Native American warriors were not the only ones doing the killing.
Workers fought and died.
The first transcontinental railroad's completion was celebrated in Utah on May 10, 1869.
The nation's imagination was seized by the drama of the first trans continental railroad.
The progress of the competing companies was covered by every major newspaper.
On May 10, 1869, Leland Stanford, one of the owners of the Central Pacific, drove a gold spike to complete the line at Promontory Summit in the Utah Territory.
The Union Pacific built 1,086 miles of track, compared to the Central Pacific's .
Soon the process would be repeated, as other companies constructed more lines.
By connecting the nation from ocean to ocean, the railroads became the basis of a truly national market for goods and services.
The Congress established a national park in 1872.
Within ten years, rail roads brought tourists to the first national park in remote northwest Wyoming.
Railroad companies became the region's primary real estate developers as they pushed into western states.
Many immigrants were eager to buy land when they were transported from the East.
The railroads changed the landscape of the nation and enabled the United States to become a world power.
One of the most significant developments in American history was the emergence of Big Business.
Corporations grew larger and more powerful as they transacted business across the nation and abroad.
Busi ness leaders exerted unprecedented influence and even bribed their way to power.
The political power of Big Business had negative effects.
Businesses took different forms as they grew.
Some were partnerships and others were owned by an individual.
Once a corporation was registered with a state government, it could raise money to operate by selling shares of stock to people not involved with it.
The corporation's executives were evaluated by the board of directors.
The virtue of capitalism is that it forces businesses to produce better products at the lowest cost.
Competition was viewed as a burden by some owners as businesses became giant corporations.
Rival companies that sell similar products formed "pools" whereby they secretly agreed to keep production and prices the same.
One or more partic ipants usually violate the agreement and such pools rarely last long.
The strategy of the most aggressive companies was to drive the weaker companies out of business.
Critics called the corporate titans barons because of the strategies and methods used to carry them out.
Many religious leaders urged the men who created large businesses in the late 19th century to become rich and influential.
"Securing wealth is an honorable ambition," said Russell Conwel, a prominent Baptist minister.
"Money is power, and every good man and woman should strive for it, to do good with it when they get it," he said.
The values that Conwell celebrated were personified by the industrial and financial giants.
At times unethical and illegal, they found innovative ways to increase production and eliminate com petition.
They slashed costs and lowered prices.
John D. Rockefeller, Andrew Carnegie, J. Pierpont Morgan, and Richard Sears and Alvah Roebuck were some of the business barons who stood out.
John D. Rocke feller was born in New York and moved to Cleveland as a child.
He was raised by his mother and had a passion for organization.
He decided to bring order to the new boom and bust oil industry as a young man.
He was obsessed with money.
The booming oil fields of western Pennsylva nia were served by the railroad and shipping connec tions around Cleveland.
The Pennsyl vania oil rush of the 1860s was caused by the first oil well in the United States.
The Standard Oil Company used the co- founder.
Before the end of the Civil War, oil refineries sprang up in Pittsburgh and Cleveland.
Rockefeller focused on Cleveland because it had better rail service.
Although the company quickly became the largest oil refiner in the nation, John Rockefeller wanted to take control of the entire industry because he believed his competitors were inefficient.
Rockefeller used various schemes to destroy his competitors.
Rockefeller believed that competition was a form of warfare.
Standard Oil was in control of 90 percent of the nation's oil refining business by 1879.
There are wooden derricks that extract crude oil.
Rockefeller methodicaly reduced expenses by improving productivity, squeezing suppliers, and eliminating any hint of waste in pursuit of a monopoly.
He didn't want his suppliers to make a profit from him.
Rockefeller was able to spend less on shipping than his competitors because he was forced to pay railroads secret kickbacks on the oil shipped by rail.
Standard Oil owned everything it needed to produce, refine, and deliver oil from start to finish.
The company built factories to make its own wag ons, did its own hauling, and owned its own storage tanks and tanker ships.
Standard Oil developed a monopoly over the industry because it bought so many competitors.
The practice of one corporation owning stock in others was banned by many state legislatures.
Rockefeller tried to hide his monopoly by organizing the Standard Oil Trust.
Rockefeller and eight other trustees were given control of more than thirty companies by having their stockholders transfer their shares in trust.
Americans began to call large corporations a trust during the 18th century.
Critics criticized the formation of corporate trusts.
The Sherman Anti- Trust Act was passed by Congress in 1890 to outlaw attempts to monopolize industries.
The bil's language was so vague that its regulations were toothless.
The Sherman Act was more effective than state laws.
The Ohio Supreme Court dissolved the Standard Oil Trust in 1892.
A holding company has a majority of the stock in other companies.
