From the Indian region of Gujarat, Indian merchant bankers shipped their cloth world wide: across the Indian Ocean to Aden and the Muslim-controlled cities on the east coast of Africa; across the Arabian Sea to Hormuz and the Persian Gulf to the cities of Persia.
Indian businessmen had branch offices in a lot of these places, and this activity produced a lot of wealth for them.
India's international trade in the 16th century was compared to that of Italian firms.
Indian trade extended over a larger area.
The inscription on this bowl is from 1616 and it is located in the New JulFA of Isfahan.
The priest would use it to wash his hands.
Jews and Christians were involved in commerce in Muslim lands.
The case involves the Christians in the Safavid Empire in the 16th to 18th century.
Merchants from Armenia were known for their trade in Persian silk.
When the Portuguese first arrived in India in 1498, they found many merchant communities from Armenia.
Akbar invited Armenia to settle in his new capital, Agra, a few decades later.
Shah Abbas took much of Armenia from the Ottomans.
He forced the Armenias to move deeper into Persia because it was difficult to defend the newly ac quired border area.
The merchant community of JulFA was moved to a new suburb called New JulFA.
Historians have been able to reconstruct the expansion of the trading networks of the merchants from Venice and Amsterdam in western Europe to Moscow in Russia and all the major trading cities of India and even regions further east.
Kinship connections were used to cement commercial relations, and members of the community living in these scattered cities would return to New Julfa to marry.
Business was done through contracts.
The merchant would borrow money to purchase goods and then he would have to pay it back with interest on his return.
Dutch and Italian ships were available for the merchants to sail on.
They dealt in silver, gold, precious stones, indigo, cotton cloth, and tea.
The merchants were comfortable in both Islamic and Christian lands.
The British East India Company recognized the rights of the merchants to live in company cities and observe their own religion.
They settled in Manila in the 1660s and then entered what is now Malaysia and Indonesia a few decades later.
A group of merchants crossed the Himalayas from India to establish themselves in Lhasa, Tibet by the end of the 17th century.
They settled in the Dutch colony of Batavia by the mid eighteenth century.
The shah's religious persecution led to the loss of the center of the community in New JulFA.
Many trading centers, including Russia, the Mediterranean, and especially India, had prominent merchants from Armenia.
The British East India Company wanted to profit from trade.
Managers of the company in London discouraged all unnecessary ex penses and financial risks, and they opposed missionary activities or interference in local Indian politics.
Political control was extended by the company in India in the early 18th century.
People from the surrounding countryside came to the factory-forts to exercise political authority over the territo ries around them.
Despite challenges from the French, Britain became the dominant foreign presence in India.
The French established factories in India in the 1670s.
India became a battlefield and a prize in the Seven Years' War because Britain and France were engaged in a tremendous global struggle from 1740 to 1763.
English sea power was decisive in preventing the landing of French reinforcements.
The beginning of the British Empire in India was marked by the Treaty of Paris of 1763, which recognized British control of much of India.
The English Parliament distrusted the company so they pushed it out of its governing role.
The office of governor Gen eral was created to exercise political authority over the territory controlled by the company.
The India Act of 1784 made company directors subject to parliamentary supervision and required the governor general to be chosen from outside the company.
The reforms were implemented by three governors, Warren Hastings, Lord Charles Cornwallis and Richard Wellesley.
Hastings sought allies among Indian princes, laid the founda tions for the first Indian civil service, abolished tolls to facilitate internal trade, placed the salt and opium trades under government control, and planned a codification of Muslim and Hindu laws.
The Cornwal style of property relations is British and involves the rents of tenant farmers being supported by the landlords.
Three of the major Islamic empires were on the losing side by the end of the 18th century.
Succession difficulties, financial strain, and loss of military superiority were some of the problems they faced.