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Chapter 18 -- Part 3: Practice Exam
The function of the CFTR is to generate an electrochemical gradient that allows the flow of water.
In response, water moves across the membrane.
Thick mucus develops when water does not flow, because the surface liquid on the cells is deficient.
The sweat of people with cystic fibrosis is salty.
Normal individuals have sweat- producing cells.
The movement of the Cl- by the CFTRProtein must be in the opposite direction as it is in the lung cells.
In sweat glands that express a mutated form of the CFTR protein, Cl- does not return to cells and remains in the sweat.
Answer choices A and C would result in decreasing the amount of sweat in individuals with cystic fibrosis.
The answer choice D is incorrect because the causes of cystic fibrosis are not the same.
The chromosomes in the figure are arranged in pairs.
A1 and A2 are the same as B1 and B2 and represent a pair of chromosomes.
Another pair of chromosomes is represented by chromosome C and D.
There is an arrangement of pairs between the poles of a cell.
The next step in the process is for one member of each pair to migrate to a different pole.
A pair of chromosomes are derived from each parent and have the same genes.
Assuming that no copying errors occurred when the second chromatid was copied from the first, each chromosome consists of two chromatids that are identical.
The chromatids A1, A2, B1, and B2 all have the same genes.
C1, C2, D1, and D2 are the same genes and are not listed among the answer choices.
The figure only shows the Homologous chromosomes pair.
All of the chromosomes align along a plane between the poles.
During cytokinesis the chromosomes have moved toward the poles and are no longer positioned between the poles.
During interphase, the chromosomes are not visible, but they are long and thin.
The introduction of lizards is believed to have caused a decline in the size of spider populations on islands where lizards were introduced.
The answer choice C provides a simple, straightforward explanation that the lizards were eating the spiders.
There was no data presented for spider populations on habitats other than islands.
Answer choices B and D suggest that spiders hide to avoid being eaten by lizards, but no observations are presented to support that conclusion and the data shows that they were being eaten.
Although it is clear that the island lizards were not eating spiders, that explanation does not explain why the spider populations were smaller on the islands with the introduced lizards.
The lizards and spiders were competing for the same resources.
The amount of food available for the spiders decreased when the lizards were introduced to the islands.
According to answer choice C, the size of the spider populations declined as a result of an introduced parasites.
There is no data to support this conclusion.
The introductory paragraph makes it clear that spiders and lizards eat the same food.
The number of reported spiders on the islands with and without lizards seem to be increasing and decreasing at the same time.
It is possible that some other factor is affecting the number of surviving spiders from year to year.
None of these factors can be identified with the data provided in the figure.
Answer choice D cannot be accepted.
The ratio of the distance traveled by a pigment to the distance traveled by a solvent is called the Rf value.
The Rf value of Carotene is.
The reason that one pigment moves farther than the other is because it has a lower affinity for the chromatography paper.
The shorter the distance between the origin and the band of pigments, the stronger the affinity between them.
The remaining answer choices are not responsible for the primary separation of pigments as they are for increasing or decreasing the separation between bands.
There are some interactions between the solvent and the pigments, but none of the answer choices addresses this.
The shorter the distance between the origin and the band, the greater the attraction.
The GDP attached to the inactive G protein is replaced by a GTP when adenosine is binding to it.
The GTP for a GDP is activated.
The GTP and Ga bind to the adenylyl cyclase and cause it to be activated.
The effect of adenosine is blocked by caffeine.
When caffeine binding to the adenosine receptor, it blocks the G protein-coupled receptor from starting the adenosine signaling pathway.
drowsiness does not occur as a result of this.
Different cell types can have different effects on a single signaling molecule.
There are only three types of membrane receptors, but there are more than 700 known signaling molecules for each of them.
Each signaling molecule causes a signal pathway that is specific to the signaling molecule and cell type.
The PKA produced by the adenosine pathway is going to be different than the one produced by the epinephrine signal transduction pathway.
The fight-or-flight response is associated with the release of glucose from glycogen.
Fightor-flight activities use the release of glucose as a source of energy.
Reducing blood flow to the heart does not promote the fight-orfight response.
A sphinx with an sphinx with one or more double covalent bonds creates a kink in the tail that spreads adjacent sphinxes apart.
The conjugates with saturated fatty acids pack more closely together.
Answer choice A is incorrect because an increase in cytosol solute concentration won't keep the fluid.
The answer choice C is incorrect because the sugar is not found in the blood.
Replacing phospholipids with sugar would destroy the integrity of the membranes.
The answer choice D is incorrect because the two layers of the plasma are asymmetric.
Changing thelipids from one side to the other would damage the integrity.
The higher the temperature, the greater the average kinetic energy of the molecule.
The greater the molecule's speed, the greater the kinetic energy.
Molecules move faster when the temperature increases because they collide more frequently with the necessary activation energy.
As the temperature rises, the bonds that hold the enzyme together break down.
The three-dimensional shape can no longer function and is said to be denatured.
Facilitated transport is an example of the activity of protein II.
In contrast, the transport of Na+ and K+ is carried out by a single cotransporter, and each of them requires a certain amount ofATP.
Steroids don't need the help of protein carriers because they are nonpolar and don't present a barrier.
The substance to be transported is specific to the specificprotein that is used to transport it.
The substances to be transported are controlled by the plasma membrane.
Different kinds of cells have different types of proteins.
Only two genes require a downhill gradient.