Rockefeller believed that ending competition was good for the nation.
He insisted that capitalism was to blame for monopolies.
He said it was too late to argue about the advantages of industrial combinations.
Rockefeller brought his empire under the direction of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey.
Rockefeller controlled most of the industry by 1904.
Andrew Carnegie, who created the largest steel company in the world, rose to wealth from childhood poverty.
He migrated with his family to western Pennsylvania in the 19th century.
He quit school at thirteen and went to work in a textile mil.
Scottish immigrant retary to Thomas Scott, who became the wealthiest man in the world after establishing the Carnegie Steel superintendent of the Pennsylvania Company.
Carnegie was with Scott when he became the assistant secretary of war in charge of transportation and helped develop a military telegraph system.
From telegraphy to railroading to bridge building, Carnegie worked his way up.
Carnegie wanted to tower over the steel industry like Rockefeller did with oil.
Steel, which is stronger and more flexible than iron, could only be made from wrought iron and manufactured in small quantities.
The bars of iron were heated to make steel.
It took three tons of coke to make one ton of steel.
Carnegie decided to concentrate on the manufacture of steel in the early 1870s because the railroad industry needed a lot of it.
As more steel was produced, its price went down and its industrial uses went up.
The United States produced only a small amount of steel in 1860.
By the year 1884, produc tion had reached over one million tons.
Carnegie was 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 800-273-3217 The United States produced more steel by 1900 than Great Britain and Germany.
He used vertical integration to gain control of the steel.
He owned coal mines in West Virginia, bought iron Ore in Michigan and Wisconsin, and transported it by rail to his steel mill in Pittsburgh.
The Fourth of July was the only exception as Carnegie's mil s operated nonstop.
The pursuit of progress can lead to dangerous working conditions.
Seven workers were killed at Carnegie's mil s during the Industrial Era.
J. Pierpont Morgan was born to wealth in Connecticut.
His father was a partner in the bank.
European money was invested with American businesses.
Despite his privileged upbringing and financial corporations merging, he was self conscious about massive amounts of stock in American his nose was caused by chronic companies and selling them at a profit.
Rockefeller and Car negie believed in freewheeling capital ism but hated competition.
He believed that high profits required order and stability, and that he could own and manipulate competitors.
By the 1890s, Morgan had control of a sixth of the nation's railway system.
The consolidation of the steel industry was his crowning achievement.
He bought Carnegie's steel and iron holdings in 1901.
U.S. Steel Corporation is the world's first billion- dol ar corporation, employing 168,000 people.
It was the culmination of the efforts of the financial capitalists to reduce competition.
Many new products were produced after the Civil War thanks to American inventors.
The most important challenge was making it possible for millions of people who lived on isolated farms and in small towns to buy the same goods in cities.
A traveling salesman from Chi cago named Aaron Montgomery Ward decided that he could reach more people by mail than on foot and thus eliminate the middleman who increased the retail price of goods.
Mont gomery Ward and Company began selling goods at a 40 percent discount through mail order catalogs in the early 1870s.
By the end of the century, a new retailer had come to dominate the mail- order industry: Sears, Roebuck and Company, founded by two western entrepreneurs.
In 1897, the Sears, Roe buck catalog was over 700 pages long.
Books, clothes, and sporting goods from Sears.
The company's ability to buy discounted goods allowed it to reach customers in cities and in the wilderness.
Sears, Roebuck and Company was one of the largest businesses in the nation by 1907.
Millions of people were changed by the Sears catalog.
The advent of free rural mail delivery in 1898 made it possible for families on farms and in small towns to purchase products that were otherwise only available to city dwellers.
By the turn of the century, 6 million Sears catalogs were being distributed each year, and the catalog had become the most widely read book in the nation.
America's transformation into an industrial colossus was thought to benefit the public by the captains of industry.
It was a law of societal evolution that those with the most talent should accumulate the most wealth.
Some of them insisted that great wealth brought responsi bilities.
John D. Rockefeller gave away most of his money to support education and medicine.
Rockefeller became the world's leading philanthropist by 1900.
He gave more than $500 million during his lifetime, including tens of millions to Baptist causes and $35 million to the University of Chicago.
The Rockefeller Foundation continues his philanthropic influence.
He devoted himself to getting rid of his $400 million fortune.
He gave huge sums to numerous universities, built 2,500 public libraries, and helped fund churches, hospitals, parks, and meetings and concerts, including New York City's Carnegie Hal.
Most of the businesses developed by Andrew Carnegie, John D. Rockefeller, and others had cozy relationships with local, state, and federal government officials, which DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch DropCatch
Big Business exercises a corrupt influence on government, but has legitimate political interests.
The decades after the Civil War showed this more clearly.
