In return for complete authority in their regions, these warrior-nobles conscripted soldiers for the king's army, required agricultural services from the farmers working on their land, and collected taxes in kind.
The kingdom of Ethiopia had no permanent capital.
The ruler and court were peripatetic.
They traveled around the country to crush revolts, check the management of the gults, and impress ordinary people with royal dignity.
Territorial expansion had consequences.
Muslims were allowed to trade with Amda Siyon's country in return for Muslim recognition of his authority and their promise to pay taxes.
Economic growth continued.
The flow of gold, ivory, and slaves from Ethiopia to Red Sea ports for export to the Islamic heartlands and to South Asia increased as a result of these agreements.
Monk-missionaries from traditional Christian areas flooded newly conquered regions, telling them that Ethiopia was a new Zion or a second Israel.
The divinity of the Old Testament was more important than the humanity of the New Testament Jesus.
The holiness of the Ark of the Covenant, as well as the avoidance of pork and shellfish, were included in the liturgy.
The monks taught the New Testament values of charity and spiritual reform.
The priest-king of Ethiopia claimed to have the right to summon church council and issue degrees.
Polygyny was common among the upper classes in Africa and other parts of the world.
Evaluating the role of legend in history is related to Solomonic Ethiopia.
The Queen of Sheba and King Solomon Sheba, or Queen Makeda, were well-known in both Europe and Ethiopia.
Solomon receiving gifts from Sheba's servants is an image created in about 1180 by a French artist as part of a series of biblical scenes for an abbey in Austria.
Sheba was considered a dark, mysterious, and even sinister figure by Christian Europeans before the twelfth century.
The Old Testament story of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba took on new Christian symbolism in medieval Europe as this view of her began to change in the twelfth century.
Sheba joined the Western Christian tradition in several guises.
She is sometimes portrayed as the Gentile Church, coming from a distant land to hear the divine knowledge from Solomon.
She is the representative of the Gentile population and Solomon the Messiah will marry her.
Sheba's chastity is seen as a sign of the Virgin Mary.
Sheba brought Solomon and the three gifts that the Magi, or Three Wise Men, brought to the baby Jesus, gold, frankincense, and myrrh.
East African city-states were shaped by their proximity to the trade routes of the Red Sea and Indian Ocean.
The Greco-Roman ships sailed from Adulis on the Red Sea around the tip of the Gulf of Aden and down the portion of the East African coast that the Greeks called Azania.
The ships carried cotton cloth, copper and brass, iron tools, and gold and silver plate.
Mediterranean merchants exchanged these goods for cinnamon, myrrh and frankincense, captive slaves, and animal products such as ivory, rhinoceros horns, and tortoise shells at the African coastal emporiums.
The monsoon winds blew eastward to India, where ivory was in great demand, after the ships headed back north.
Many merchants and seamen from the Mediterranean settled in East African coastal towns during the Common Era.
The arrival of more traders happened after centuries.
The Arabs called the area the "land of the blacks" after the death of Muhammad because of the Bantu-speaking peoples who lived there.
Arabic Muslims established trading colonies along the coast that were ruled by kings and practiced various animistic religions.
The coastal peoples slowly converted to Islam.
The fresh waves of Arabs and Persians came down the coast in the late 12th century and settled at Kilwa.
They introduced Islamic culture to the indigenous population.
Indonesians crossed the Indian Ocean from the first to the fifteenth centuries and settled on the African coast.
The resulting society was made up of Asian, African, and especially Islamic qualities.
The East African coastal culture was named after a Bantu language with strong Arabic influence.
The mosque was built in the 13th and 15th century to serve the Muslim commercial aristocracy of Kilwa on the Indian Ocean.
As far north as Pemba and as far south as Sofala, the coastal city became the most powerful in the country by the late 13th century.
The cities of Kilwa and Pemba were located on offshore islands.
They were protected from landside attack by the currents that isolated them from the mainland.
The account of Ibn Battuta has a lot of current knowledge about life in the East African trading societies.
Kilwa is one of the finest and most substantially built towns and all the buildings are of wood.
There were fields of rice, millet, oranges, mangoes, and bananas on the mainland.
The rich enjoyed three enormous meals a day and were very fat.
rulers who ruled both the main city and the surrounding territory came from among the rich mercantile families.
The city of Kilwa is located on the island.
King, sultan, and sheik were some of the titles taken by these rulers.
Portuguese traders were amazed at the wealth and prosperity of the East African coastal cities.
The ruler had control of all trade in the area.
Cloth and iron tools were manufactured by some coastal cities.
The lion skins, tortoise shell, ambergris, ivory, and gold were the bulk of the cities' exports.
The Bantu mined gold in the south of the Zambezi River.
