They believe that they can explain the behaviors that constitute a person's personality if they have knowledge and understanding of the reinforcers and punishers that the person has been exposed to.
Chapter eleven shows that the child is also bad at kindergarten.
The behavior the child learns at home is generalized to the school setting.
There are no theoreti cal constructs to deal with in the behaviorist's theory of personality, just observable behaviors and the reinforcers or punishers that maintain these behaviors.
Skinner and his followers are strict determinists.
The behaviorists say that freedom is more of an illusion than a reality.
Behavioral approaches to personality have had widespread and beneficial results, far from the feared outcomes of dehumanizing or reducing humans to the status of robots.
It's hard to imagine anyone in our society who hasn't heard of behavior modification.
Skinner's principles of operant conditioning are the basis of this technique of behavioral change.
The use of behavior modification has been used to treat a number of mental illnesses.
The behaviorist approach to personality is supported by many pieces of controlled, scientific research.
There are no unobservable constructs that are difficult to research.
In terms of parsimony, the behaviorist approach is very strong.
Environmental influences such as reinforcement are important to psychologists.
Learning can influence personality according to studies of heritability.
There is more to understanding personality than a person's learning experiences suggest, according to some psychologists.
Each person comes to see his or her environment differently because of our unique histo ries of reinforcement and punishment.
Reinforcement does not stamp in a behavior.
Most of the reinforcers we strive to obtain are social, and most learning occurs in social situations.
He acknowledges the role of cognitive factors in whether the person sees his or her standing human behavior.
When you take an exam, apply for a job, or ask someone out on a date, you have a notion of the likelihood of success or failure.
Contention that person variables, what's more, people differ in their tendencies to view themselves as capable of influ situation variables, and behavior encing reinforcers or being subject to fate (Zuckerman, Knee, Kieffer, & Gagne, 2004).
Each item on the I-E Scale has a choice of an external or internal alternative.
The individual's learning history is a factor that can account for differences in control.
Cultural factors seem to affect the scores.
People in Western countries tend to have more internal scores than people in Far Eastern countries.
Over the past few decades, young Americans' control of their lives has moved to the external end of the continuum compared to their parents.
The global economic upheaval and high unemployment rates of the past few years may be moving us even further in the external direction.
There is a link between low socio-economic status and external control.
Our sense of self is influenced by cultural differences.
American responses tend to be more detailed.
Japanese responses are more concerned with the responses of others.
Most American respondents focus on ways that make them unique in comparison to others.
They show differences in socializing.
When we talk about personality, we need to keep in mind the cultural context in which we ask questions.
Albert Bandura is well known for his research on observational learning and for using modeling to overcome phobias.
The answer is that a combination of factors, including an individual's cognitive abilities, interact to produce a particular behavior.
Albert Bandura added a concern that these factors work together and influence one another.
The behavioral/learning approaches look at how environments affect behavior.
The environment is an effect of behavior.
One way personality influences situations is by how we choose them.
Bandura's model their time in the library, extraverted people are likely to attend parties.
Bandura is the source of a complete understanding of personality.
The more confident a person is in his or her ability to deal with life's challenges, the better.
A person's sense of self-efficacy has a powerful effect on his or her behavior, expectancies differ from one yet self-efficacy is not considered a trait.
In behavior, self-efficacy can be understood in relation to specific behaviors and situations.
It isn't generalized across situations.
There are four sources of information that can affect self-efficacy.
Factors such as similarity to the observed person affect the effect of observing others.
We may associ ate aversive emotional states with poor performance, perceived incompetence, or per Pair up with another student.
A range of outcomes have been applied to the concept of self-efficacy.
He should explain his theory for rotter, social learning, and Bandura after treatment for alcohol problems.
Questions and discussion are related to a career outcome.
Some psychologists believe that we need to look at unique human aspects and qualities in order to understand human beings.
Our ability to make choices and our individual control of their behavior perspectives are what sets us apart from lower and Carl rogers.
They look at the present and the need to develop a healthy personality.
The individual's perception of events is more significant than the learning theorist's or therapist's perception.
Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers are two of the most notable representatives of this perspective.
Humanistic psychology is the third force in American psychology because it offers an alternative to psychodynamic theory and behaviorism.
He thought that the perspectives were incomplete because they viewed people as captives of their environments.
He didn't believe that the study of laboratory animals or individuals suffering from psychological disorders provided a proper foundation for understanding human behavior.
Human beings have a set of needs that are organized in a hierarchy.
There are needs for safety, love and belongingness, and self-esteem.
Our behavior is affected by these basic needs.
You can turn to safety or be loved by others if you satisfy your needs.
Most people never reach the top level of the hierarchy because of the basic biological needs.
The need to develop one's full potential is what it is.
The need exists in everyone, but it's difficult to get it because of the environment.
When our basic needs are met, energy is available for use.
Maslow looked for healthy, self-actualized individuals who were capable of doing the best that they could.
Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Albert Einstein were self-actualized people.
He used historical documents to study them because many of them were dead.
The details of his analysis of these self-actualized individuals are unknown, but he arrived at several general conclusions about their characteristics.
He found that these individuals were comfortable with their perception of their environments.
The list of self-actualized individuals is not representative of historical figures who he analyzed the general population.
He held a positive view of the human.
Many of his concepts, such as self-actualization, are difficult to test.
Have an efficient perception of reality and are comfortable with it.
Carl Rogers believed that people are innately good and are directed toward growth, development, and personal fulfillment.
He believed that the organisms tendency to develop all its capabilities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the person was an inherent tendency.
According to his clinical experience, people are often derailed from their quest for fulfillment.
Our concept of self emerges as we develop.
Rogers's theory states that the self is our sense of "I" or "me" and that it is generally conscious and accessible.
Our perception of our abilities, behaviors, and characteristics is the self-concept.
Rogers believed that we act according to our self-concept.
We act in positive ways if we have a positive self concept, and in negative ways if we have a negative self concept.
People have a strong need to be loved, according to Maslow and Rogers.
If they engage in behaviors that are approved by others, they will be given.
According to Rogers, if you grow up believing that affection is a condition, you will distort your own experiences in order to feel good about yourself.
Children may be told that they are incapable of doing something or that they are stupid.
They may begin to question themselves if conditions are placed on their self-worth.
The child's self-concept can be negatively affected by this positive regard, in which love and praise are not given unless the child complies with the expectations of others.
When the two sides of the coin don't match up, there is a discrepancy between the real self and ideal self.
The major theoretical perspectives on personality are summarized in the accompanying study chart.
The distinctiveness of a person's personality as a result of nitive factors can influence the person's behavior and learning history.
Self-efficacy can change over time, unlike a trait.
Humanistic approaches were opposed to the social situations.
He said that people's self-concepts should be in line with their ideal self-concept.