The Republican party and state and federal governments allied with Big Business after the Civil War.
There was a key element of this alliance.
To raise revenue and to benefit American manufacturers by taxing foreign competitors.
The Morrill Tariff, which doubled tax rates on hundreds of imported items, was enacted by Congress in order to raise money for the war and reward businesses that supported the Republican party.
The Carnegie and Morgan interests merged in 1901.
The banquet table is meant to represent a rail.
Farmers in the South and Midwest resented tariffs because they had to buy manufactured goods whose prices were artificially high because of tariffs.
Congress passed important economic legislation during the Civil War.
Paper money was issued by the federal government to help pay for the war.
A modern economy depended on a uniform paper currency.
The National Banking Act discouraged state banks from printing their own money.
The new western states and territories were tied into the national economy by Congress.
The Louisiana Purchase of 1803, the Oregon Treaty with Britain in 1846, and the lands taken from Mexico in 1848 were all part of the U.S. government's ownership of western land.
The Congress gave free 160-acre homesteads to settlers in the West, including single women and freed slaves.
The homestead act created markets for goods and services and spurred railroad construction to connect scattered frontier communities with major cities.
Half of the home steads failed within a few years.
The Morrill Land- Grant College Act of 1862 gave each state 30,000 acres of federal land for each member of Congress.
Iowa State University and Kansas State University received funds from the sale of those lands.
The land- grant universities were created to support economic growth by providing technical training needed by farmers and rapidly growing industries such as mining, steel, petroleum, transportation, and quarrying.
There was no legislation to protect workers and consumers and no effective regulatory laws.
Business leaders were deferred to by elected officials.
Business leaders spent a lot of money to make sure government officials stayed out of their businesses.
Politicians were always eager to help industry in exchange for campaign contributions or bribes.
The nation's social life was transformed by industrialization.
The class divisions became more visible.
The Reverend Strong said in 1885 that the gap between rich and poor was "social dynamite".
The financiers and industrialists who dominated social, economic, and politi cal life in post- Civil War America amassed so much wealth and showed it off so publicly that the period is still called the Gilded Age.
gilding something with a thin layer of gold gives it the appearance of being more valuable than it is.
The United States only had a few dozen millionaires in the 19th century.
Most of them were white Protestants.
was one of a few women.
Sarah Breed love, the daughter of former Louisiana slaves, created specialized hair products for African Americans.
A tycoon gave his dog a $15,000 diamond necklace at a dinner party.
Guests at a party at New York's Delmonico's restaurant smoked cigarettes wrapped in $100 bil s.
The rich were relaxing in mansions overlooking the cliffs at Newport, Rhode Island, atop Nob Hill in San Francisco, along Chicago's Lake Shore Drive and New York City's Fifth Avenue, and down the "Main Line" in suburban Philadelphia.
Traditional virtues such as self- discipline, restraint, simplicity, and frugality were left to the middle class.
Editors, engineers, accountants, supervisors, managers, marketers, and real estate agents are a new group of people who work outside the home.
clerks, secretaries, sales people, teachers, and librarians were mostly unmarried women.
The number of office clerks doubled in the 1870s.
Between 1870 and 1900, the number of women working for wages outside the home tripled, with 17 percent of all women holding full- time jobs.
The growing presence of middle- class women in the workforce partly reflected the increasing number of women who are gaining access to higher education.
Many formerly all- male colleges began admitting women after the Civil War.
By 1900, a third of college students were women.
College women were often steered into " home economics" classes and "finishing" courses intended to perfect their housekeeping or social skills.
Women made up more than a third of college students by the end of the century.
There is an astronomy class at New York's Vassar College.
Business and Labor in the Industrial Era 1860-1900 involved more than the issue of voting rights; it also concerned the libera tion of at least some women from the home and from long- standing limits on their social roles.
Women who tried to escape the cult of domesticity paid a high price.
College-educated women were most affected by neurasthenia because of the lack of meaningful career options.
Some doctors wanted to force women back into the cult of domesticity by using the prevalence of neurasthenia.
George M. Beard concluded that women were more nervous than men and that they were more active outside the home.
Many women objected to the arguments.
Charlotte Perkins Gilman wrote "The Yellow Wal paper" to expose the horrors of the "rest cure" she was subjected to at age twenty seven.
An unexpected business development was caused by the neurasthenia epidemic.
Coca- Cola was introduced in 1886 by a former Confederate cavalry officer.
Pemberton was slashed in the chest by a Union saber during the final days of the war.
He took morphine to relieve his pain, but became addicted to it.
He was a licensed pharmacist in Columbus, Georgia, and was experimenting with various " opium- free" pain reliev ers in liquid form.