In the 14th-century coastal city-states, gold was a royal monopoly.
Kilwa's prosperity was dependent on its traffic in gold.
Islamic proscriptions against representation of the human form prevented rulers' portraits from being used on coinage.
Islamic coins since the Umayyad period were decorated with writing.
This coin is a symbol of the Muslim culture and rich maritime trade of the East African coast.
African goods met the global demand for luxury goods.
In Arabia leopard skins were used to make saddles, shells were used to make combs, and ambergris was used in the manufacture of perfumes.
African ivory was in great demand in India for sword and dagger handles, carved decorative objects, and the ceremonial bangles used in Hindu marriage rituals because it was larger and more durable than Indian elephants.
African ivory was valued for use in sedan chair construction.
In exchange for these natural products, the Swahili cities brought in many other items, including incense, glassware, glass beads, carpets from Arabia, textiles, spices, rice, and cotton from India, and fine porcelain, silk, and jade from China.
Slaves were exported from the East African coast.
The East African coastal slave trade was fueled by the global slave market until at least the beginning of the twentieth century.
In West Africa, traders obtained slaves through raids and kidnapping.
Slaves were transported northward up the Red Sea to the markets of Arabia and Persia.
Blacks from the zan-zuh-bahr region in the Indian Ocean were shipped to markets in India.
In 1178 a Chinese official noted in a memorial to the emperor that Arab traders were shipping thousands of blacks from East Africa to the Chinese port of Guangzhou.
In Indian, Chinese, and East African markets, slaves were not as valuable as ivory.
A giraffe was presented to envoys from the Chinese admiral's fleet during their visit to the city of Malindi.
The artist's rendering of the giraffe's hide explains that the giraffe has two or three horns.
Modern scholars rely on the chronicles of travelers and merchants because early African societies left no written accounts.
These outsiders have their own biases and preconceptions.
They like to measure what they see by the conditions they are familiar with.
The Muslim merchant-traveler Al Mas'udi traveled to the southeast coast of Africa in the early tenth century in search of African ivory.
He referred to all of the people he encountered as "Zanj", a term that he applied to the maritime Swahili culture of the area's towns.
Historians have a lot of information about these peoples and places.
Kanbalu island is located in the Zanj sea and is the location of the modern Pemba.
There is a lot of ambergris along the coast.
The best ambergris can be found in the islands and on the shores of the sea.
The lump is swallowed by the whale.
The whale vomits large rock size balls of ambergris when the sea is rough.
Its body floats to the surface when it chokes to death trying to gulp them down again.
Having waited for such a favorable moment, the Zanj should quickly draw the fish near with harpoons and tackle, cut open its stomach, and extract the ambergris.
The pieces found in the body emit a nauseating odor, but the ones found near the back are more pure.
The wild leopard skins that the people wear are exported to Muslim countries.
The largest leopard skins make the most beautiful saddles.
The Zanj exports tortoise-shell for making combs and ivory.
The giraffe is the most common animal in these lands.
The ox is used as a beast of burden by the Zanj because their country has no horses, mules, or camels.
They don't know about snow or hail.
There is a branch that diverts from the upper Nile and goes to Sofala and the Waqwaq.
They have about 700 villages along the coast.
There are valleys, mountains, and sandy deserts in the country.
You will not see a tame elephant.
The Zanj don't use them for war or anything else.
When they want to catch the elephants, they throw the leaves, bark, and branches of the tree into the water.
The water causes them to fall down and be unable to get up.
The Zanj rush upon them and kill them for their tusks.
The lands of the Zanj produce large quantities of tusks.
They are usually sent to China and India after going to Oman.
If these were not the primary destinations, ivory would be abundant in Muslim lands.
No official or dignitary would dare to enter the royal presence in an iron palanquin in China.
Straight tusks are preferred by them.
Christians use the Mary incense and other scents in their churches, just as they burn ivory before their idols and incense their altars.
The Chinese believe that the elephant brings bad fortune when used for domestic or war purposes.
In India, ivory is in high demand.
The curved sword-scabbards are made from ivory.
Chessmen and backgammon pieces are made from ivory.
The Zanj don't use ivory for their own domestic needs because they are always hunting the elephant.
For their finery they use iron rather than gold and silver, and oxen, as beasts of burden or for war, as we use camels or horses.
The oxen run at the same speed as horses.
The king has been selected to govern fairly.
He ceases to be the son of the King of Heaven and Earth because of his wrongful actions.
The Zanj have preachers who speak in their own language.
A man in the center of a large crowd often exhorts his audience to be agreeable to God and to submit to his commands.
He shows how disobedience exposes them to punishments and reminds them of the example of their ancestors and former kings.
The kings of these people follow traditional political practices.
It is similar to the cucumber of Egypt.