The transport of large, un charged polar substances requires the use of proteins.
O2 and CO2 can diffuse without the help of a transport protein.
Aerobicbacteria have the same energy generating metabolic pathway as mitochondria.
The only function of the chloroplasts is to carry out the energy generating metabolic pathway that occurs inbacteria.
The same machinery is used to accomplish these processes.
The observations support the idea that the cells are frombacteria.
The remaining answer choices don't support the observed similarities between the two types of cells, but there are no observations that show that the same ancestors used the same mechanisms.
There are nonpolar side chains on the shaded amino acids.
The side chains are facing away from the solution when they cluster together.
Water molecule sticks to other water molecule in order to form a vertical column in plant xylem vessels.
The downward pull of gravity is helped by this mechanism.
The lysosome has a pH of 5 and the enzymes are active.
The lysosome is maintained by the active transport of protons into it.
In cellular respiration, glucose is broken down and energy is captured and stored.
During the oxidation stage of respiration, electrons from FADH2 enter the electron transport chain.
The protons move from the matrix into the intermembrane space.
H2O is formed when the electrons combine with a protons and oxygen.
In contrast, the electrons in photosynthesis originate in H2O from inside the thylakoids of the chloroplasts.
The protons move into the stroma as the electrons pass by.
At the end of the ETC, the electrons combine with NADP+ and a protons.
The NADPH is used to generate sugar.
Both respiration and photosynthesis can be accomplished with electrons passing through an ETC.
The two processes are reversed for the origins and endpoints of the electrons involved.
The ability to read and understand data in graphical form is evaluated by this question.
Answer choices A, B, and D are not supported by the data presented in the figure.
Answer choice A is not supported by the data in the figure because the data compare shade and sun leaves exposed to the same amount of light at different intensities.
Answer choice B is not supported by the data in the figure because the data compare equal surface areas of plant leaves.
Answer choice D suggests that shade leaves have a higher maximal photosynthetic rate than sun leaves, but the data for light intensities above 200 MMol shows the opposite.
The hypothesis presented in answer choice C is the best of the four hypotheses presented.
The ability to read and understand data in graphical form is evaluated by this question.
The figure shows that shade leaves have more CO2 in them than sun leaves.
They are doing less cellular respiration than the sun leaves.
Under low light conditions, some cells may be doing photosynthesis while other cells may be doing cellular respiration.
The hypothesis in answer choice C describes a scenario where the shade leaves are releasing less CO2 because more cells are photosynthesizing than the sun leaves.
Shade leaves are more efficient than sun leaves under low light conditions.
Answer choice A is not supported by the data because the CO2 assimilation data in the figure is not related to the leaf surface area.
Answer choice B is incorrect because respiration releases CO2, the opposite of CO2 assimilation.
Answer choice D shows that shade leaves are more efficient than sun leaves in terms of light intensity.
One of the two plausible hypotheses that could explain the data in the figure is supported by answer choice C.
The rate of photosynthesis is so low that cells need more energy from respiration.
Other answer choices may explain why CO2 assimilation is low.
The structure of each amino acid is not expected to be recognized by the AP exam.
This question looks at your understanding of how the two acids bond.
The two amino acids form a bond.
A water molecule is formed and released as a covalent bond is created between two adjacent atoms.
The OH in the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the H of the NH2 of an adjacent amino acid combine to form a water molecule, as shown below.
HCO - 3 and H+ are formed by water and carbon dioxide.
The blue solution of BTB becomes acidic due to the increase in concentration of H+.
In the Calvin cycle phase of photosynthesis, the CO2 in the BTB solution is used to generate sugars.
When the CO2 is consumed, the solution becomes basic as H+ is converted to H2CO3.
Light must be present for the observed color change from yellow to blue in Reaction IV.
Light alone does not cause the color change observed in Reaction IV.
When light isn't available, cellular respiration becomes the dominant process.
The cellular respiration breaks down the sugar in the air.
As the solution becomes more acidic from the addition of CO2 the blue BTB becomes yellow.
Reaction II shows that darkness doesn't cause a blue BTB solution to yellow.
The plant is responsible for the change.
Gene flow is an example of the movement of alleles from one population to another.
The Blackfoot population has a high percentage of the A phenotype compared to other Native American populations.
The founder effect is when a group of genetically atypical individuals leave the larger population to create a new one.
Replacements for existing nucleotides do not increase or decrease the total number.
A deletion would result in a change in sequence.
The codons following the shift are different from those in the original sequence.
One of the codon changes creates a stop codon, which terminates the translation of the mRNA long before the end of it.
The frameshift errors introduced in other codons are responsible for the production of a nonfunctional protein.
There is no sugar attached to the protein.
Liquid water is represented by the line labeled X as it changes temperature.
The horizontal lines show that the energy is being absorbed but the temperature is not changing.
The absorbed energy is used to break the hydrogen bonds that hold the water together, changing the physical state of the water from solid to liquid and from liquid to gas.
The heat of fusion or the heat of vaporization is the energy absorbed during these periods.
Sweating cools bodies because the energy used to change the liquid state of the sweat to the gas state comes from our bodies.
We feel cooler when we lose body energy.
The stage that represents the change from liquid to gas is labeled Y.
High fructose corn syrup is made from corn.
Each glucose monosaccharide must be converted into a fructose monosaccharide if it is to be used in food.
This is a cheaper way of making a sweetener than by using sugar cane or sugar beets.
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