He found a syrup that relieved his pain and headaches when he combined cocaine and kola nuts.
Jacobs Pharmacy started selling it at the soda fountain.
It was claimed that it would cure headaches, relieve exhaustion, and calm nerves.
The rights to Coca-Cola were bought by an Atlanta business executive two years after the death of Pemberton, who was still addicted to mor phine.
Jane Addams was a social worker.
Addams's desire to engage "real life" eventually led her to found a house in Chicago.
Many middle class women were persuaded to enter the "real" world by Addams and others.
It had the largest circulation of any magazine in the world by 1910.
The magazine provided a great clearing house of information to the rapidly growing urban middle class, including sections on sewing, cooking, religion, politics, and fiction.
He believed that the community would maintain a high to "see the needs" and provide data for moral tone for society, for women were legislative reform.
He preached contentment, not just to middle- class readers, but also to the poor.
Railroads, factories, mil s, mines, slaughterhouses, and sweatshops had grow ing needs for unskilled workers, which attracted new groups to the work force.
The pay received by skilled and unskilled workers was not up to par.
During the economic recessions and depressions of the past six years, unskilled workers were the first to be laid off or have their wages slashed.
It was difficult and dangerous to work at the bot tom of the occupational scale.
The average workweek was over 50 hours.
There were no safety regulations for the American industry, which had the highest rate of workplace accidents and deaths in the world.
Few machines or factories had fire escapes.
Respiratory diseases were common in unventilated buildings.
Over 16,000 railroad workers were killed and 170,000 were injured in accidents between 1894 and 1888.
The United States was the only industrialized nation that did not have an insurance program to cover medical expenses for on- the- job injuries.
Large businesses needed more unskilled workers than skilled ones.
Women and children were recruited for unskilled jobs because they were willing to work for less than men.
Women worked as maids, cooks, or nannies in addition to operating sewing machines or tending to textile machines.
In the manufacturing sector, women's wages averaged $7 a week, compared to $10 for unskilled men.
Young people have always worked on farms in America.
Millions of children took up work outside the home in the late 19th century, such as sorting coal, stitching clothes, shucking oysters, peeling shrimp, and blowing glass.
By 1900, the United States had almost 2 million child laborers.
Boys worked in the coal mines in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and eastern Kentucky.
Children in New England and the South used to have water thrown in their faces during the night to keep them awake.
Children as young as eight worked twelve hours a day, six days a week, and a fourth of the employ ees were below the age of fifteen.
They received little or no education.
The four young boys were working in West Virginia.
Children who worked in factories, mines, and canneries were three times more likely to suffer an accident than adults.
A child who worked in a textile mill was half as likely to reach the age of twenty as a child who did not.
The efforts of the working poor to form unions to improve their pay and working conditions faced formidable obstacles.
Executives fought against unions.
They kept union organizers from being hired, fired labor leaders, and hired "scabs" to replace workers who went on strike.
Immigrants who spoke different languages and distrusted people from other ethnic groups impeded the growth of unions.
With or without unions, workers began to stage strikes that lead to violence.
In the early 1870s, violence erupted in the eastern Pennsylvania coalfields when a secret Irish American group took economic justice into their own hands.
The Irish patriot who led the resistance against the British was the inspiration for the name of the Mollies.
Their terrorism reached its peak in 1874-1875, prompting mine owners to hire men from the Pinkerton Detective Agency to stop the movement.
The leaders of the coalfield were indicted for their roles in the murders because of the evidence uncovered by one of the agents.
In 1876, twenty- four people were convicted and ten of them were hanged.
The major rail lines slashed workers' wages after the financial panic of 1873.
The B & O railroad workers at Martinsburg, West Virginia, walked off the job in July 1877 after the companies announced another 10 percent wage cut.
The president of the B & O was confident that the protest would end quickly.
He was wrong.
In San Francisco, angry trainmen blamed Asians for taking white jobs and set fire to Chinese neighborhoods.
In this advertisement for the Missouri steam washer, the American made washing machine drives a Chinese laundryman back to China, playing on the growing anti- Chinese sentiment in the 1880s.
In the Industrial Era 1860-1900 nation, tens of thousands of railroad workers walked off the job, and the violence that followed left more than 100 people dead, many more wounded, and millions of dol ars in damaged property.
In Pittsburgh, thousands of striking workers burned 39 buildings and destroyed more than 1,000 railcars and locomotives.
The strikers attacked workers who refused to join them.
Hundreds of looters risked their lives to grab anything of value from the freight cars before they were put to death.
The Pennsylvania Railroad went up in flames as a huge crowd cheered.
State militia units were dispatched to suppress the rioters.
It was the first time federal troops suppressed civilians.
The disgruntled workers had little choice but to return to work.