They eat meat and honey.
The coconut is eaten by all the peoples of the islands.
A Muslim population and a hereditary royal family can be found on one of the islands.
The island of Kanbalu is located here.
Roger B. Beck wrote French to English.
Mas'udi claims that a solid, waxy, flammable substance is in the stomach of sperm whales.
amber, the fossil resin used in the manufacture of ornamental objects such as beads and women's combs, should not be confused with ambergris, which was primarily used in perfumery.
servants supported on their shoulders with an enclosed litter attached to poles
These are forms of animism.
There is a mild and temperate climate in Southern Africa, bordered on the northwest by the Kalahari and the northeast by the Zambezi River.
Desert conditions prevail.
Fifty to ninety inches of rain a year can be seen in some places.
The interior highlands have trunrate grass.
Variations occur throughout much of southern Africa.
There are enormous mineral resources in Southern Africa.
Modern technology is needed for fulexploitation of the deposits in the open excavations.
The history of Southern Africa is very different from that of West Africa, the Nile Valley, and the East African coast.
southern Africa was far removed from tworld until the Portuguese arrived.
The Bantu-speaking people reached the south in the eighth century.
They brought skills in ironworking and mixe and diseases that decimated the Amerindians of So.
The earliest inhabitants of southern Africa were hunters and gatherers.
The western coastal region will be advanced by 1500.
To the east, immigrants raised cattle with iron-headed spears.
The nuclear family was the basic social unit among early southern African peoples.
Several families formed bands.
A division of labor existed where women cared for children and raised plants.
People living in camps made of portable material moved from hunting region to hunting region for seasonal or environmental needs.
The Temple is an elliptically shaped enclosure that is part of the ruins.
Stone carvings, gold and copper ornaments, and Asian ceramics once decorated the buildings.
The ruins are surrounded by a wall.
Between the eleventh and fifteenth centuries, the entire city was built from local granite.
Great Zimbabwe is the most impressive monument in Africa south of the Nile Valley.
The great kingdom of Great Zimbabwe to its north was preceded by the kingdom of Mapungubwe.
It traded gold and ivory to the coast that eventually reached Egypt, India, and China.
The famous gold foil rhinoceros is one of the golden objects found at the site.
The ruins tell a great story.
Zimbabwe was the capital of a large empire.
The belt was rich in gold.
There was gold near the surface and gold in the river.
The gold was shipped to Sofala.
Zimbabwe's wealth and power was dependent on this gold trade.
Great Zimbabwe declined in the 15th century because the area had become exhausted from farming and could no longer support a large population.
The people migrated northward and settled in the valley.
The settlers built a new empire in the tradition of Great Zimbabwe after they found gold in this region.
The gold trade down the Zambezi River to Indian Ocean ports gave the rulers of this empire their power.
The gold was sought by the Portuguese when they arrived on the East African coast.
Historians of Africa's past need to look at other research fields such as archaeology, anthropology, linguistics, oral tradition, and botany.
Great Zimbabwe, in modern Zimbabwe, was built in the eleventh century and is one of the enduring enigmas.
Scholars debate who built the ruins and what they were used for.
It is not clear what happened to the people who lived there, but the site appears to have been abandoned sometime in the late fifteenth century.
Joao de Barros published a history in 1552 about Great Zimbabwe.
The site was learned of by Barros from Swahili traders.
There are other gold mines in the same district as the square fortress.
There was no mortar joining the stones of marvelous size.
There are more than twenty-five spans in the wall.
The edifice is almost surrounded by hills, and one of them is a tower more than twelve feet high.
The natives of the country call these edifices Symbaoe, which means court in their language.
There are some of the king's wives here, and it is guarded by a nobleman.
When the people of the land are ignorant of the art of writing, there is no record, but they say they are the work of the devil, for in comparison with their power and knowledge it does not seem possible.
It was built to keep possession of the mines, which are very old, and no gold has been taken from them for years because of the wars, according to the Arabs who saw it.
The Great Enclosure's walls are up to 36 feet high and up to 18 feet thick, and they stretch for over 800 feet in length.
It is the largest ancient structure in sub-Saharan Africa and contains an estimated 1 million granite bricks.
The complex's walls are not straight, as shown by the curved wall and the Conical Tower.
The tower is 33 feet high and 16 feet in diameter at its base, and then it goes up to 6 1/2 feet at the top.
The Hill Complex is looking across the valley to the Great Enclosure.
The Hill Complex is the oldest structure at Great Zimbabwe and dates from the ninth to the 13th century.
The Zimbabwe Birds are believed to have originally stood on this site.
Zimbabwe's national symbol is six carved soapstone birds that were found at the site.
They are about 16 inches tall and look like the African fish eagle.
