away from the president to give him a losing margin.
An assassin shot and killed Long in 1935.
In the 1936 election, Roosevelt won every state except Maine and Vermont, with a popular vote of over 20 million, the largest margin of victory.
The new Congress would be dominated by Democrats, with 77 to 19 in the Senate and 327 to 107 in the House.
A new electoral coalition was forged by Roosevelt that would affect national politics for years to come.
He made gains in the West despite holding the support of most traditional Democrats.
He held on to the ethnic groups that were helped by the New Deal.
Intellectuals stirred by the ferment of new ideas supported him as did many middle class voters.
A majority of African Americans voted for a Democratic president after the labor union movement threw its support to Roosevelt.
A journalist told black voters to turn Lincoln's picture to the wal.
President Roosevelt's victory made him pursue even more radical efforts to end the Great Depression.
The Supreme Court was a major roadblock.
In Roosevelt's view, it had become an outdated horse- and- buggy court made up of old men who were determined to stop Roosevelt's attempts to expand executive authority to deal with the eco nomic crisis.
There were lawsuits challenging the constitutionality of the Social Security Act.
The Second New Deal was in danger of being nullified by Republican judges because of the Court's conservative bent.
He had a plan to reform the Supreme Court.
The size of the Court has been determined by Congress, which has numbered between six and ten justices over the years.
The number was nine in 1937.
Roosevelt asked Congress to name up to six new justices, one for each of the current justices over seventy years old, because the aging members of the Court were falling behind in their work.
The nation was focused on Roosevelt's proposal for 168 days.
Roosevelt replaced a conservative justice with a New Dealer, Senator Hugo Black of Alabama.
Roosevelt wanted his packing bill to go through Congress.
The Senate voted against it on July 22, 1937.
It was the worst mistake of Roosevelt's career.
The Democratic party was fractured and the prestige of the Supreme Court was damaged by the episode.
The economy began showing signs of revival in 1935 and 1936.
Industrial output was above the 1929 level by the spring of 1937.
President Roosevelt ordered cuts to government spending in 1937 because he was worried about federal budget deficits and rising inflation.
After the collapse of Wall Street in 1929, the economy went into a slump.
Unemployment rose by 2 million in three months.
Roosevelt asked Congress for a new federal spending program after the spring of 1938 failed to bring recovery.
New expenditures were approved by Congress.
Employment would reach pre- 1929 levels only after the Second World War because of the increase in government spending.
The Bankhead- Jones Farm Tenant Act was one of the major New Deal initiatives.
The United States Housing Authority was created by the Housing Act.
Long- term loans were extended to cities to build high- rise public housing projects and provide subsidized rents for low income residents.
During the Second World War, it was used to finance housing for employees in new defense plants.
The Farm Security Administration was created by the Farm Tenant Act to help farmers keep their land.
It made loans to tenant farmers to purchase farms.
During diffi cult times, the FSA did little more than tide a few farmers over.
A more effective answer to the sluggish economy came in the form of national mobilize for war, which landed many struggling tenant farmers in military service or the defense industry, and taught them new skills.
The Fair Labor Standards Act was enacted in 1938.
Many of the provisions in the NIRA were deemed unconstitu tional.
It established a minimum wage of 40C/ an hour and a maximum workweek of forty hours.
Dem ocrats in Congress split into two groups in the late 1930s, with conservative southerners on one side and liberal northerners on the other.
Many southern Democrats don't like the party's dependence on the votes of northern union members and African Americans.
Critics believed that Roosevelt was spending too much money and exercising too much power.
Democrats in the south began to work with Republicans to block New Deal programs.
The Democrats lost 7 seats in the Senate and 80 in the House in the November 1938 congressional elections.
He was stalemated by the conservative coalition of Republicans and southern Democrats.
A new world war erupted in Europe and Asia in 1939 as the New Deal's political momentum petered out.
It had more energy than coherence.
The New Deal programs failed or were poorly conceived.
Social Security, federal regu lation of stock markets and banks, minimum wage levels for workers, federal y insured bank accounts, and government- sanctioned labor unions were some of the programs that changed life for the better.
The New Deal demonstrated that American democracy could cope with capitalism.
Tens of millions of people benefited from New Deal programs.
One woman said that they aren't on relief anymore.
The New Deal was unable to restore prosperity and end record levels of unemployment.
Nearly 17 percent of the workforce remained unemployed in 1939.
The Second World War produced full employment.
Roosevelt was an idealist.
Energetic pragmatism was his greatest weakness.
He admitted that he acted out of his convictions.
He said he is a juggler.
He laid the groundwork for what would become an expanding system of social welfare programs by increasing the regulatory powers of the federal government.
The result was both revolutionary and conservative.
New Deal initiatives included a joint federal- state system of unemployment insurance, a compulsory, federal y administered retirement system, financial support for families with dependent children, maternal and child- care programs, and several public health programs.
Wage levels for millions were raised by the New Deal.
Roosevelt wanted to protect the most vulnerable while preserving the basic capitalist economic structure.
The New Deal changed the nation's social and political landscape permanently.
In a time of danger, Roosevelt created for Americans a more secure future.
Most of the early New Deal programs helped end the economy's downward spiral but still left millions unemployed and mired in poverty, despite the efforts of First Lady Eleanor Roosevelt, who became justly famous for her strenuous efforts to help the poor, minorities, and refugees.
Many of the First New Deal programs were found to be unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Conservatives criticized the New Deal for expanding the scope and reach of the federal government so much that it was steering the nation towards social ism.
Father Charles E. Coughlin claimed that the New Deal was a Communist conspiracy.
The New Deal reforms did not go far enough.
The distribution of wealth from the rich to the poor was proposed by Senator Long.
The New Deal policies and agencies were criticized by African Americans.
The New Deal lost steam in the late 1930s due to the effects of the Great Depression.
The New Deal established the idea that the federal government should provide at least a minimal quality of life for all Americans, and it provided people with some security against a future crisis, affirming for millions a faith in American capitalism.