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10.6 Electronegativity and Bond Polarity
Classify the bond between atoms into three categories.
This bond should be classified as ionic.
This bond is classified as covalent using Table 10.
This bond is classified as polar covalent.
Determine if the bond between the atoms is pure.
Lewis structures can be written for given combinations of atoms.
The Lewis structure shows how the atoms are placed in a molecule.
If you start with hydrogen atoms next to each other, you will not be able to write a Lewis structure for water.
The fourth hydrogen atom is H O H.
You can remember two guidelines to write likely skeletal structures.
Only a duet can form a single bond.
In this section, you will learn how to distinguish but these are rare and cannot be adequately addressed by the Lewis between competing skeletal structures.
The group number in the periodic table is equal to the number of valence electrons for any main-group element.
When calculating the total number of electrons, you must consider the charge of the ion.
Add one electron for each negative charge and subtract one electron for each positive charge.
The total number is important, so don't worry about which electron comes from which atom.
Place two electrons between the two atoms.
The minimum number of bonding electrons is represented by these.
To distribute the remaining electrons as lone pairs, first to terminal atoms and then to the central atom, giving octets to as many atoms as possible.
Move lone electron pairs from terminal atoms to the central into the bonding region with the central atom.
There is an abbreviated version of the procedure that we discuss in Section 10.9 in the left column.
Since hydrogen is always terminal, put the tive atom in the central position.
Bonding electrons are the first to be distributed.
The first electrons are bonding.
Lone pairs on terminal atoms are next.
Lone finally to lone pairs on the central (16 of 16 electrons used) pairs on the central atom are last.
The Lewis structure only works if all the atoms have double or triple bonds.
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