The sandstone bird sculpture pictured in Source 5 is one of eight unique to Great Zimbabwe.
The power, wealth, and governing abilities of the kings of Great Zimbabwe, along with what you have learned in class and in this chapter, should be used to write a short essay.
The Government of the Cape Colony printed Cape Town in 1900.
Africa has many different climates and geography.
The African peoples are not the same as the rest of the world.
The Middle Eastern and European civilization of the Mediterranean basin were closely connected with the African peoples.
New crops introduced from Asia and the adoption of agriculture profoundly affected early societies across western and northeastern Africa as they transitioned from hunting and gathering in small bands to settled farming communities.
Bantu-speakers spread across central and southern Africa over a period of more than two thousand years.
Possessing iron tools and weapons, domesticated livestock, and a knowledge of agriculture, these Bantu-speakers assimilated, killed, or drove away the region's previous inhabitants.
The trans-Saharan trade stimulated gold mining, increased the demand for West Africa's second most important commodity, slaves, and stimulated the development of large urban centers in West Africa.
The Swahili peoples in city-states along the East African coast traded with many countries.
They used to trade African products for luxury items from Arabia, Southeast Asia, and East Asia through the Indian Ocean commercial networks.
Great Zimbabwe traded gold to the coast for the Indian Ocean trade.
The Western Sudan kingdoms were part of the Islamic world.
Arabian merchants brought Islam with them when they settled along the East African coast.
Ethiopia formed a unique enclave of Christianity in the midst of Islamic societies.
The majority of Bantu-speaking peoples in Zimbabwe and central and southern Africa were not Christian or Islamic.
Africa was an important part of the trans-Saharan and Indian Ocean trading networks.
African kingdoms, empires, and city-states were brought wealth from this trade.
Europeans didn't have a lot of knowledge about African societies.
The European Age of Discovery would change this.
Spain and England struck out for gold of their own in the Americas because of Portuguese expansion.
The slave trade that fueled the labor needs of the colonies in the Americas would forever shape the history of Africa and the Americas.
Explain the significance of each item.
The trans-Saharan trade gave life to the Sahara region.
A ground-breaking study of Africa's place in the world.
The early times of West Central Africa.
Each program takes about fifty minutes to complete.
Some of the world's top Africanists have contributed to the discussion of African history on the website.
The figure of a woman wrapped in a shawl was typical of representations of people that were placed in the burial sites in the Andes.
The figure depicts a social andceremonial role that is associated with the Virgin of the Sun.
The Americas were vulnerable to diseases found elsewhere in the world because of their isolation.
The devastating effects of epidemics helped European domination when indigenous peoples were exposed to them.
The results of thousands of years of work by peoples of the Americas in plant domestication that changed diet worldwide was brought into global circulation by this exchange.
Farming across the Americas was intensified by domestication of these crops.
These societies were built on trade, conquest, and tribute.
Priests, merchants, artisans, scientists, and engineers were some of the people who achieved extraordinary feats because of social stratification and specialization.
The dense urban centers of Maya, Teotihuacan, and the Aztec city-states and empires featured great monuments.
Roadways and canals extended trade networks from South America to the Great Lakes region of North America.
The calendars shaped religious, scientific, medical, and agricultural knowledge.
The people of the mountains of the Andes adapt to the mountain range's stark vertical stratification of climate and environment to produce agricultural abundance similar to that of Mexico.
People were able to make their mountain terrain a home because of technological innovations.
The meaning of the world and the place of the Americas were interpreted by the civilizations of the Americas.
They organized societies by class, race, and wealth, and they adapted to and reshaped their physical and natural world.
They did all this on their own, without outside influences.
The civilizations in the Americas and other world regions are very similar.
By studying the peoples of the Americas before their encounters with other world societies, we gain a clearer view of universal aspects of the human experience.
People were able to take on new social roles because of the abundance of food and livestock created by the domestication of crops and animals.
The emergence of cities became the hub of a universal human activity: trade.
The priests who lived in these cities interpreted the nature of the world, as well as the nobility from which kings emerged.
The wheel, writing and communications systems, and calendars are three different technologies that capture this essential nature of human adaptability.
Before their encounters with other world peoples that began in 1492, societies in the Americas did not use wheels for transportation.
There was no way to power wagons or chariots because there were no large animals that could domesticate as beasts of burden.
In the Andes, llamas and alpacas were used as pack animals and as a source of wool and meat.
The terrain was too difficult for wheeled transportation in the most densely settled, cultivated, and developed areas.
Andean peoples developed extensive networks of roads that were supported by suspension bridges made from vegetable fibers.
The people of the Americas spoke many languages.
The Olmecs (1500-300 B.C.E.)
were the beginning of the mexicans.
Some of the books written on paper and deerskin have survived to the present.